2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Colombia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||29 August 2006|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Colombia, 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d748e354.html [accessed 24 February 2017]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments|
|Ratified Convention 138 2/2/2001||✓|
|Ratified Convention 182 1/28/2005||✓|
|National Plan for Children||✓|
|National Child Labor Action Plan||✓|
|Sector Action Plan (Commercial Sexual Exploitation)||✓|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
An estimated 10.4 percent of children ages 5 to 14 years were counted as working in Colombia in 2001. Approximately 14.1 percent of all boys 5 to 14 were working compared to 6.6 percent of girls in the same age group. The majority of working children were found in the services sector (49.9 percent), followed by agricultural (35.6 percent), manufacturing (12.6 percent) and other sectors (1.9 percent).1105 In urban areas children work in sectors such as commerce, industry, and services.1106 Many children, especially girls, work as domestic servants.1107 In rural areas, children work in sectors including agriculture and commerce.1108 Children work in clay, coal, emerald, and gold mining operations.1109 They also harvest coca and work in other aspects of the drug trade.1110 Child labor is especially a problem in the informal sector.1111 More than half of working children do not receive financial remuneration.1112 Child labor is one of many problems associated with poverty. In 1999, the most recent year for which data are available, 8.2 percent of the population in Colombia were living on less than USD 1 a day.1113
Children are victims of commercial sexual exploitation in Colombia. Sexual tourism involving children in Cartagena and resorts on the Caribbean coast is a problem.1114 Colombia is a major source country for the trafficking of girls for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation. Colombian girls are trafficked internally from rural to urban areas, throughout the Americas, and to locations including the Caribbean, Western Europe, Japan, Hong Kong, and the Middle East. Trafficking victims from other South American countries may pass through Colombia before reaching Europe and the United States. Populations displaced due to armed violence are at increased risk for trafficking.1115
Children in Colombia are recruited, sometimes forcibly, by insurgent and paramilitary groups.1116 Many are forced to participate in and are victims of human rights violations such as torture and murder.1117 Child soldiers also act as messengers and guards, and carry and assemble explosives.1118 Many girl child soldiers are subject to sexual exploitation by other members of insurgent and paramilitary armed groups.1119 Reportedly, children have been used by government armed forces as informants, although the government does not recruit children and there are no reports of children serving in government armed forces.1120
The Constitution requires children ages 5 to 15 years to attend school. It states that education is to be free in state institutions, but allows state institutions to impose school fees for those that can afford them.1121 Children paying enrollment fees do so based on their family's income level.1122 In practice, the costs of enrollment, books, school supplies, and transportation are often prohibitive.1123 In 2002, the gross primary enrollment rate was 110 percent and the net primary enrollment rate was 87 percent.1124 Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. In 2001, 90.4 percent of children ages 5 to 14 years were attending school.1125 As of 2001, 69 percent of children who started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.1126 Education is less accessible for rural, Afro-Colombian, indigenous,1127 and displaced children.1128 Teachers, among other groups, have been the targets of murders, threats, and violence by paramilitary and guerilla groups, and this may affect children's education.1129
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The Constitution states that children are to be protected against exploitative and hazardous labor.1130 The Minors' Code defines minors as those under age 18, and sets the minimum age for employment at 14 years, with certain exceptions. Authorization from a labor inspector or other designated authority is required for all those under age 18 to work. Under exceptional circumstances children ages 12 and 13 may obtain authorization to work.1131 The Code requires parents to ensure that youths under age 14 attend school, limits children's working hours, protects against the firing of pregnant or lactating minors, and prohibits employers from moving minors from their homes except with authorization for temporary training programs. The Code establishes that minors are afforded the same labor protections as adults in matters not addressed by the Minors' Code. Also under the Code, the Ministry of Social Protection (MSP) is required to inspect businesses in order to determine if they are in compliance with child labor laws.1132 Penalties for violating child labor laws range from 1 to 40 times the minimum monthly salary and can include the temporary or permanent closure of the violating establishment.1133
The Minors' Code prohibits children from various types of work that pose health risks, with certain exceptions for those older than 14 years, and authorizes the MSP to prohibit minors from additional forms of labor.1134 In 2005, an MSP resolution established a list of work prohibited to minors. This list includes the types of work prohibited by the Minors' Code.1135 Minors are prohibited from working in agriculture, livestock, fishing, hunting, forestry, mining, and construction. Certain types of work involving the industrial manufacturing, transport, health, and security sectors are also prohibited for children. Children may not work as shoe shiners, domestic laborers, or in ambulant sales.1136 Minors are also prohibited from working under specific conditions, including those that involve risks to a child's physical or psychological well-being, health risks, and exposure to dangerous chemicals. Work that is unpaid or interferes with education is prohibited, as is work involving separation from a child's family, abuse, or illegal situations. According to the MSP resolution, minors may not work between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m., with the exception of those who are 16 and 17 years of age.1137 However, the Minors' Code permits 16 and 17 year olds, like other minors, to work only until 8 p.m.1138 Work affecting children's morality, such as work in places of prostitution and where alcohol is served is prohibited.1139 Those with knowledge of children engaging in prohibited work are mandated to report such situations to MSP.1140 Since 1999, the Government of Colombia has submitted to the ILO a list or an equivalent document identifying the types of work that it has determined are harmful to the health, safety or morals of children under Convention 182 and Convention 138.1141
Trafficking is prohibited by the Constitution1142 and is punishable by 13 to 23 years of incarceration and fines up to 1,500 times the minimum monthly salary; penalties are increased under aggravated circumstances which include cases in which the victim is a minor.1143 Penalties for pimping and forced prostitution range from 2 to 13 years of incarceration and fines of 66 to 750 times the minimum monthly salary, with increased penalties if the victim is under age 14, if the crime involved moving the victim outside of the country, or if the perpetrator is a family member.1144 Operating an establishment in which minors practice sexual acts is punishable by 8 to 12 years of incarceration and fines of 66 to 750 times the minimum monthly salary, with increased penalties if the crime was committed by a family member.1145 Child pornography is punishable by fines from 133 to 1,500 times the minimum monthly salary and 8 to 12 years of imprisonment, with increased penalties if the crime was committed by a family member.1146 The use of the mail or internet to obtain or offer sexual contact with a minor is punishable by 5 to 10 years of incarceration and a fine of 50 to 100 times the minimum monthly salary, with increased penalties if the minor involved is under age 12.1147 Internet pornography depicting minors is punishable by fines up to 100 times the minimum monthly salary and the cancellation or suspension of the web site.1148 Law 679 states that tourist agencies that engage in activities related to sexual tourism of minors can be penalized by fines of up to 300 times the minimum monthly salary and the suspension or cancellation of their registration in the National Tourism Registry.1149 Forced prostitution and sexual slavery in relation to the country's ongoing conflict is punishable by imprisonment from 13 to 27 years and a fine of 666 to 1,500 times the minimum monthly salary.1150 The minimum voluntary and compulsory recruitment age for the armed forces is 18.1151 Recruitment of children under age 18 by armed groups is punishable by 8 to 15 years in prison and fines ranging from 800 to 1,500 times the minimum monthly salary.1152 Children are also prohibited from performing intelligence activities.1153 The law regards child soldiers as victims.1154 Armed groups that collectively enter the government's demobilization process must place all minor recruits with the Colombian Institute of Family Welfare (ICBF).1155 The Constitution prohibits slavery and forced labor.1156
According to the U.S. Department of State, the MSP conducts child labor inspections, but does not have sufficient resources to inspect all establishments that employ children.1157 ICBF is responsible for child protection programs.1158 This includes providing services to former child soldiers.1159 The Minors' Police, the Prosecutor's Office for the Protection of the Child and Family, and Family Commissioners are also authorized to implement and enforce child labor laws and regulations.1160 The Prosecutor General's Office has a unit dedicated to combating trafficking.1161
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Colombian Government's National Development Plan 2002-2006 establishes the eradication of exploitative child labor as a priority.1162 Colombia's Plan for Childhood (20042015) contains provisions relating to exploitative child labor, specifically to child trafficking, the recruitment of children into armed groups, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children.1163 The National Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor implemented the Third Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor and the Protection of Working Youth 20032006.1164 The plan's objectives include increasing knowledge, improving public policy, raising awareness, and improving legislation regarding child labor.1165 The MSP works to eradicate exploitative child labor through activities including awareness raising campaigns.1166 With support from ILO-IPEC and Canada, the government is working to improve cooperation and coordination among national, regional, and municipal governments in combating child labor.1167 In 2005, the government ratified ILO Convention 182, the Worst Forms of Child Labor.1168
ICBF administers a reinsertion program for former child soldiers.1169 Its programs are assisted by the IOM through funds from USAID and the governments of Canada and Italy.1170 The Colombian Ministry of Interior operates a program that finds housing for and provides grants and training to demobilized child combatants.1171 The Government of Colombia participates in a 3-year inter-regional ILO-IPEC project funded by USDOL that aims to combat the involvement of children with armed groups.1172
The Office of the Human Rights Ombudsman, the National Police, and the IOM conducted a trafficking awareness raising program in schools.1173 The government has an interagency trafficking advisory committee whose activities include information campaigns, training, and coordination with Interpol.1174 The committee created a database to maintain information regarding trafficking cases.1175 Immigration officials and NGOs collaborated to provide information to potential trafficking victims.1176 Colombian missions in countries such as Japan assist trafficking victims.1177 The government has worked to include business, especially those in the travel industry in anti-trafficking activities.1178 The Inspector General's Office implemented a trafficking monitoring system in 10 departments.1179
The government participates in a USDOL-funded ILO-IPEC regional project to combat children's involvement in both domestic labor and commercial sexual exploitation.1180 The National Police's program "Colombia without Prostitution" uses family and community education to prevent the commercial sexual exploitation of children. ICBF operates shelters and treatment centers for children.1181 The Colombian Institute of Geology and Mining is implementing a project to eradicate child labor in mining in cooperation with the UNDP.1182 The government also participates in a USD 3.5 million, 4-year USDOL-funded project to combat child labor in hazardous agriculture through improved access to quality, basic education for children working or at-risk of working in hazardous agriculture.1183
Colombia's National Development Plan and the Education Development Plan 2003-2006 list increasing educational access and improving educational quality and efficiency as priorities.1184 The Ministry of Education implements programs to improve school infrastructure in conflict zones, to promote the efficient use of human and financial resources, to improve literacy, and to increase access to basic and secondary education for rural, displaced, minority, and border communities.1185 The Colombian Federation of Educators and the government have begun a program to assist violence-threatened teachers through investigations and teacher relocations.1186 In November of 2005, the government of Colombia signed an agreement with the World Bank for a USD 86.4 million loan, part of which will be used to provide payments to families that meet certain conditions such as ensuring their children attend school.1187 Through another loan from the World Bank, the government is working to improve educational quality and access in the country's rural areas.1188 Additional funds from the World Bank are being used to improve basic and secondary education in the department of Cundinamarca.1189
1105 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, October 7, 2005. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
1106 National Administrative Department of Statistics, Encuesta Nacional de Trabajo Infantil: Análisis de los resultados de la encuesta sobre caracterización de la población entre 5 y 17 años en Colombia, Bogota, November 2001, 55; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/spanish/standards/ipec/simpoc/colombia/report/co_rep_2001_sp.pdf.
1107 ILO-IPEC, Prevention and Elimination of Child Domestic Labour (CDL) and of Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (CESC) in Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru, project document, Geneva, September 8, 2004, 13.
1108 National Administrative Department of Statistics, Encuesta Nacional, 55.
1109 ILO-IPEC, Prevention and Elimination of Child Labour in Small-Scale Mining, project document, Geneva, September 21, 2001, 5-6. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2005: Colombia, Washington, D.C., March 8, 2006, Section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61721.htm.
1110 Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, Colombia's War on Children, New York, February 2004, 21; available from http://www.watchlist.org/reports/colombia.report.pdf. See also Colombian Ombudsman's Office, Informe Sobre Los Derechos Humanos De La Niñez en Colombia Durante El Año 2001, 2001, 26; available from http://www.defensoria.org.co/?_s=d1. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2005: Colombia, Section 6d.
1111 U.S. Department of State, Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2005: Colombia, Section 6d.
1112 National Administrative Department of Statistics, Encuesta Nacional, 61-63.
1113 World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 [CD-ROM], Washington, D.C., 2005.
1114 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report, Washington, D.C., June 5, 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2005: Colombia, Sections 5 and 6d.
1115 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2006. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2005: Colombia, Section 5.
1116 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2005: Colombia, Sections 1g, 5, 6c, and 6d. See also U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2006. See also UN Economic and Social Council, Organization of the Work of the Session: Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the human rights situation in Colombia, E/CN.4/2004/13, February 17, 2004, para. 52 and 58; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.2004.13.En?Opendocument. Various Colombian paramilitary and guerrilla groups have been included on the UN list of Parties to Armed Conflict that Recruit or Use Children in Armed Conflict. See United Nations General Assembly Security Council, Children and Armed Conflict, pursuant to Report of the Secretary-General, February 9, 2005; available from http://www.un.org/special-rep/children-armedconflict/English/index.html.
1117 Human Rights Watch, You'll Learn Not to Cry: Child Combatants in Colombia, Washington, September 2003, 68-77 and 88-98; available from http://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/colombia0903/.
1118 Ibid., 6 and 61-67.
1119 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2006. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004: Colombia, November 17, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=820. See also Human Rights Watch, You'll Learn Not to Cry, 53-59.
1120 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004: Colombia, November 17, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=820. See also Human Rights Watch, You'll Learn Not to Cry, 102-103.
1121 Constitución Política de Colombia de 1991, con reformas hasta marzo 2005; accessed September 26, 2005, Article 67; available from http://www.publicadministration.net/political-database-of-the-americas/.
1122 Katarina Tomaeski, Report of the Special Rapporteur, para. 16.
1123 Katarina Tomaeski, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education on Her Mission to Colombia (1-10 October 2003), E/CN.4/2004/45/Add.2, United Nations Economic and Social Council, February 17, 2004, para. 15, 24, and 25; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/E.CN.4.2004.45.Add.2.En?Opendocument. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2005: Colombia, Section 5.
1124 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=51 (Gross and Net Enrolment Rations, Primary; accessed December 2005). For an explanation of gross primary enrollment and/or attendance rates that are greater than 100 percent, please see the definition of gross primary enrollment rates in the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
1125 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates.
1126 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=51 (School life expectancy, % of repeaters, survival rates; accessed December 2005).
1127 UNICEF, At a Glance: Colombia The Big Picture, n.d. 2005 [cited June 30, 2005]; available from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/colombia.html.
1128 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2005: Colombia, Section 2d. In the capital, displaced children do not have to pay enrollment fees for one year, but must pay fees for following years. Katarina Tomaeski, Report of the Special Rapporteur, para. 25.
1129 In 2004, 68 teachers were murdered and 17 were kidnapped. Presidential Program for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law, Informe Anual de Derechos Humanos y DIH 2004, Colombia, June 2005, 204-205; available from http://www.derechoshumanos.gov.co/modules.php?name=informacion&file=article&sid=501. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2005: Colombia, Sections 2a and 6a. See also Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict, Colombia's War on Children, 18-19.
1130 Constitución Política de Colombia, Article 44.
1131 Código del Menor, Decree No. 2737, (November 27, 1989), Articles 28 and 237-241; available from www.icbf.gov/co/espanol/normatividad2.asp.
1132 Ibid., Articles 238, 242, 243, 260, 261, and 264. In 2003, the MSP became responsible for carrying out the functions of the former Ministries of Labor and Health. See World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Loan in the Amount of US$86.4 Million to the Republic of Colombia for a Social Safety Net Project, 31880-CO, October 3, 2005, 2; available from http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/10/13/000090341_20051013094615/Rendered/PDF/31880.pdf.
1133 Código del Menor, Articles 262-263.
1134 Ibid., Article 245.
1135 Resolución No 004448: por la cual se desarrolla la facultad contenida en el numeral 23 del artículo 245 del Decreto 2737 de 1989 o Código del Menor, (December 2, 2005); available from http://www.minproteccionsocial.gov.co/MseContent/images/news/DocNewsNo648901.doc. See also Código del Menor, Articles 262-263.
1136 Resolución 004448, Article 1.
1137 Ibid., Article 2.
1138 Código del Menor, Article 242.
1139 Ibid., Article 246.
1140 Ibid., Article 247.
1141 ILO-IPEC official, email communication to USDOL official, November 14, 2005.
1142 Constitución Política de Colombia, Article 17.
1143 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report, Washington, D.C., June 3, 2005; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/46613.htm. See also U.S. Embassy Bogota, reporting, December 5, 2005.
1144 Código Penal, (July 24, 2000), Articles 213, 214, and 216;. available from http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/compendio_legislativo.HTM.
1145 Ibid., Article 217.
1146 Ibid., Article 218.
1147 Law 679, (August 4, 2001), Article 34; available from http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/leyes/L0679001.
1148 Decree 1524, (July 24, 2002); available from http://www.i-uris.com/leyes/dec/1524.htm. See also Law 679, Articles 9-10.
1149 Law 679, Articles 19-20.
1150 Código Penal, Article 141.
1151 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report. See also Resolución 004448, Article 1, 9.1.
1152 Código Penal, Article 162.
1153 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report.
1154 Ley 782, (December 23), Article 15; available from http://www.altocomisionadparalapaz.gov.co/juridicos/ley_782.pdf.
1155 Ley 975, (July 25), Article 10; available from http://www.presidencia.gov.co/leyes/2005/julio/ley975250705.pdf. See also Decreto 4760, (December 30), Article 3; available from www.altocomisionadoparalapaz.gov.co/noticias/2006/enero/documentos/decreto4760.pdf.
1156 Constitución Política de Colombia, Article 17.
1157 U.S. Department of State, Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2004: Colombia, Washington, D.C., February 28, 2005, Section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41754.htm.
1158 Ibid., Section 5.
1159 Decreto 4760, Article 3, para. 3.
1160 U.S. Embassy Bogota, reporting, October 10, 2001.
1161 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2005.
1162 National Planning Department, Plan Nacional de Desarrollo 2002-2006: Hacia un Estado Comunitario, Bogota, 2003, 209; available from http://www.presidencia.gov.co/documentos/PND.pdf.
1163 Government of Colombia, Plan Decenal de infancia (2004-2015) para Colombia; available from www.icbf.gov.co/espanol/decenal.htm.
1164 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004: Colombia, Section 6d.
1165 Interinstitutional Committee for the Eradication of Child Labor and Protection of the Youth Worker, III Plan Nacional para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y la Protección del Trabajo Juvenil 2003-2006, ILO, Bogotá, 2003, 51-52.
1166 Government of Colombia, Documento DOL "Peores formas de trabajo infantil", submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (July 25, 2005) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor", Washington, D.C., August 25, 2005, Annex 5, "Avances de Tercer Plan Nacional Para La Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y La Protección de Trabajo Juvenil 2003-2006: Informe 2004", 18, 19, and 24.
1167 U.S. Embassy Bogota, reporting, August 25, 2004. See also ILO-IPEC official, email communication to USDOL official, November 8, 2005.
1168 ILO, Ratifications by Country; accessed December 16, 2005, [database online] [cited May 28, 2004]; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newratframeE.htm.
1169 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004: Colombia, Section 5. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report.
1170 IOM, Programmes and Projects: Excombatant children, [online] n.d. [cited January 9, 2006]; available from http://www.oim.org.co/modulos/contenido/default.asp?idmodulo=145.
1171 Human Rights Watch, You'll Learn Not to Cry, 113-114.
1172 ILO-IPEC, Prevention and Reintegration of Children Involved in Armed Conflict: An Inter-Regional Program, project document, Geneva, September 17, 2003.
1173 U.S. Embassy Bogota, reporting, December 5, 2005.
1174 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004: Colombia, Section 5. See also U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2005.
1175 U.S. Embassy Bogota, reporting, December 5, 2005.
1176 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2005. See also IOM, "COLOMBIA Migrant Information Center", [online], February 20, 2004; available from http://www.iom.int/en/archive/PBN200204.shtml.
1177 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report 2005.
1179 U.S. Embassy Bogota, reporting, December 5, 2005.
1180 ILO-IPEC, Prevention and Elimination of CDL and CSEC, project document, 68 and 72.
1181 ECPAT International CSEC Database, (Colombia; accessed June 30, 2005).
1182 ICBF, "PEPTIMA, un ejemplo para las comunidades mineras," Diálogos, July 2005, 8; available from http://www.oit.org.pe/spanish/260ameri/oitreg/activid/proyectos/ipec/documentos/bol_min_col_icbf.pdf.
1183 World Vision, Combating Exploitive Child Labor Through Education in Colombia, project document, Washington, D.C., 2005.
1184 Katarina Tomaeski, Report of the Special Rapporteur, para. 12 and 18.
1185 Ministerio de Educación, Grafica de Indicadores Generales del Proyecto, [online] [cited June 30, 2005]; available from http://www.mineducacion.gov.co/documentos/proyectos.asp?s=7.
1186 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004: Colombia, Section 2a.
1187 The loan will provide cash payments to families from December 2005 to December 2006. See World Bank, Project Appraisal Document on a Proposed Loan in the Amount of US$86.4 Million to the Republic of Colombia for a Social Safety Net Project, 7-8.
1188 The USD 40 million, 5-year, 8-month loan was awarded in 2000. See World Bank, Rural Education Project, [online] [cited June 1, 2004]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=104231&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projecti d=P050578.
1189 This USD 21.4 million, 5-year loan was funded in 2003. World Bank, Cundimarca Education Quality Improvement [sic], [online] [cited June 30, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=104231&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projecti d=P077757.