Kenya: Whether being a male victim of a rape would lead the public to believe one is homosexual (June 2005)
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Ottawa|
|Publication Date||22 June 2005|
|Citation / Document Symbol||KEN100287.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Kenya: Whether being a male victim of a rape would lead the public to believe one is homosexual (June 2005), 22 June 2005, KEN100287.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/440ed7193.html [accessed 5 December 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Information on men who are victims of rape is very scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
Country Reports 2004 stated that, in Kenya, "rape of both male and female inmates, primarily by fellow inmates, was a serious problem" (28 Feb. 2005, sect. 1.c). In its 24 March 2005 report, Behind the Mask, an African gay and lesbian website, mentioned that more than 32 cases of rape had made the news in the first three months of 2005, including the rape of five boys aged between five and nine. In its 19 January 2005 report, the same organisation reported the case of three boys, two aged 16 and one 14, who were sodomised by a man who was supposed to counsel them on the rituals of adulthood (Behind the Mask 19 Jan. 2005).
In addition, referring to the introduction of a new Sexual Offences Bill by Kenyan Member of Parliament Njoki Ndungu (BBC 18 Apr. 2005; Behind the Mask 24 March 2005), a 24 March 2005 Behind the Mask report stated that it was "the first time in Kenya's legal history [that] men and boys could be recognised as legitimate victims of rape," adding that "until now, Kenya's laws have only recognised women and girls as victims of rape."
In correspondence sent to the Research Directorate on 20 June 2005, a researcher at the universities of Nairobi, Illinois and Manitoba, who is of Kenyan origin (Luo ethnic group), stated that the only thing she has heard about is "men raping men in prisons and a little bit in boys' schools [and that] there is so much stigma about homosexuality that many [rapes] go unreported." She also indicated that while she was not aware of cases where the male victim of rape was viewed as a homosexual, information on the subject was lacking (20 June 2005).
Introducing herself, the researcher, holder of a doctorate, stated that she "has done several studies on the topic of male circumcision among the Luo as it relates to HIV infection [and is] fully conversant with the Luo cultures, including their position on circumcision." She is now working on a "collaborative research project under the Universities of Nairobi, Illinois and Manitoba" in which a study is being conducted to "investigate the association between male circumcision and HIV infection among young Luo men in Kisumu, Kenya."
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
BBC. 28 April 2005. "Castrate Rapists Say Kenyan MPs."
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2003. 28 February 2004. US Department of State. Washington, D.C.
Behind the Mask. 24 March 2005. Mwangi Githahu. "Men Can Be Raped." Researcher at the Universities of Nairobi, Illinois and Manitoba. 20 June 2005. Correspondence. Additional Sources Consulted Internet Sources: AllAfrica.com, Amnesty International, Daily Nation, The Eastern African, International Lesbian and Gay Association Human Rights Watch (HRW), International Commission of Jurists, IRIN, Kenya Human Rights Commission, Kenya Times, Law Society of Kenya, New Jurist, Urgent Action Fund.
_____. 19 January 2005. Beatrice Obwocha. "Bernard Muiru on the Day He Was Convicted of Sodomy."
Researcher at the Universities of Nairobi, Illinois and Manitoba. 20 June 2005. Correspondence.
Additional Sources Consulted
Internet Sources: AllAfrica.com, Amnesty International, Daily Nation, The Eastern African, International Lesbian and Gay Association Human Rights Watch (HRW), International Commission of Jurists, IRIN, Kenya Human Rights Commission, Kenya Times, Law Society of Kenya, New Jurist, Urgent Action Fund.