2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Cape Verde
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||31 August 2007|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Cape Verde, 31 August 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d749282e.html [accessed 27 March 2015]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor|
|Percent of children 5-14 estimated as working:||Unavailable|
|Minimum age of work:||16857|
|Age to which education is compulsory:||11858|
|Free public education:||Yes859|
|Gross primary enrollment rate in 2004:||111%860|
|Net primary enrollment rate in 2004:||92%861|
|Percent of children 5-14 attending school:||Unavailable|
|As of 2003, percent of primary school entrants likely to reach grade 5:||91%862|
|Ratified Convention 138:||No863|
|Ratified Convention 182:||10/23/2001864|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||No865|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Children in Cape Verde work as street vendors and car washers in urban areas including Mindelo, Praia, and Sal.866
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The law states that the minimum age for employment is 16 years, and the minimum age for apprentice contracts is 14 years.867 Employment contracts entered into by children under 18 can be invalidated at the request of the parents or legal representatives.868 In general, the normal working hours for those under age 18 may not exceed 38 hours a week and 7 hours a day.869 The law prohibits children under age 16 from working at night or in enterprises that produce toxic products.870 Those over age 16 are allowed to work at night only when it is essential to their vocational training.871 The legal remedies for violating child labor laws include civil compensation for the victims, as well as criminal penalties of up to 10 and a half years of imprisonment and seizure of the violator's assets.872
The law prohibits compulsory labor, including by children.873 The compulsory recruitment age for military service is 18 years, but 17-year-olds may volunteer with parental consent.874 Although prostitution is legal, the law prohibits the facilitation and procurement of children under 16 for the purpose of prostitution.875 Criminal penalties range from 9 to 19 years of imprisonment if the victim is under 14, and from 2 to 8 years if the victim is 14 to 16 years.876 These penalties are increased in cases where the perpetrator exploits a victim's economic hardship, uses violence, or abuses a position of authority. Enhanced penalties are also imposed in cases of procurement that involve pregnancy, the transmission of disease, and suicide or death.877 The trafficking of those under 18 is illegal; sentences for trafficking in children have ranged from 2 to 16 years of imprisonment.878
The Director-General for Labor and Inspector General for Labor implement and enforce labor laws, including child labor laws and regulations.879 The Ministries of Justice and Labor were responsible for enforcing child labor laws; however, such laws were seldom enforced.880
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
Research has not identified any policies or programs by the Government of Djibouti to address exploitive child labor.
857 U.S. Embassy – Praia, reporting, August 26, 2005.
858 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Summary Record of the 746th Meeting: Cape Verde. 07/11/2001, CRC/C/SR.746, Geneva, November 7, 2001; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/5f332d555df17111c1256b10003a14de?Opendocument.
859 U.S. Department of State. "Cape Verde." In, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2006: Cape Verde, Washington, DC 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78724.htm.
860 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Gross Enrolment Ratio. Primary. Total, accessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.
861 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Net Enrolment Rate. Primary. Total, accessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.
862 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Survival Rate to Grade 5. Total, accessed December 18, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.
863 ILO, Ratifications by Country, accessed January 18, 2007; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newratframeE.htm.
864 ILO, ILOLEX Database of International Labour Standards, accessed October 30, 2006; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newratframeE.htm.
865 ILO, IPEC Action Against Child Labor – Highlights 2006, ILO, November 14, 2006; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/about/countries/countries_en.pdf.
866 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Cape Verde, CRC/C/15/Add.167, October 12, 2001; available from http://www.hri.ca/fortherecord2001/documentation/tbodies/crc-c-11-add23.htm.
867 U.S. Embassy – Praia, reporting, August 26, 2005.
868 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Periodic Reports of States Parties Due in 1994: Cape Verde, CRC/C/11/Add.23, United Nations, Geneva, January 2001.
870 Ibid. See also U.S. Department of State. "Cape Verde." In, Country Reports – 2006: Cape Verde.
871 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports: Cape Verde.
872 U.S. Embassy – Praia, reporting, August 26, 2005.
873 U.S. Department of State. "Cape Verde." In, Country Reports – 2006: Cape Verde.
874 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Child Soldiers Global Report 2004," November 17, 2004; available from http:/www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=763.
875 The Protection Project, "Cape Verde," in 2005 Human Rights Report on Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children: A Country-by-Country Report on a Contemporary Form of Slavery, Washington, DC, 2006; available from http://www.protectionproject.org/pub.htm.
876 Ibid. See also UNICEF, At a Glance: Cape Verde, [2006 [cited June 16, 2006]; available from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/capeverde.html?q=printme.
877 The Protection Project, "Cape Verde."
878 U.S. Department of State. "Cape Verde." In, Country Reports – 2006: Cape Verde.
879 U.S. Embassy – Praia, reporting, August 26, 2005.
880 U.S. Department of State. "Cape Verde." In, Country Reports – 2006: Cape Verde.