Last Updated: Friday, 28 November 2014, 15:42 GMT

2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 31 August 2007
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia, 31 August 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d7493a50.html [accessed 29 November 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor
Percent of children 5-14 estimated as working:Unavailable
Minimum age for work:152120
Age to which education is compulsory:152121
Free public education:Yes2122*
Gross primary enrollment rate in 2004:117%2123
Net primary enrollment rate in 2004:94%2124
Percent of children 5-14 attending school:Unavailable
As of 2003, percent of primary school entrants likely to reach grade 5:92%2125
Ratified Convention 138:6/7/19992126
Ratified Convention 182:3/28/20002127
ILO-IPEC participating country:Yes2128
* Must pay for exam fees, school supplies, and related items.

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

The majority of child work in Indonesia occurs in rural areas. Children work in agriculture on palm oil, cacao, tobacco, and sugar plantations. Children also work in fisheries, construction, manufacturing, footwear production, food processing, and the small-scale mining sector.2129 Other children work in the informal sector selling newspapers, shining shoes, street vending, scavenging, and working beside their parents in family businesses or cottage industries.2130 There are also large numbers of street children.2131 Children, primarily females, are also exploited in domestic service and are often subject to forced labor.2132

Indonesia is primarily a source, and to a lesser extent destination, country for individuals trafficked internationally and internally, including children. Children, primarily girls, are trafficked internationally from Indonesia to Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore, and are trafficked internally mainly from rural to urban areas. There is emerging evidence that girls are also trafficked into Indonesia, mainly from China.2133 Girls are primarily trafficked both internationally and domestically for commercial sexual exploitation and domestic work, whereas boys are trafficked internally to work on fishing platforms. There are increasing reports of children being trafficked to work in organized begging rings.2134 Children are also exploited in the production of pornography and in the international sex industry.2135 They are also known to be involved in the production, trafficking, and/or sale of drugs.2136 Children have been used as combatants in civilian militia groups in the past, but there was no evidence of this occurring in 2006; it remains unclear whether children are used in other capacities within such groups. Children were not officially recruited into the Indonesian armed forces, but there are allegations of children being used as guards, guides, cooks, informants, and errand-runners.2137

The December 26, 2004 tsunami and the May 27, 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake left thousands of children in Indonesia orphaned or separated from their families and without access to schooling, thus increasing their vulnerability to trafficking and other forms of labor and sexual exploitation. Many of these children are still displaced, without families, and highly vulnerable to exploitive child labor.2138

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

The law sets the minimum age for work at 15.2139 The law contains an exception for employing children from 13 up to 15 years to perform light work that does not disrupt their physical, mental, and social development. A set of requirements is outlined for employment of children in this age range, including a maximum of 3 hours of work per day, parental permission, and no disruption of schooling.2140 Employing and involving children under 18 in the worst forms of child labor or economic exploitation are prohibited under the law; failure to comply can result in criminal sanctions of 2 to 5 years of imprisonment. The law defines the worst forms of child labor as slavery; use of children in prostitution, pornography and gambling; use of children for the production and trade of alcohol, narcotics, and addictive substances; and all types of work harmful to the health, safety and morals of children. The law identifies a list of such harmful activities and provides detailed descriptions and examples of these activities. These include jobs requiring children to work with machines; jobs where physical, chemical, or biological hazards are present; jobs with inherent hazards such as construction, offshore fishing, lifting heavy loads etc; and jobs that harm the morals of the children including working in bars, massage parlors, discotheques, or promoting alcohol or drugs to arouse sexual desire.2141 Persons who expose children to such hazardous activities are liable to terms of up to 5 years of imprisonment or a fine.2142 An Indonesian decree calls for general programs to ban and abolish worst forms of child labor and improve family income, and for specific programs for non-formal education and returning children to school by providing scholarships.2143 Additional specific legal sanctions are laid out against offenses of commercial sexual exploitation, child trafficking, involving children in the production or distribution of alcohol or narcotics, and involving children in armed conflict. Anyone exercising legal custody of a child under 12 years for the purpose of providing that child to another person, knowing that the child is going to be used for the purposes of begging, harmful work, or work that affects the child's health, may face a maximum sentence of 4 years of imprisonment The law also prohibits sexual intercourse outside of marriage with a female recognized to be less than 15 years, engaging in an obscene act with a person under 15 years, and forcing or allowing sexual abuse of a child, with maximum penalties ranging from 7 to 12 years of imprisonment. The law also prohibits trafficking of women and boys, with the Penal Code providing a maximum penalty of 6 years of imprisonment for violations and the Child Protection Act stipulating a prison sentence of 3-15 years and/or a fine.2144 The minimum age for recruitment or enlistment into the armed forces is 18 years.2145 The law protects children in emergencies, including natural disasters.2146

Ministry of Manpower authorities at the provincial and district levels have the responsibility for enforcing child labor laws.2147 The Ministry of Manpower reports that Action Committees on Child Labor have been established in 12 of 33 provinces and in 54 out of 458 districts in Indonesia.2148 The national police's anti-trafficking unit and other law enforcement bodies have increased efforts to combat trafficking of children. Between January and November 2006, there were 18 trafficking-related convictions.2149 In 2006, there were five convictions specifically for child trafficking.2150 Despite these efforts, the U.S. State Department reports that the Indonesian government does not enforce child labor laws in an effective or thorough manner due to corruption, a lack of resources, and lack of child labor inspections.2151

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The 20-year National Plan of Action (NPA) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor is currently in its first 5-year phase (2002-2006). The first phase, established by Presidential Decree No. 59 (2002), focuses on mapping child labor problems, raising awareness, and eliminating five priority worst forms of child labor: offshore fishing and diving; trafficking for purposes of prostitution; mining; footwear production; and drug trafficking.2152 The Ministry of Manpower chairs a National Action Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, which coordinates child labor elimination efforts throughout the country and produces annual reports on the implementation of the NPA.2153 The National Plan of Action of Human Rights in Indonesia (2004-2009) contains a specific objective on protecting the rights of the child, with a series of activities aimed at combating trafficking and protecting against sexual exploitation, pornography, and worst forms of child labor.2154

The National Medium Term Development Plan (2004-2009) recognizes the problem of child labor and supports the implementation of the National Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor.2155 The Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategy (2005-2009) includes objectives of preventing exploitation and the worst forms of child labor, increasing protection for street children and child workers, and preventing child trafficking. In the proposed monitoring and evaluation system, the plan also has a 2009 target to decrease the number of child trafficking cases.2156 Indonesia is a signatory to a multilateral MOU pledging cooperation on trafficking. Other signatories to the "Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking (COMMIT)" include Burma, Cambodia, China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. The members have a Sub-Regional Plan of Action for 2005-2007, which translates the MOU commitments into concrete actions.2157

The National Plan of Action to Combat the Trafficking of Women and Children and the National Plan of Action to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation are in place to help reduce the trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children.2158 In support of these plans, the national government sponsors a national media campaign to raise awareness on trafficking.2159 Local governments of Bali, Batam, Dumai, Entikong, and Riau Province have established shelters for trafficking victims.2160 The Foreign Affairs Ministry operates shelters at its embassies and consulates in several countries including Kuwait, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Singapore.2161 The Indonesian National Police are operating the first-ever medical recovery center for victims of trafficking in Jakarta, and have opened recovery centers in Surabaya, Pontianak, and Makassar.2162 Several districts and provinces have established Anti-Trafficking Committees and district action plans to carry out anti-trafficking activities. In 2006, the number of provinces with committees or task forces increased to 17 from 12 in 2005.2163 Also in 2006, the numbers of women's help desks, designed to assist exploited women and children, increased to 280 countrywide.2164 The People's Welfare Coordinating Ministry and the Women's Empowerment Ministry lead the National Anti-trafficking Task Force developed under the plan; they also carry out monitoring of anti-trafficking efforts, produce annual trafficking reports, and train police and other officials.2165

Several provinces have established a hotline, "Child Helpline 129," to provide emergency assistance to children, including to child laborers. Several provincial governments, such as East Java, Central Java, Yogyakarata, and Bali, undertook specific child labor activities during 2006, including vocational education and training for child laborers, entrepreneurship training for the parents of child laborers, and education scholarships for child laborers.2166 The Ministry of Women's Empowerment has published non-legally binding guidelines for employing child domestic workers 15 to 18 years, providing good practice examples for employment and policy frameworks related to child domestic workers.2167 The government maintains the Commission for the Protection of Indonesian Children, responsible for collecting data and undertaking studies on specified child-related topics, for receiving complaints, and for advising the government on public education.2168

The Government of Indonesia is participating in a USD 4.1 million USDOL-supported ILOIPEC Timebound Program to progressively eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The program is being implemented from 2003-2007 and aims to withdraw 2,750 children and prevent 9,960 children from exploitive labor in the five priority sectors identified in the National Plan of Action.2169 In support of the Timebound Program, USDOL also funds a USD 6 million Child Labor Education Initiative project to combat child trafficking in Indonesia. The project aims to withdraw 1,500 child trafficking victims and prevent 17,932 children from being trafficked.2170 In 2006, the Government of Indonesia also participated in a regional USDOL-funded project that withdrew 367 children and prevented 10,378 children from trafficking throughout the region2171 and a regional USDOL-funded awareness-raising project to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.2172 In addition, in 2006 the Netherlands completed support to a USD 1.2 million project to eliminate exploitive child domestic work in Indonesia and 7 other countries in the region. Sweden continued to support a USD 428,000 project on child labor and youth employment in Indonesia, Pakistan, Tanzania, Egypt, and Guatemala.2173

To address the vulnerability of children to worst forms of child labor in the tsunami-stricken areas of Indonesia, USDOL is funding a USD 1.5 million addendum to the ILO-IPEC Timebound Program and a USD 2.5 million addendum to the Education Initiative project. The ILO-IPEC project aims to prevent 3,000 children from entering exploitive labor, and the Education Initiative project aims to prevent 10,530 children from entering exploitive labor.2174

The U.S. State Department supports a project that provides technical assistance and policy advocacy training to help local governments establish and implement policies to reduce vulnerability to trafficking.2175 This project assisted the Indonesian government in developing and passing an anti-trafficking law and supported 50 projects by Indonesian civil society institutions in the areas of prevention and protection.2176 President Bush included Indonesia as one of eight target countries in his USD 50 million anti-trafficking in persons initiative. Indonesia has received approximately 10 percent of the total funding.2177

The government is piloting a conditional cash transfer program in six provinces to increase children's participation levels in education and to reduce child labor.2178 The government is also continuing to implement the "Subsidy for School Operational Costs" to remove basic school fees for poor families affected by the elimination of a national oil subsidy.2179


2120 Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Concerning Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety and Morals of Children, Decree No. Kep.235/MEN/2003, (October 31, 2003), Article 3; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=04&p_ori gin=SUBJECT.

2121 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, Law No. 23, (2002), Article 48, 53; available from http://www.ri.go.id/produk_uu/uu-2002.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, "Indonesia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2006, Washington, DC, March 6, 2007, Section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78774.htm.

2122 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 5.

2123 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, March 1, 2007.

2124 Ibid.

2125 Ibid.

2126 ILOLEX Database of International Labor Standards, Ratifications by Country, accessed June 6, 2006; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newratframeE.htm.

2127 Ibid.

2128 ILO, IPEC Actions Against Child Labour: Highlights 2006, Geneva, October 2006; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/20061018_Implementationreport_eng.pdf.

2129 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 5. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting March 2, 2005. See also ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Action Plan and the Development of the Timebound National Action Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, project document, INS/03/P50/USA, Geneva, September 30, 2003, 2-3. See also End Child Labor, Indonesia Child Labor by Industry or Occupation, October 13, 2006; available from http://www.endchildlabor.org/db_infoBank.cfm?Action=View.

2130 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Sections 5, 6d. See also Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, The National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Presidential Decree Number 59, (August 13, 2002), 5.

2131 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 5. See also End Child Labor, Child Labor by Industry or Occupation.

2132 U.S. Department of State, "Indonesia (Tier 2 Watchlist)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006, Washington, DC, June 5, 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/65989.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Sections 5, 6d. See also "Swept Under the Rug: Abuses Against Domestic Workers Around the World," Human Rights Watch, 18 no. 7(C) (July, 2006), 53, 54; available from http://hrw.org/reports/2006/wrd0706/wrd0706webwcover.pdf. See also "Always on Call: Abuse and Exploitation of Child Domestic Workers in Indonesia," Human Rights Watch 17 7(c) (June, 2005).

2133 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Indonesia." See also International Catholic Migration Commission and Solidarity Center, When They Were Sold: Trafficking of Women and Girls in 15 Provinces of Indonesia, Jakarta, November 2006, 53-54; available from http://solidarity.timberlakepublishing.com/content.asp?contentid=638.

2133 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Indonesia." See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 5. See also Ruth Rosenberg, ed., Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia, Jakarta, 2003, 16,19, 31,172; available from http://solidarity.timberlakepublishing.com/content.asp?contentid=502. See also International Catholic Migration Commission and Center, When They Were Sold, 29, 31, 36-37, 43, 45.2135 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 5. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, Indonesia, accessed September 22, 2006; available from http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp. See also Rosenberg, Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia, 19.2136 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 6d. See also Emma Porio and Christine S. Crisol, The Use of Children in the Production,Sales, and Trafficking of Drugs, ILO-IPEC, Manila, September 2004, 2. See also ILO-IPEC, Indonesian Timebound National Action Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, project document, 4.

2137 U.S Embassy – Jakarta official, E-mail communication to USDOL official, August 8, 2006. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldier Use 2003: A Briefing for the 4th UN Security Council Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict, 2004; available from http://hrw.org/doc/?t=children_pub&document_limit=20,20. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Indonesia," in Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=852. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting September 8, 2004.

2138 Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR) and International Partners, Aceh and Nias Once Year After the Tsunami: The Recovery Effort and Way Forward, 2005; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/0,,contentMDK:20757 701~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:226301,00.html. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, March 3, 2006.

2139 Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Concerning Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety and Morals of Children, Article 3.

2140 Republic of Indonesia, Manpower Development and Protection Act (no. 13), (March 25, 2003), Articles 26, 68, 69.

2141 Ibid., Articles 74, 183. See also Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Concerning Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety and Morals of Children. See also Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Protection of Children Undertaking Jobs to Develop Talent and Interest Decree No. KEP.115/MEN/VII/2004, (July 7, 2004); available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=04&p_ori gin=SUBJECT. See also Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, The National Plan of Action WFCL, 10.

2142 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, Articles 59-60, 78-89.

2143 Government of Indonesia, Decree of the Minister of Home Affairs and Regional Autonomy on the Control of Child Workers, Law No. 5, (January 8, 2001). Article 5.

2144 Government of Indonesia, Penal Code of Indonesia, Articles 287-291, 297, 301. Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, Articles 80-89.

2145 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Child Soldiers Global Report 2004."

2146 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, Articles 59-60, 78-89. See also Government of Indonesia, Law No. 39 Concerning Human Rights, (September 23, 1999), Articles 52-66.

2147 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, September 8, 2004.

2148 U.S Embassy Jakarta, E-mail communication USDOL official, July 30, 2007.

2149 U.S. Department of State, "Indonesia " in Trafficking in Persons Interim Assessment – 2006, Washington, DC, January 19, 2007; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/rpt/78948.htm.

2150 U.S. Embassy Jakarta, reporting, December 18, 2006, 9.

2151 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 6d. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, August 19, 2003. See also U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Indonesia." See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting March 2, 2005.

2152 Republic of Indonesia, The National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, August 13, 2002, 15-16.

2153 Government of Indonesia, Presidential Decree on National Action Plan for Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour No. 12/2001, (January 17, 2001); available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=04&p_ori gin=SUBJECT. See also National Action Committee on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Report on the Implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (2002-2004 period), Jakarta, 2005.

2154 Republic of Indonesia, National Plan of Action of Human Rights in Indonesia for 2004-2009; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=01.05&p_ origin=COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

2155 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, technical progress report, Geneva, March 2005, 2. See also Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia Country Report on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Washington, March 2005, 4.

2156 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, technical progress report, March 2005.

2157 United Nations Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (UNIAP), COMMIT Process, [online] n.d. [cited October 4, 2006]; available from http://www.no-trafficking.org/content/National_Plan/national.html.

2158 Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Country Report on the Elimination of the WFCL, 7-8.

2159 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, March 3, 2006. See also U.S. Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 12, 2007.

2160 U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 3, 2006. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, September 8, 2004. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, March 2, 2005.

2161 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Indonesia." See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 2, 2005. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 12, 2007.

2162 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Indonesia." See also Save the Children, Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking through Education (ENABLE), technical progress report, September 28, 2005, 3. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 12, 2007.

2163 Save the Children, Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking through Education (ENABLE), technical progress report, September 26, 2006. See also Save the Children, Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking through Education (ENABLE), technical progress report, March 20, 2006. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 12, 2007.

2164 U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 12, 2007.

2165 U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 3, 2006. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Indonesia," Section 5.

2166 U.S. Embassy Jakarta, reporting, December 18, 2006, 17-19.

2167 U.S Embassy – Jakarta official, e-mail communication, August 8, 2006.

2168 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, September 8, 2004. See also Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act. Articles 74, 76.

2169 Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Information Series on Indonesian Effort in Combating Trafficking in Persons: May 2004, Washington, May 2004, 1. See also ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, technical progress report, March 2005, 1.

2170 U.S. Department of Labor, Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking through Education (ENABLE), ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary, Washington, DC, 2004.

2171 ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Trafficking for Labor and Sexual Exploitation (TICSA Phase II), technical progress report, Geneva, March 2005, 1. See also ILO-IPEC, IPEC Actions Against Child Labor 2004-2005: Progress and Future Priorities, Geneva, February 2006, 31; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/200602_implementationreport_en.pdf.

2172 ILO-IPEC, APEC Awareness Raising Campaign: Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour and Providing Educational Opportunities, technical progress report, Geneva, March 2005, 1. See also National Action Committee on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Report on the Implementation of the NPA. See also ILO-IPEC, IPEC Actions Against Child Labor 2004-2005, 31.

2173 ILO-IPEC official, E-mail Communication to USDOL official, March 1, 2007.

2174 ILO-IPEC, Addendum to Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, project document, Geneva, February 2005, cover page, 13. See also U.S. Department of Labor, Enabling Aceh to Combat Exploitation through Education (ENABLE/ACEH), ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary, Washington, DC, 2005.

2175 U.S. Department of State, U.S. Spearheads Women's Programs in East Asia, Pacific, [online] February 2005 [cited October 13, 2006]; available from http://usinfo.state.gov/dhr/Archive/2005/Feb/23-799318.html.

2176 U.S Embassy Jakarta, E-mail communication, July 30, 2007.

2177 U.S. Department of State, The President's $50 Million Initiative to Combat Trafficking In Persons: Country Funding, [online] April 12, 2006 [cited January 29, 2007]; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/2006/69696.htm. See also U.S. Embassy – -Jakarta, reporting May 21, 2004.

2178 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesia National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, technical progress report, Geneva, August 1, 2006, Section I. See also Save the Children, Enabling Aceh to Combat Child Labor through Education (ENABLE/ACEH), technical progress report, September 26, 2006, Section I. See also U.S. Embassy Jakarta, reporting, December 18, 2006, 12.

2179 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesia National Plan of Action, technical progress report, August 2006, Section I. See also Save the Children, Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking (ENABLE), technical progress report, Section I.

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