2008 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Georgia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||10 September 2009|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2008 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Georgia, 10 September 2009, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4aba3edd3c.html [accessed 25 April 2014]|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor|
|Population, children, 5-14 years:||–|
|Working children, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working boys, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working girls, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working children by sector, 5-14 years (%):|
|Minimum age for work:||16|
|Compulsory education age:||14|
|Free public education:||Yes*|
|Gross primary enrollment rate (%), 2007:||99.0|
|Net primary enrollment rate (%), 2007:||93.7|
|School attendance, children 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Survival rate to grade 5 (%), 2006:||100.0|
|ILO Convention 138:||9/23/1996|
|ILO Convention 182:||7/24/2002|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||Associated|
* In practice, must pay for various school expenses
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Working children in Georgia may be found in the streets, begging or selling small items. In 2008, the NGO Save the Children estimated there to be 1,600 street children, half of whom were living in Tbilisi. Children sometimes work in family businesses or intermittently on family farms. Prostitution of boys and girls is a problem; however, no statistics are available. Trafficking of children rarely occurred. In the separatist region of Abkhazia, authorities allegedly forcibly conscripted boys under 18, the minimum age for conscription into the armed forces.
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The law sets the minimum age for work at 16 years. However, children as young as 14 years may work with parental consent if the work does not damage their health or hinder their studies. Children 14 to 16 years may work up to 24 hours per week, while children between 16 and 18 years are permitted to work 36 hours per week. Employment of children under 18 years is prohibited between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.
Children are not permitted to work in heavy, harmful, or dangerous work, including underground work, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, or welding. Children are also banned from selling alcoholic beverages and tobacco, magazines and newspapers containing pornographic materials, and from working in gambling institutions, night clubs, and bars.
Forced labor is prohibited in Georgia. The law provides that sexual contact with any person under 16 years is a crime and states that any person involving children in prostitution or other sexual depravity may be punished with imprisonment of up to 3 years. The production, sale, distribution, or promotion of child pornography is punishable by a fine or by corrective labor or imprisonment of up to 3 years. The punishment for involving a minor in the production of pornographic material is up to 5 years of imprisonment. The law prohibits trafficking in minors for sexual exploitation, forced labor, and other forms of exploitation. Punishment for these crimes is imprisonment from 8 years to life. The minimum age for entry into the armed forces is 18 years.
The Ministry of Health and Social Security's Department for Social Protection is responsible for labor-related issues and employs two office employees who focus on labor policy issues. The Department. The Permanent Anti-Trafficking Coordination Council is responsible for coordinating Government efforts against trafficking in persons. In 2007, 16 alleged traffickers were prosecuted, resulting in 13 convictions and sentences ranging from 8 to 26 years of imprisonment. Sixteen new trafficking investigations were opened in 2008 and seven cases were decided, one involving a minor, which resulted in sentences from 9 to 10 years.
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs continued to operate two trafficking shelters in Batumi and Tbilisi, which were opened in 2006 and 2007, respectively. The Government continued an awareness-raising campaign on trafficking in persons.