Last Updated: Friday, 27 November 2015, 12:04 GMT

Amnesty International Report 2008 - Mongolia

Publisher Amnesty International
Publication Date 28 May 2008
Cite as Amnesty International, Amnesty International Report 2008 - Mongolia, 28 May 2008, available at: [accessed 29 November 2015]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.


Head of State: Nambaryn Enkhbayar
Head of government: Sanjaagiin Bayar (replaced Miyegombiin Enkhbold in November)
Death penalty: retentionist
Population: 2.7 million
Life expectancy: 65.9 years
Under-5 mortality (m/f): 75/71 per 1,000
Adult literacy: 97.8 per cent

The death penalty was carried out in secret. Torture and other ill-treatment appeared to be prevalent in police stations, prisons and detention centres. The state failed to provide adequate protection and assistance for victims of trafficking. Contamination of drinking water by mining companies continued.


The chairperson of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, Sanjaagiin Bayar, was appointed as Prime Minister in November.

An anti-corruption course was introduced at the National Law School and the Management Academy to address endemic corruption.

Despite increasing investments in Mongolia by international mining companies, the government failed to develop legal safeguards for protection against forced evictions, or adequate health, safety and environmental protection. Run-off from mining and exploration activities into rivers contaminated the drinking supply, and harmed the livelihoods of traditional nomadic herders reliant on river water for their livestock.

Death penalty

There was a lack of transparency regarding the application of the death penalty. Executions were carried out in secret and no official death sentences or execution statistics were available. Prisoners were reported to be living in appalling conditions and were held on death row for more than 24 months. Authorities failed to notify family members when prisoners on death row were executed.

Health – environmental contamination

Despite passing a law on toxic and hazardous chemicals in 2006, the government failed to monitor the use of toxic chemicals such as mercury and sodium cyanide in mining. Large amounts of these chemicals were reportedly used in more than 20 soums (districts) in 9 aimags (provinces), polluting the local water supply. According to the National Human Rights Commission, in Khongor soum mercury contamination was 100 to 125 times higher than recommended levels and sodium cyanide was 900 times higher than recommended levels.

Violence against women

A dramatic increase in migration contributed to the growing number of women (and girls) trafficked internally and across borders. Women were trafficked for sexual exploitation, forced labour and marriage. There was a lack of protection and assistance for victims of trafficking, and a tendency to prosecute trafficked victims for related offences such as illegal immigration.

Mongolia was not a state party to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo Protocol).

Torture and other ill-treatment

The Mongolian Criminal Code was amended to include a definition of torture and a provision for torture victims to seek compensation. However, there was no recourse to rehabilitation for victims. Torture and other ill-treatment in police stations and pre-trial detention centres remained prevalent. There was a lack of awareness among prosecutors, lawyers and the judiciary of international standards relating to the prohibition of torture.

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