Last Updated: Monday, 28 July 2014, 16:37 GMT

2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tanzania

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 29 August 2006
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tanzania , 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d7490d45.html [accessed 29 July 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments
Ratified Convention 138     (12/16/1998)
Ratified Convention 182     (09/12/2001)
ILO-IPEC Member
National Plan for Children 
National Child Labor Action Plan
Sector Action Plan 

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

An estimated 35.4 percent of children ages 5 to 14 years in Tanzania were counted as working in 20002001. Approximately 36.2 percent of all boys 5 to 14 were working compared to 34.5 percent of girls in the same age group. The majority of working children were found in the agricultural (77.4 percent) and services (22.4 percent) sectors, with the remainder in manufacturing (0.1 percent) and other sectors (0.1 percent).4492 As of 2001, the National Bureau of Statistics survey found that a majority of working children were unpaid family workers who engaged in agricultural and non-agricultural work on family farms. An estimated 49.9 percent of children ages 5 to 14 years engage in housekeeping activities.4493 In 2004, UNICEF estimated that there were 2 million child orphans in Tanzania, primarily due to HIV/AIDS.4494 A 2005 study by the Eastern and Southern African Universities Programme estimated the orphan population at 2.5 million.4495 Such children are vulnerable to involvement in exploitative child labor.4496

Children work on commercial tea,4497 coffee,4498 sugar cane,4499 sisal, cloves,4500 and tobacco farms,4501 and in the production of wheat, corn, green algae, pyrethrum and rubber.4502 Children also work in underground mines and near mines in bars and restaurants. Children known as "snake boys" crawl through narrow tunnels in unregulated gemstone mines to help position mining equipment and explosives.4503 In the informal sector, children are engaged in scavenging, fishing, fish processing, and quarrying.4504 Other children work as street vendors, cart pushers, and in garages.4505 Children also work as paid domestic servants in third-party homes, where many reportedly face sexual abuse.4506

Girls as young as 7 years, and some boys, are reportedly exploited in prostitution and other forms of commercial sexual exploitation.4507 According to a 2001 ILO study, children have been exploited in the production of pornographic films; however, no cases have been reported for several years.4508 Children from Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda also have been exploited in prostitution in Tanzania.4509

Children are reportedly trafficked internally in Tanzania to work in mines, on farms, in the informal sector, and in domestic service.4510 Children are also trafficked, often under false pretenses, from rural to urban areas for exploitation in the commercial sex sector. Such children are often lured with false promises of work as house girls, barmaids, and in hair salons and hotels.4511 Tanzania is reported to be a country of origin, transit and destination for women and children trafficked for sexual exploitation and forced labor. Tanzanian girls are reportedly trafficked to South Africa, Oman, the United Kingdom, and possibly to other European or Middle Eastern countries for domestic service.4512

Education in Tanzania is compulsory for 7 years, until children reach the age of 15 years.4513 In 2004, the gross primary enrollment rate was 97 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 82 percent.4514 Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. In 2000, 57 percent of children aged 5-14 years were attending school.4515 As of 2003, 88 percent of children who started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.4516 Primary school fees have been eliminated in Tanzania since 2002, but there has been a lack of resources for additional teachers, classrooms, and books. This has led to primary schools becoming overwhelmed by the massive increase in children seeking to take advantage of free primary education.4517 Moreover, families must pay for books, uniforms, and for enrollment fees for children beyond form 2 (the equivalent of the second year of high school). There are also reports of children not attending school because of poorly paid teachers demanding money from them in order to be enrolled.4518

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

In Zanzibar, the law prohibits employment of children under the age of 18 years depending on the nature of the work.4519 The Employment Act of 2005 categorizes child labor practices as (a) ordinary practices for child labor, and (b) worst forms of child labor. The penalties for category (a) offenses are a fine of 400,000 shillings (USD 350.57) or imprisonment of up to 6 months. For category (b) offenses, a fine of not less than 3 million shillings (USD 2,629.27) or imprisonment of to 2 years.4520 In mainland Tanzania, the Employment Ordinance prohibits employment of children under the "apparent" age of 15 years. The ordinance specifically prohibits children under the "apparent" age of 15 years and young people under the age of 18 years from employment in any work that could be injurious to health, dangerous or otherwise unsuitable. It also prohibits children under the age of 15 years from working near machinery or in subsurface mines.4521 However, children over the age of 10 years are permitted to do light work, such as some agricultural activities and domestic service, in rural areas.4522

Under the Employment Ordinance, employers are obliged to maintain registers listing the age of workers, the conditions and nature of employment, and commencement and termination dates. The Employment Ordinance states that any employer found to be in violation of child labor laws is subject to three months of imprisonment or a fine of up to 2,000 shillings (USD 1.85), or both.4523 However, in 2004 the mainland government passed the Employment and Labor Relations Act No. 6 of 2004 and the Labor Institutions Act No.7 of 2004, both of which provide for the protection of children from exploitation in the workplace and prohibit forced or compulsory labor.4524 The Employment and Labor Relations Act also includes a specific prohibition of forced labor by children.4525 These labor laws prohibit the employment of children under the age of 14 years on the mainland except for light work that is not likely to be harmful to the child's health and development and that does not prejudice the child's attendance at school. Unlike the previous law, the new labor laws establish a criminal punishment for employers that use illegal child labor as well as forced labor. Violators can be fined an amount not to exceed 5 million shillings (USD 4,382.12), imprisonment for a term of one year, or both. The new laws also prohibit children under the age of 18 from being employed in a mine, factory, ship, or other worksite that the Minister of Labor deems to be hazardous.4526 The 2004 Acts are not yet in effect, however, because implementing regulations are still in process.4527

The worst forms of child labor may be prosecuted under different statutes in Tanzania. In addition to the prohibitions in the Employment and Labor Relations Act and the Labor Institutions Act, the Constitution prohibits forced or compulsory labor.4528 The Defense Forces Regulations prohibit the military recruitment of children under the age of 18.4529 Tanzanian law prohibits the procuring of a child under the age of 18 for the purpose of sexual intercourse or indecent exhibition. The law further prohibits the procurement or attempted procurement of a person under the age of 18 years for the purpose of prohibited sexual intercourse either inside or outside the country.4530 Tanzanian law also considers sexual intercourse with a child under the age of 18 years to be rape, which is punishable with life imprisonment. According to the U.S. Department of State, however, this law is not effectively enforced.4531 The Sexual Offenses Special Provisions Act prohibits trafficking of persons and ascribes a penalty for this crime of 10 to 20 years of imprisonment or a fine of 100,000 to 300,000 Tanzanian Shillings (USD 88 to USD 263).4532

Several government agencies have jurisdiction over areas related to child labor, but primary responsibility for enforcing the country's child labor laws rests with the Ministry of Labor, Youth Development, and Sports. According to the U.S. Department of State, enforcement of labor laws by the Ministry of Labor, Youth Development, and Sports is undermined by a low number of inspectors and the low salaries they receive, which leaves them vulnerable to corruption. The Government of Tanzania did recruit and train an additional 40 labor officers and labor inspectors in 2004, however, increasing the number of national labor inspectors to 145.4533 The ministry's Child Labor Unit works with other government ministries and networks with other stakeholders. It gathers, analyzes, and disseminates child labor related data, and is involved in training and sensitizing labor inspectors on child labor issues.4534 At the community level, child labor committees have been established to identify children who are not attending school and take measures to prevent or withdraw these children from child labor.4535

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Tanzania is working with ILO-IPEC to implement a USDOL-funded Timebound Program (TBP) to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the country by 2010, including child labor in commercial agriculture, domestic service, mining, fishing, and prostitution.4536 According to the Department of State, during 2005, the Government of Tanzania has worked with nongovernmental organizations and community-based organizations to sensitize employers and households about the issue of child labor, resulting in a reported decline in the hiring of girls from rural areas to work as domestic servants.4537

The Child Labor Unit is working with ILO-IPEC under the TBP to provide training for district child labor coordinators and district officials in the TBP's 11 target districts, to increase their capacity to combat the worst forms of child labor.4538 The Child Labor Unit also acts as the secretariat for the National Child Labor Elimination Steering Committee (NCLESC). The NCLESC is responsible for defining objectives and priorities for child labor interventions, approving and overseeing implementation of child labor action projects, and advising the government on various child labor issues.4539 As part of the TBP, the Ministry of Education's Complementary Basic Education in Tanzania (COBET) Program and its Vocational Education Training Authority (VETA) are providing basic education and vocational training to children withdrawn or prevented from involvement in the worst forms of child labor in the TBP's 11 target districts.4540 By the end of 2004, the Ministry of Labor, Youth Development, and Sports had begun to develop a community-based monitoring system to collect information and track trends in the incidence of child labor.4541

In addition, the Government of Japan, through UNICEF, is supporting a basic education project targeting out-of-school children in Tanzania that will provide textbooks, reading materials on HIV/AIDS, and community workshops on HIV/AIDS with support from COBET.4542

In March 2004, the Tanzanian Ministry of Education and Culture signed an MOU with the NGO Education Development Center (EDC) stipulating areas of collaboration, roles, and responsibilities in support of the education component of the Tanzania TBP. The EDC project sought to ensure that children who were involved in or at risk of entering the worst forms of child labor had access to basic, quality education, as a means of helping to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.4543 By the end of 2005, EDC was in the final stages of handing over the running of learning centers established by the project to the Ministry of Education and Culture.4544

The Government of Tanzania's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) includes the elimination of child labor as an objective and the preparation of a child labor action plan in its workplan.4545 The strategy paper established the Poverty Monitoring Master Plan (PMMP), which includes the percentage of children in the labor force as a poverty monitoring indicator.4546 An Education Fund to support children from poor families is called for within the PMMP strategy paper.4547 In February 2005, the PRSP II document – otherwise known as the National Strategies for Growth and Poverty Reduction – was finalized and approved by the Cabinet. The National Strategies for Growth and Poverty Reduction includes specific references to the elimination of the worst forms of child labor and the provision of skills training and educational alternatives for children and their families.4548

Tanzania's Development Vision 2025 and its Poverty Eradication Strategy 2015 both identify education as a strategy for combating poverty. The country's poverty eradication agenda includes ensuring all children the right to basic quality education.4549

The government's Basic Education Master Plan aims to achieve universal access to basic education for children over the age of 7 years, and ensure that at least 80 percent of children complete primary education and are able to read and write by the age of 15 years.4550 The government is implementing a 5year Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP), begun in 2002, which aims to expand enrollment, improve the quality of teaching, and build capacity within the country's educational system. Under the PEDP, the government has committed up to 25 percent of its overall recurrent expenditures on the education sector, 62 percent of which is allocated to primary education. The government has received a USD 150 million credit from the World Bank to support this program.4551 The government abolished school fees to promote children's enrollment in primary school under the PEDP.4552

The Government of Tanzania receives funding from the World Bank and other donors under the Education for All Fast Track Initiative, which aims to provide all children with a primary school education by the year 2015.4553


4492 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS and World Bank surveys, Child Economics Activity and School Attendance Rates, October 7, 2005. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report. See also National Bureau of Statistics, Child Labor in Tanzania, Country Report: 2000/2001 Integrated Labour Force and Child Labour Survey, no date, 10, 30, 31.

4493 National Bureau of Statistics, Child Labor in Tanzania, Country Report: 2000/2001 Integrated Labour Force and Child Labour Survey, no date, 39, 41.

4494 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2004: Tanzania, Washington, D.C., June 29, 2005, Section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41630.htm. See also U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication to USDOL official, August 13, 2006.

4495 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006.

4496 Bill Rau for ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Labour and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, no. 1, Geneva, July 2002.

4497 While children begin working on tea farms at the age of 6 years, accompanying their mothers and siblings, most of the children working on tea farms are over the age of 10 years. M. J. Gonza and P. Moshi, Tanzania Children Working in Commercial Agriculture-Tea: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, January 2002.

4498 George S. Nchahaga, Children Working in Commercial Agriculture – Coffee: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, 2002, 29-32.

4499 ILO-IPEC, Investigating the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Tanzania: Rapid Assessments in the Informal Sector, Mining, Child Prostitution and Commercial Agriculture (Draft Report), Dar es Salaam, 2000, 4.

4500 ILO-IPEC, Tanzania: Focusing on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Dar es Salaam, 2001.

4501 A. Masudi, A. Ishumi, F. Mbeo, and W. Sambo, Tanzania Child Labour in Commercial Agriculture-Tobacco: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, November 2001.

4502 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, October 23, 2002. Pyrethrum is a type of chrysanthemum that can be used as an ornament or as a source of insecticides.

4503 J. A. Mwami, A.J. Sanga, and J. Nyoni, Tanzania Children Labour in Mining: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, January 2002, 37-39. See U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 6d.

4504 C. Kadonya, M. Madihi, and S. Mtwana, Tanzania Child Labour in the Informal Sector: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, January 2002, 33-48.

4505 ILO, Baseline study and attitude survey on child labour and its worst forms, Dar es Salaam, June 2003, 9, 10, 28, 33.

4506 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 6c. See also ILO, Baseline study and attitude survey on child labour and its worst forms, 10. Research published by the Tanzania Media Women's Association suggests that 60 percent of female domestic servants, or "housegirls," are sexually abused in the workplace. See Daniel Dickinson, Tanzania 'housegirls' face sexual abuse, BBC News, May 10, 2003 [cited May 24, 2004]; available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3015223.stm. In 2000, a survey indicated that children younger than 17 years comprise 80 percent of domestic workers in Tanzania. See Bill Rau for ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Labour and HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa.

4507 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, August 18, 2003. See also The Protection Project, "Tanzania," in Human Rights Report on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children: A Country-by-Country Report on a Contemporary Form of Slavery, March 2002; available from http://209.190.246.239/ver2/cr/Tanzania.pdf. UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: United Republic of Tanzania, CRC/C/15/Add.156, United Nations, Geneva, July 2001, para 62; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/6828b7389ae0a66fc1256a7600453ede?Opendocument.

4508 E. Kamala, E. Lusinde, J. Millinga, J. Mwaitula, M.J. Gonza, M.G. Juma, and H.A. Khamis, Tanzania Children in Prostitution: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, November 2001, 23. See also U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006.

4509 See Kamala, Lusinde, Millinga, Mwaitula, Gonza, Juma, and Khamis, Tanzania Children in Prostitution, 20.

4510 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Tanzania, Washington, D.C., June 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/66086.pdf. See also ILO, Baseline study and attitude survey on child labour and its worst forms, page 24.

4511 See Kamala, Lusinde, Millinga, Mwaitula, Gonza, Juma, and Khamis, Tanzania Children in Prostitution, 20. See also U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report-2005: Tanzania. See U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006.

4512 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report-2006: Tanzania.

4513 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 5.

4514 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportID=51 (Gross and Net Enrollment Ratios, Primary; access December 2005).

4515 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, October 7, 2005.

4516 UNECO Institute for Statistics, http:stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportID=55 (School life expectancy, % of repeaters, survival rates; accessed December 2005).

4517 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, August 18, 2003. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 5.

4518 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 5.

4519 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Initial Reports of States Party due in 1993, CRC/C/8/Add.14/Rev.1, United Nations, Geneva, September 25, 2000, para 355; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/898586b1dc7b4043c1256a450044f331/a4d65ef2bb2bc3b6c12569cb003aa328/$FILE/G0044600 .pdf. The United Republic of Tanzania is a multiparty state, with the Zanzibar archipelago integrated into the country's government. Zanzibar, however, still retains considerable autonomy from the mainland in certain respects, including some differences in its laws. See U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania.

4520 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006. FXConverter, Currency Conversion Results, [cited November 4, 2005]; available from http://www.oanda.com/convert/classic.

4521 Law Reform Commission of Tanzania, Report of the Commission on the Law Relating to Children in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, 1997, 131-132. References to the "apparent age" of a child are based on language in the Employment Ordinance of 1955. The Ordinance does not provide a specific definition for the term "apparent age." United Republic of Tanzania, Information on Efforts by Tanzania to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor, letter to USDOL official, October 4, 2002. See also Right-To- Education.Org, At What Age? Are school-children employed, married and taken to court? The United Republic of Tanzania, 2000 [cited December 23, 2005]; available from http://www.right-to-education.org/content/age/tanz.html.

4522 Right-To-Education.Org, At What Age? Are school-children employed, married and taken to court? The United Republic of Tanzania.

4523 Law Reform Commission of Tanzania, Report of the Commission, 131, 132. FXConverter, Currency Conversion Results.

4524 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006.

4525 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, October 29, 2005.

4526 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006.

4527 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 23, 2006.

4528 Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania of 1977, Chapter 1, Section 25(2); available from http://www.tanzania.go.tz/images/theconstitutionoftheunitedrepublicoftanzania1.pdf. FXConverter, Currency Conversion Results.

4529 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Child Soldiers Global Report 2004," (2004), 102-103; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=966.

4530 UNHCR, Sexual Offences Special Provision Act, 1998, Section 139; available from http://www.unhcr.ch/cgi bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.htm?tbl=RSDLEGAL&page=home&id=3ae6b5098.

4531 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 5. See also The Protection Project, "Tanzania: Protection Project Country Report."

4532 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 5. See also FXConverter, Currency Conversion Results.

4533 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 6d. U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, October 29, 2005. See also U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006.

4534 National Roundtable Discussion on the Time-Bound Program on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Time-Bound Program on the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Tanzania: Summary of the Institutional and Policy Study, April, 2001, 15-16.

4535 ILO-IPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Program on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Tanzania, project document, Geneva, 2001, 17-18. See also U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, August 18, 2003.

4536 A second phase of this project was funded by the U.S. Department of Labor in September 2005. The first phase, which is still ongoing, focuses on 11 target districts. The second phase broadens the scope of the project to target exploitative child labor in fishing and includes activities to combat child labor in Zanzibar. ILO-IPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Program, vii and 27. ILO-IPEC, Support for the Time-Bound Programme on the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Tanzania – Phase II, Geneva, September 30, 2005. See President of the United Republic of Tanzania, His Excellency Mr. Benjamin Mkapa, Address at the Special High-level Session on the Launch of the Time Bound Programme on the Worst Forms of Child Labour in the Republic of El Salvador, the Kingdom of Nepal and the United Republic of Tanzania, June 12, 2001; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/relm/ilc/ilc89/a-mkapa.htm.

4537 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, October 29, 2005.

4538 ILO-IPEC, Action Programme to Protect Working Children and to Combat and Eliminate Child Labour by the Child Labour Unit, Ministry of Labour, Youth Development and Sports, ILO-IPEC, Dar es Salaam, October 21, 2002.

4539 Time-Bound Program on the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Tanzania: Summary, 15-16.

4540 ILO-IPEC, Programme to Provide Basic Education to 16,000 Children Withdrawn from and/or at Risk of Getting into Worst Forms of Child Labour in 11 Target Districts in Tanzania by Ministry of Education and Culture, ILO-IPEC, Dar es Salaam, November 10, 2003. ILO-IPEC, Action Programme for Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor through the Provision of Vocational Skills Training in Eleven TBP Target Districts in Tanzania by Vocational Education and Training Authority (VETA), ILO-IPEC, Dar es Salaam, November 11, 2003. The government aims to scale up nationally the provision of basic education through COBET, and eliminate gender stereotypes by undertaking a review of curriculum, textbooks, and classroom practices. IRINNews, Tanzania: UNICEF calls for more efforts to educate girls, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, December 11, 2003 [cited February 12, 2004]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?reportID=38364.

4541 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Tanzania, Section 6d.

4542 IRINNews, Tanzania: Japan boosts basic education for out-of-school youth, UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, December 18, 2003 [cited February 12, 2004]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?reportID=38486.

4543 Education Development Center, Status Report: Time Bound Programme on Eliminating Child Labour in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, July 2004. The EDC project is supporting the operation of 299 Mambo Elimu learning centers in Tanzania where approximately 2,531 children are currently receiving basic education through a radio-based distant learning curriculum. See Education Development Center, Technical Progress Report: Time Bound Programme on Eliminating Child Labour in Tanzania (1st March 2005 to 31 August 2005), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, September 1, 2005.

4544 U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam official, email communication, August 13, 2006. See also Education Development Center, Technical Progress Report: Time Bound Programme on Eliminating Child Labour in Tanzania (1st March 2005 to 31 August 2005), September 1, 2005.

4545 United Republic of Tanzania, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report 2000/2001, August 14, 2001, 4, 43. See also ILO-IPEC, IPEC Action Against Child Labour 2000-2001: Progress and Future Priorities, paper, Geneva, January 2002, 15; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/about/implementation/ipecreport.pdf.

4546 Government of Tanzania, The United Republic of Tanzania Poverty Monitoring Master Plan – Tanzania, ILO, [online] 2001[cited August 15, 2003]; available from http://www.logos-net.net/ilo/150_base/en/init/tan_2.htm.

4547 United Republic of Tanzania, Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Progress Report 2000/2001, 4, 44.

4548 ILO-IPEC, Technical Progress Report: Supporting the Time Bound Programme on the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Tanzania, Geneva, September, 2005.

4549 UNESCO, Education for All 2000 Assessment: Country Reports – Tanzania, prepared by Ministry of Education and Culture, pursuant to UN General Assembly Resolution 52/84, 1999; available from http://www2.unesco.org/wef/countryreports/tanzania/contents.html.

4550 Ibid., 2.2. See also U.S. Embassy – Dar es Salaam, reporting, October 23, 2002.

4551 Government of the United Republic of Tanzania, Education Sector Development Programme: Primary Education Development Plan (2002-2006), Dar es Salaam, July 2001, iv, 21; available from http://www.tanedu.org/educationsctordevelopment1.pdf. See World Bank, Tanzania-Primary Education Development Program, October 10, 2001; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20012776~menuPK:34466~pagePK:64003015~piPK:640 03012~theSitePK:4607,00.html.

4552 IRINNews, Tanzania: UNICEF calls for more efforts to educate girls.

4553 World Bank, World Bank Announces First Group Of Countries For 'Education for All' Fast Track, press release, Washington, D.C., June 12, 2002; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20049839~menuPK:34463~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424, 00.html.

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