Last Updated: Wednesday, 27 August 2014, 14:57 GMT

2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 31 August 2007
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan, 31 August 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d749492e.html [accessed 28 August 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor
Percent of children 10-14 estimated as working in 1999-2000:16.4%3201
Minimum age for admission to work:14 in specified hazardous occupations3202
Age to which education is compulsory:Varies by province3203
Free public education:No3204
Gross primary enrollment rate in 2004:82%3205
Net primary enrollment rate in 2004:66%3206
Percent of children 10-14 attending school in 1999-2000:64.9%3207
Percent of primary school entrants likely to reach grade 5:Unavailable
Ratified Convention 138:7/6/20063208
Ratified Convention 182:10/11/20013209
ILO-IPEC participating country:Yes3210

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

In 1999-2000, approximately 15.8 percent of boys and 17.2 percent of girls ages 10 to 14 were working in Pakistan. The majority of working children were found in the agricultural sector (78.1 percent), followed by services (13.4 percent), manufacturing (7.1 percent), and other sectors (1.4 percent).3211 The country's rapid population growth and high rate of urbanization have increased the number of street children in urban areas. Street children work scavenging garbage and vending various products, among other activities.3212 Also in urban areas, children work in manufacturing, construction, transport, domestic service, and by assisting in family businesses.3213 In the Northwest Frontier Province and Balochistan province, the children of Afghan refugees are particularly vulnerable to involvement in the worst forms of child labor.3214

Children are employed in several hazardous activities across the country, including rag-picking; leather tanning; mining; deep-sea fishing; seafood processing; brick-making; and manufacturing of surgical instruments and glass bangles.3215 Children working in carpet-weaving suffer injuries from sharp tools, eye disease and eye strain, respiratory disease due to wool dust, and skeletal deformation and pain due to cramped working conditions.3216 Many working children are vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse, particularly those working far from their families such as street children, child miners, and child domestics working in private homes.3217

There are reports of children being kidnapped, maimed, and forced to work as beggars.3218 Bonded child labor reportedly exists in Pakistan in the brick, carpet, textile, and rice-milling industries, as well as in agricultural activities; in some cases, children are sold into bondage by their parents.3219 Children working in mining, agriculture and domestic service are often from families who are bonded or indebted to their employers.3220 Commercial sexual exploitation of children continues to be a problem,3221 with some families selling their daughters into prostitution.3222 Recent reports have also highlighted the increasing numbers of boys as young as 9 years of age exploited as prostitutes.3223 Young boys are also reportedly at high risk of being trafficked within the country.3224 Pakistani girls are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation in Persian Gulf countries, and despite significant government efforts to stop the practice, Pakistani boys continue to be trafficked to the United Arab Emirates and Qatar to work as camel jockeys.3225

Pakistan continues to rebuild from the earthquake of October 8, 2005. Thousands of child survivors were orphaned or separated from their families, making them vulnerable to trafficking and other forms of exploitive child labor.3226 In the months following the quake, relief agencies observed a marked increase in children working at small refreshment stands, workshops, restaurants, hotels, shops, and inside private homes.3227

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

It is illegal to employ children under 14 years in factories, mines, or other hazardous occupations or processes.3228 The law lists 4 occupations and 34 processes as hazardous, therefore prohibited for children, including work within railway stations, ports, or mines; carpet weaving; construction; and manufacturing of cement, explosives, and other products that involve the use of toxic substances.3229 Children 14 to18 may work in mines, but only for less than 5 consecutive hours between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m., and only with a certificate of fitness. Children 14 to 18 may work in shops and establishments, but no more than 7 hours per day and 42 hours per week, and only between the hours of 9 a.m. and 7 p.m.3230 Children 15 years and older may work in factories for up to 5 hours per day, provided they do not work between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m. and have been granted a certificate of fitness.3231 Children of any age may work in non-hazardous occupations, provided they work no more than 7 hours per day and no more than 3 consecutive hours without rest, do not work between 7 p.m. and 8 a.m., and do not work overtime.3232 Employers are also required by law to maintain minimum standards of health and safety in a child's working environment.3233 Violations can result in a 1-year prison term, or up to 2 years for repeat violations. Children working for their families or in government schools are exempted from these provisions and may work unlimited hours under unregulated conditions.3234

Forced labor is prohibited by law, and those found in violation face 2 to 5 years of imprisonment.3235 Commercial sexual exploitation of children is a crime, with penalties that can extend up to life imprisonment. Such offenses are defined as selling, letting to hire, or otherwise disposing of a person for the purpose of prostitution, illicit intercourse, or any unlawful and immoral purpose; or buying, hiring, procuring, or otherwise obtaining possession of a person for the same purposes.3236 Parents who cause, encourage, or abet the seduction or prostitution of a girl under 16 years are subject to imprisonment of up to 3 years, as is any person who allows a child under 16 years into a brothel. The law does not specifically prohibit child pornography, but outlaws the circulation of any obscene material, with violations subject to fines and up to 3 months of imprisonment.3237 Importation of a girl for prostitution is punishable by 3 years of imprisonment.3238 Obtaining, securing, selling, purchasing, recruiting, detaining, harboring, or receiving a person by coercion, kidnapping, or abduction for sexual exploitation, slavery, or forced labor is also outlawed. Penalties for these crimes range from 7 to 10 years of imprisonment.3239 Importing, exporting, trafficking, or dealing in slaves is punishable by life imprisonment.3240 The minimum age for voluntary enlistment in the military is 16 years.3241

Child labor and forced labor laws are enforced by provincial governments through the labor inspectorate system.3242 The U.S. Department of State reports that enforcement of these laws is weak because of an inadequate number of inspectors; lack of training and resources; corruption; and the exclusion of many small businesses from the inspectorate's jurisdiction. Employers found in violation of child labor laws often are not penalized, and penalties are generally too minor to act as a deterrent.3243 In 2006, the provincial inspectorates conducted only 8,851 child labor inspections resulting in 55 prosecutions, a sharp decline from 2005, and the average fine levied against employers convicted of child labor violations also dropped significantly from 2005 to 2006.3244

The Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) has primary responsibility for enforcing trafficking-related laws.3245 With support from IOM, the government has stepped up training for FIA Anti-Trafficking Unit staff, law enforcement officers, attorneys, and judges, to more effectively identify, investigate, and prosecute trafficking cases. Accordingly, the number of cases investigated and prosecuted has increased.3246 There are still reports of police officers complicit in commercial sexual exploitation and trafficking of children, but the government has arrested and prosecuted some officials involved in such activities.3247

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

In May 2006, the Government of Pakistan adopted a National Action Plan for Children that aims to harmonize federal and state child labor programs and work toward the progressive elimination of child labor.3248 Since 2000, the national and provincial-level governments have been implementing a National Policy and Action Plan to Combat Child Labor (NPPA) that calls for immediate eradication of the worst forms of child labor; progressive elimination of child labor from all sectors; educational alternatives to keep children out of work; and rehabilitation of children withdrawn from work.3249 The government's 2003 PRSP reiterates the government's commitment to the NPPA, and incorporates the reduction of child labor into its target-setting process.3250 The National Commission for Child Welfare and Development (NCCWD) oversees the National Project on Rehabilitation of Child Labor, implemented by Pakistan Bait-Ul-Mal, an autonomous body established by the Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education. The project withdraws children between 5 and 14 years from hazardous labor; provides them free non-formal education and clothing; and provides stipends to the children and their families. As of October 2006, the project had assisted more than 14,000 children.3251 The provincial labor departments of Punjab, Sindh and Northwest Frontier Province have established Child Labor Resource Centers, and the provincial government of Balochistan has established a Child Labor Vigilance Cell, which provide focal points for disseminating information and forging networks of social partners to combat child labor.3252

With support from the ILO, the National Commission on Abolition of Bonded Labor and Rehabilitation of Freed Bonded Laborers oversees the implementation of the National Policy and Plan of Action for the Abolition of Bonded Labor.3253 As part of implementation, the government provided an initial allocation of 100 million rupees (approximately USD 1.7 million) to educate working children and freed bonded laborers.3254

USDOL is funding ILO-IPEC through 2008 to support the Government of Pakistan's Timebound Program, designed to withdraw 10,100 children and prevent 1,700 children from work in the glass bangle, surgical instrument, tanning, coal mining, scavenging, and deep-sea fishing industries.3255 In addition, with the support of USDOL as well as the Swiss, Norwegian, German, and Danish governments and other donors, ILO-IPEC is implementing several other child labor projects targeting children in carpet weaving, soccer ball stitching, and manufacturing of surgical instruments. The project targeting children in carpet weaving will withdraw 21,600 children and prevent 4,400 children from work in that industry.3256 With support from USDOL, Save the Children-UK is implementing two child labor projects in collaboration with federal and provincial governments. The first is a USD 5 million project that will withdraw 8,000 children and prevent 4,300 children from work in various hazardous sectors in Punjab province.3257 The second is an approximately USD 4.3 million project that aims to withdraw 7,300 children and prevent 8,220 children from hazardous work in the provinces of Balochistan, NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).3258

The government operates shelters that provide legal representation, vocational training, and rehabilitative care to trafficking victims. The Ministry for Overseas Pakistanis has mounted an information campaign on trafficking and safe migration, with a particular emphasis on the problem of children trafficked to the Middle East as camel jockeys.3259 With support from UNICEF, the federal government and the Punjab provincial government operate programs to repatriate child camel jockeys and provide protective and rehabilitative services.3260

Following the October 2005 earthquake, the government and international organizations took steps to prevent vulnerable children from falling victim to exploitive child labor and trafficking. An immediate ban was imposed on the adoption and relocation of children from quake-affected areas, and this measure was sustained throughout 2006. The Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education (MSWSE) operated Child Care and Rehabilitation Centers to provide shelter, education, health care, and psychosocial services to quake-affected children. The government established and participated in a multi-sector Technical Working Group to handle issues of registration, rehabilitation, recovery, and resettlement of unaccompanied and orphaned children and adolescents.3261 The Working Group helped formulate a National Strategy and Plan of Action for the Rehabilitation of the Most Vulnerable Population in Earthquake-Affected Areas, which was adopted in 2006. The Plan acknowledges children's increased vulnerability to harmful child labor and trafficking, and it calls for increased monitoring, protection, and support for quake-affected children.3262 UNICEF and USAID assisted the government in rebuilding schools, reenrolling children, and training teachers;3263 and USDOL provided approximately USD 1.5 million for education and training programs for children in Balakot, NWFP, left vulnerable to hazardous child labor by the disaster. The project targets 500 children for withdrawal and 2,000 children for prevention from hazardous work.3264


3201 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, March 1, 2007.

3202 Government of Pakistan, The Factories Act, 1934 (as amended to 1997), (January 1, 1935), Article 2; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/35384/64903/E97PAK01.htm#c1. See also Employment of Children Act, (June 4, 1991), Sections 2, 3, Schedule; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/22707/64834/E91PAK01.htm.

3203 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 18, 2006. See also UNESCO, Education – National Legislation, [online] [cited October 18, 2006]; available from http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=12388&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html.

3204 U.S. Department of State, "Pakistan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2006, Washington, DC, March 6, 2007, Section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78874.htm.

3205 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Gross Enrolment Ratio. Primary. Total, accessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.

3206 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Net Enrolment Rate. Primary. Total, accessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.

3207 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates.

3208 ILO, Ratifications by Country, accessed October 17, 2006; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newratframeE.htm.

3209 Ibid.

3210 ILO-IPEC, IPEC Action Against Child Labour: Highlights 2006, Geneva, October 2006, 27; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/20061019_Implementationreport_eng_Web.pdf.

3211 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates.

3212 ECPAT International, Situational Analysis Report on Prostitution of Boys in Pakistan (Lahore & Peshawar), Bangkok, June 2006, xi; available from http://www.ecpat.net/eng/publications/Boy_Prostitution/PDF/Pakistan.pdf.

3213 Government of Pakistan, Information on Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (July 25, 2005) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor", Islamabad, August 15, 2005, 3. See also ILOIPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Pakistan, project document, Geneva, September 17, 2003, 8. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Pakistan," Section 6d.

3214 Save the Children – UK, Mitigating Child Labour in Pakistan, project document, London, October 2006, 3, 6, 7.

3215 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Pakistan," Section 6d. See also ILO-IPEC, Time-Bound Programme, project document, 9-10 and Table 2.1.

3216 ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in the Carpet Industry of Pakistan, Geneva, 2004, 9; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2725.

3217 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Pakistan, October 27, 2003, para 69; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.15.Add.217.En?OpenDocument. See also ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in Pakistan's Mining Sector, Geneva, March 2004, 15; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2583.

3218 ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in Domestic Work and Begging in Pakistan, Geneva, March 2004, 4, 22; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2622.

3219 ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, Unfree Labour in Pakistan: Work, Debt and Bondage in Brick Kilns, Geneva, March 2004, xiv, 7; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2724. See also ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, Bonded Labour in the Carpet Industry, 18-20. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Pakistan," Sections 5 and 6c. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, February 28, 2007.

3220 ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, Bonded Labour in Domestic Work and Begging, 19. See also ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, Bonded Labour in Agriculture: A Rapid Assessment in Sindh and Balochistan, Pakistan, Geneva, March 2004, 16, 28; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2727. See also ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, Bonded Labour in Pakistan's Mining Sector, 14.

3221 U.S. Department of State, "Pakistan (Tier 2)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006, Washington, DC, June 5, 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/65989.htm. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, Pakistan, accessed October 18, 2006; available from www.ecpat.net/.

3222 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, February 28, 2007.

3223 ECPAT International, Prostitution of Boys in Pakistan, xi, 21, and 39. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, Pakistan.

3224 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, February 28, 2007.

3225 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Pakistan."

3226 ILO-IPEC, Pakistan Earthquake – Child Labour Response, project document, Geneva, September 14, 2006, 1, 5. See also IRINnews, "Interview with UNICEF country representative, Dr. Omar Abdi", IRINnews.org, [online], November 9, 2005 [cited October 18, 2006]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=50025.

3227 Integrated Regional Information Networks, "Young Quake Survivors Turning to Child Labour", IRINnews.org, [online], February 7, 2006 [cited November 1, 2006]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=51591&SelectRegion=Asia&SelectCountry=PAKISTAN.

3228 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, (1973), Chapter 1, Article 11(3); available from http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/part2.ch2.html. See also The Factories Act, 1934 (as amended to 1997), Article 2.

3229 Government of Pakistan, Employment of Children Act, (June 4, 1991, as amended December 20, 2005), Sections 2, 3, Schedule; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/22707/64834/E91PAK01.htm. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 18, 2006.

3230 Networking Project on Hazardous Child Labour, Background Document: Policy and Legal Context in Asia Regarding Hazardous Child Labour, June 16, 2005, 61.

3231 The Factories Act, 1934 (as amended to 1997), Article 54.

3232 Employment of Children Act, Sections 6-7.

3233 Government of Pakistan, Employment of Children Rules, (1995); available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/44242/65005/E95PAK01.htm.

3234 Employment of Children Act, Sections 3, 14.

3235 Constitution of Pakistan, Article 11 (2). See also ILO NATLEX National Labor Law Database, Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act of 1992 (abstract), accessed October 18, 2006; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=PAK&p_classification=03&p_ori gin=COUNTRY.

3236 Government of Pakistan, The Offence of Zina (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance, No. VII, (February 10, 1979), Articles 13, 14; available from http://www.punjabpolice.gov.pk/user_files/File/offence_of_zina_ordinance_1979.pdf. See also Penal Code (1860), as cited in ILO – Regional Project on Combating Child Trafficking for Labour and Sexual Exploitation, Anti-child Trafficking Legislation in Asia: A Six-country Review, International Labour Office, Bangkok, 2006, 38; available from http://www.crin.org/docs/ilo_asia_traf_2006.pdf.

3237 Pakistan Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance (1961), Sections 7, 10, 292; as cited in Interpol, "Pakistan," in Legislation of Interpol Member States on Sexual Offences Against Children, Islamabad; available from http://www.interpol.int/Public/Children/SexualAbuse/NationalLaws/csaPakistan.pdf.

3238 Pakistan Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance (1961), Section 9, as cited in Ibid.

3239 Constitution of Pakistan, Article 11(2). See also Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking and Smuggling Ordinance (2002), as cited in ILO – Regional Project on Combating Child Trafficking for Labour and Sexual Exploitation, Anti-child Trafficking Legislation in Asia, 35, 36.

3240 Penal Code (1860), Article 371, as cited in ILO – Regional Project on Combating Child Trafficking for Labour and Sexual Exploitation, Anti-child Trafficking Legislation in Asia, 38.

3241 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook: Pakistan, [online] May 17, 2005 [cited October 12, 2006]; available from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/fields/2024.html.

3242 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1.

3243 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Pakistan," Section 6d. See also ILO – InFocus Programme on Promoting the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, Bonded Labour in Pakistan, Geneva, June, 2001, 11; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=1545. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 18, 2006.

3244 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 18, 2006.

3245 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Pakistan," Section 5. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting March 11, 2005.

3246 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Pakistan." See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005.

3247 ECPAT International, Prostitution of Boys in Pakistan, 47, 50. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Pakistan," Section 5.

3248 Government of Pakistan – Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education, National Plan of Action for Children, Islamabad, May 24, 2006; available from http://www.nccwd.gov.pk/newsfiles/NPA%20for%20Children.pdf.

3249 Government of Pakistan, National Policy and Action Plan to Combat Child Labour, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis, Islamabad, May 20, 2000, 11. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 2.

3250 Government of Pakistan – Ministry of Finance, Accelerating Economic Growth and Reducing Poverty: The Road Ahead (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper), Islamabad, December 2003, 101, 119; available from http://www.moe.gov.pk/prsp_03.pdf.

3251 ILO-IPEC, National Legislation and Policies Against Child Labour in Pakistan, [online] March 21, 2005 [cited October 19, 2006]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/newdelhi/ipec/responses/pakistan/national.htm. See also Pakistan Bait-Ul-Mal, National Centre(s) for Rehabilitation of Child Labour, [online] [cited October 19, 2006]; available from http://www.pbm.gov.pk/new/Projects/Ongoing/NCRCL/Introduction.html.

3252 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Annex A.

3253 ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour, A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour, Geneva, 2005, 76; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=5059.

3254 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Annex A, 4. For currency conversion, see OANDA, FX Converter – Currency Converter for 164 Currencies, [online] [cited October 19, 2006]; available from http://www.oanda.com/convert/classic.

3255 ILO-IPEC, Time-Bound Programme, project document, 32, 75.

3256 ILO-IPEC, IPEC Action Against Child Labour, 39, 80. See also U.S. Department of Labor, ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary: Combating Child Labor in the Carpet Industry in Pakistan, Phases I & II, Washington, DC, April 4, 2007.

3257 Save the Children – UK, Addressing Child Labour through Quality Education for All, technical progress report, London, September 15, 2006. See also U.S. Department of Labor, ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary: Addressing Child Labor Through Quality Education for All, Washington, DC, April 4, 2007.

3258 Save the Children – UK, Mitigating Child Labour in Pakistan, project document.

3259 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Pakistan." See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005.

3260 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Pakistan." See also Integrated Regional Information Networks, "Former Child Camel Jockeys and the Challenge to Return Home", IRINnews.org, [online], January 3, 2007 [cited January 4, 2007]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=56900&SelectRegion=Asia.

3261 ILO-IPEC, Pakistan Earthquake – Child Labour Response, project document, 5-6.

3262 Government of Pakistan – Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education, Draft National Strategy and Plan of Action for the Rehabilitation of the Most Vulnerable Population in Earthquake-Affected Areas, Islamabad, 2006; available from http://www.nccwd.gov.pk/newsfiles/NSPA%20Narrative.pdf.

3263 USAID, Earthquake Reconstruction, [online] June 1, 2006 [cited November 2, 2006]; available from http://www.usaid.gov/pk/erthreconstruction/index.htm. See also UNICEF, UNICEF Education Achievements One Year On From Pakistan Earthquake, [previously online] [cited November 2, 2006]; available from http://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media_1769.htm [hard copy on file].

3264 ILO-IPEC, Pakistan Earthquake – Child Labour Response, project document, i, 27, 28.

Search Refworld

Countries