2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Georgia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||31 August 2007|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Georgia, 31 August 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d7493519.html [accessed 27 November 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor|
|Percent of children 7-14 estimated as working in 2000:||21.5%1731|
|Minimum age of work:||161732|
|Age to which education is compulsory:||141733|
|Free public education:||Yes1734|
|Gross primary enrollment rate in 2002:||95%1735|
|Net primary enrollment rate in 2002:||93%1736|
|Percent of children 5-14 attending school:||Unavailable1737|
|Percent of primary school entrants likely to reach grade 5:||Unavailable1738|
|Ratified Convention 138:||9/23/19961739|
|Ratified Convention 182:||7/24/20021740|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||Yes, associated1741|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Child work is prevalent in rural areas of Georgia.1742 Approximately 77.4 percent of working children work on family farms and about 18.4 percent work in family enterprises. It has been estimated that more than 2,500 children work in the streets begging or selling small items.1743 Sexual exploitation, including child prostitution and pornography, is reported to occur; however, no statistics are available. Girls are especially affected.1744
Trafficking is also a problem, and street children are more vulnerable to the threat.1745 Children from Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, and other parts of the former Soviet Union, are trafficked through Georgia to Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, Greece, and Western Europe.1746 Organized crime rings have become involved in trafficking, kidnapping women and children to sell into sexual servitude.1747
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The law sets the minimum age for work at 16.1748 However, children as young as 14 may work with parental consent if the work does not damage the minors' health or hinder their studies.1749 Children between 16 and 18 are permitted to work 36 hours per week, while children 14 to 16 may work only 24 hours per week.1750 Children under 18 are not permitted to work in heavy, harmful, or dangerous work, including underground work. Examples of dangerous or harmful work include mechanical engineering, metallurgy, and welding. Employment of children under 18 between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am and during holidays is prohibited. Minors are also banned from selling alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and magazines and newspapers containing pornographic materials; and from working in gambling institutions, night clubs, and bars.1751
The law provides that sexual contact with any person under 16 is a crime and states that any person involving children under 18 in prostitution or other sexual depravity may be punished with imprisonment from 3 months up to 3 years.1752 Production, sale, distribution, or promotion of child pornography is punishable by imprisonment of up to 3 years. The punishment for involving a minor in the production of pornographic material is 5 years of imprisonment.1753 The law prohibits trafficking in minors for sexual exploitation, forced labor, and other forms of exploitation. Punishment for these crimes is imprisonment from 5 to 12 years, and in extreme cases up to 20 years.1754 The minimum age for entry into the armed forces is 18.1755
The Office of Labor Inspection within the Ministry of Health and Social Security, which was previously charged with the enforcement of labor laws, was disbanded in 2006. Inspections are now conducted by the Labor Department of the Ministry of Health and Social Security. The Labor Department employs six inspectors but has no reports of any child labor complaints.1756 Between April 2006 and February 2007, the Georgian Government investigated 28 trafficking cases, of which 16 were prosecuted. Nine of these cases resulted in convictions, with an average sentence of 10 years.1757 In 2006, Georgia made considerable progress in improving victim safeguards through the implementation of a victim-centered national referral mechanism, establishment of the nation's first trafficking victims' shelter, and the dedication of ongoing funding for victim assistance.1758
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In August 2003, the Government of Georgia approved a National Plan of Action for Children (2003-2007), which identified several goals and strategies to provide for street children and eliminate child labor and child sexual exploitation.1759 The Ministry of Education and the Child and Environment Organization, an NGO, operate shelters in the capital city of Tbilisi.1760 The Ministry of Internal Affairs sponsors a center for the rehabilitation of minors, which regularly provided medical and psychological assistance to child and adolescent victims of prostitution before returning them to their guardians.1761
In April 2006, the government adopted and implemented a strict new anti-trafficking law. The passage of this legislation made it easier to prosecute traffickers, increased minimum sentences for convicted traffickers, and clarified the government's responsibilities for victim identification and assistance. The Government of Georgia established the Permanent Anti-Trafficking Coordination Council in September 2006, replacing the temporary body established earlier in 2005. The new Council drafted a comprehensive 2007-2008 National Action Plan to fight trafficking, which was approved by the President in January 2007. During 2006, the government printed and distributed 200,000 anti-trafficking brochures at Georgia's main points of entry.1762
1731 Gabriel Labbate and Levan Jamburia, Child Labor in Georgia, ILO, Tblisi, January 2004.
1732 Government of Georgia, Ministry of Labor, Healthcare, and Social Affairs, Information on Child Labor Protection in Georgia, Tbilisi, February 2, 2005. See also U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, reporting, December 15, 2006.
1733 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2005: Georgia," Washington, D.C., 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41682.htm
1735 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios. Primary. Total, accessed February 1, 2007; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.
1737 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section.
1738 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used.
1739 ILO, ILOLEX Database of International Labour Standards, 2005, accessed October 26, 2006; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?Georgia.
1740 ILO, ILOLEX Database of International Labour Standards, 2005 [cited October 26, 2006]; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?Georgia.
1741 ILO-IPEC, IPEC Action Against Child Labor, Geneva, October 2006, 29; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/20061019_Implementationreport_eng_Web.pdf.
1742 U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, reporting, December 15, 2006.
1743 Government of Georgia, National Plan of Action for Children 2003-2007 [Draft-English Edition], Tbilisi, 38. See also U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, Email communication to USDOL Official, August 6, 2007.
1744 Government of Georgia, National Plan of Action for Children 2003-2007 [Draft-English Edition].
1745 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2005: Georgia," Washington, D.C., 2005; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41682.htm
1747 Georgi Glonti, Problems Associated with Organized Crime in Georgia, Institute of Legal Reforms of Georgia, Tbilisi; available from http://ilr.iatp.ge/Publications/Publications.html
1748 U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, reporting, December 15, 2006.
1749 Government of Georgia, National Plan of Action for Children 2003-2007 [Draft-English Edition].
1750 Ibid., 40.
1751 Government of Georgia, Ministry of Labor, Healthcare, and Social Affairs, Information on Child Labor Protection, 2-3. See also U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, reporting, December 15, 2006.
1752 Government of Georgia, National Laws: Legislation of Interpol Member States on Sexual Offences Against Children – Georgia, 2006, [ accessed June 20, 2006, Articles 140 and 171; available from http://www.interpol.int/Public/Children/SexualAbuse/NationalLaws/csaGeorgia.asp.
1753 U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, reporting, December 15, 2006.
1754 The Protection Project, Georgia, [online] accessed September 30, 2005; available from http://www.protectionproject.org/report/georgia.doc.
1755 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report – Georgia, November 17, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=901.
1756 U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, reporting, December 15, 2006.
1757 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006: Georgia." See also U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, Email communication to USDOL Official, August 6, 2007.
1758 U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, Email communication to USDOL Official, August 6, 2007.
1759 Government of Georgia, National Plan of Action for Children 2003-2007 [Draft-English Edition].
1760 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2005: Georgia."
1761 U.S. Embassy – Tbilisi, Email communication to USDOL Official, August 6, 2007.