2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Georgia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||7 June 2002|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Georgia, 7 June 2002, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48c8c9ce32.html [accessed 22 October 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Government of Georgia is conducting a national child labor survey with technical assistance from ILO-IPEC's SIMPOC. The UNDP is also working to strengthen the capacity of the State Department of Statistics, in order to conduct a national child labor survey, as a part of a national Poverty Reduction and Social-Economic Development Program. In addition, the Ministry of Education joined with UNESCO in 1999 to implement the Education For All initiative to improve the country's educational system. With its limited budget, the Ministry's efforts aim to improve existing institutions, support teacher training, and establish new curricula and education standards. The World Bank recently provided Georgia with a loan to work toward several of these objectives in the education sector. Save the Children-US is also collaborating with local NGOs to promote children's rights, and specifically to assist street children who do not have access to education.
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
In 1999, UNICEF estimated that 30 percent of children between the ages of 5 and 15 years in Georgia were working. There is limited information on the specific sectors in which children work. However, there are reports of children as young as nine working on the streets of Tbilisi, in markets and sometimes at night, carrying or loading wares. Children as young as 5 years of age work as beggars. Other reports indicate that children from Turkey and Greece are trafficked to Georgia for the purpose of prostitution. Homeless and street children are often vulnerable to sexual exploitation.
Education in Georgia is free of charge and compulsory from the age of 6 or 7 until 16 years. In 1996, the gross primary enrollment rate was 88.2 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate was 87 percent. Although the Constitution mandates that education is "free," related expenses that include books prevent some children from attending.
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The law sets the minimum age for employment at 16 years. Children who are 15 years old, however, may work in jobs that are not dangerous to their health or development, in some jobs in the performing arts, or with special permission from the local trade union. In general, children under 18 years of age may not be hired for unhealthy or underground work, and children between the ages of 16 and 18 years have reduced working hours. The Criminal Code prohibits keeping brothels, procuring women for prostitution, lewd conduct involving minors, and sexual relations with a person under 16. Although there are no laws that specifically address trafficking, related offenses can be prosecuted under the Criminal Code. Georgia ratified ILO Convention 138 on September 23, 1996, but has not ratified ILO Convention 182.
 ILO-IPEC, Child Labor Statistics: SIMPOC Countries, at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/countries.htm on 1/29/02.
 "Project Summary: Child Labor Survey Module in Georgia," UNDP in Georgia, at http://www.undp.org.ge/programme/ongoing/laborchild.pdf on 10/15/01.
 UNESCO, The Education for All (EFA) 2000 Assessment: Country Reports – Georgia, at http://www2.unesco.org/wef/countryreports/georgia/contents.html on 10/15/01.
 "Education System Realignment and Strengthening Credit Project," World Bank Group, at http://www.worldbank.org/sprojects/project.asp?pid=p055173 on 12/11/01.
 "Child Rights Promotion and Advocacy/Children in Crisis in Georgia," Assistance Georgia, at http://www.assistancegeorgia.org.ge on 12/11/01 [document on file].
 The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) study defines "currently working" to include children who were performing any paid or unpaid work for someone other than a member of the household, who performed more than 4 hours of housekeeping chores in the household, or who performed other family work during the period cited. See MICS 2: Understanding Children's Work at http://www.ucw-project.org/resources/index.html on 12/11/01. See also MICS, 1999: Republic of Georgia, State Department of Statistics, National Center for Disease Control, UNICEF (Tbilisi, 2000), table 37, at http://www.childinfo.org/mics2/gj99306k.htm on 12/11/01.
 Georgia NGO Convention on the Rights of the Child Coordinative Council, Implementation of the Convention on Children's Rights in Georgia: A Report of Non-Governmental Organizations [hereinafter Implementation of the Convention on Children's Rights] (Tbilisi, December 1999).
 Implementation of the Convention on Children's Rights at 26. See also "Irregular Migration and Trafficking in Migrants – the Case of Georgia," Trafficking in Migrants, no. 22 (autumn 2000).
 Implementation of the Convention on Children's Rights.
 Trafficking arrangements through Georgia and into Turkey may be facilitated by the visa-free arrangement between the two countries. See Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2000 – Georgia (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, 2000) [hereinafter Country Reports 2000], Section 6f. See also Dr. Louise I. Shelley statement at Hearing on Sex Trade: Trafficking of Women and Children in Europe and the United States, before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Helsinki Commission), June 28, 1999.
 Implementation of the Convention on Children's Rights at 27.
 The Constitution guarantees free primary education for all citizens and states that primary education is mandatory for all. See Constitution of Georgia [hereinafter Constitution of Georgia], Article 35, at http://www.parliament.ge/governance/parl/l_a/s_p/constitution/consen.html on 10/12/01. See also UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention, Initial Reports of States Parties Due in 1996, Addendum, Georgia, CRC/C/41/Add. 4, May 26, 1997 [hereinafter Initial Reports of States Parties].
 World Development Indicators 2001 (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2001) [CD-ROM].
 Constitution of Georgia at Article 35 and Country Reports 2000 at Section 5.
 Initial Reports of States Parties.
 These offenses are punishable by a prison sentence of up to 3 years. See Republic of Georgia Criminal Code, Chapter 12, Articles 118, 119, 133, 230 as cited in The Protection Project Database. See also Initial Reports of States Parties and Country Reports 2000 at Section 5.
 ILOLEX database: Georgia at http://www.ilolex.ilo.ch on 12/11/01.