2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tonga
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||31 August 2007|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Tonga, 31 August 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d74957c.html [accessed 20 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor|
|Percent of children 5-14 estimated as working:||Unavailable|
|Minimum age for admission to work:||Unavailable|
|Age to which education is compulsory:||144121|
|Free public education:||Yes4122*|
|Gross primary enrollment rate in 2004:||115%4123|
|Net primary enrollment rate in 2001:||96%4124|
|Percent of children 5-14 attending school in 2001:||Unavailable|
|As of 2000, percent of primary school entrants likely to reach grade 5:||92%4125|
|Ratified Convention 138:||Non-ILO member|
|Ratified Convention 182:||Non-ILO member|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||No4126|
|* Must pay school fees at the secondary level.|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
There are no reports of child labor existing in the formal or informal economy. During 2006, there were increased reports of workers on foreign fishing vessels soliciting underage girls for prostitution.4127
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
Tonga does not have legislation setting the minimum age for work.4128 The law prohibits slavery, which can be interpreted to include forced or bonded labor.4129 The owning and/or operating of a brothel, pimping, and soliciting in a public place are all prohibited by the law. Penalties for offenses range from imprisonment from 6 months to 2 years.4130 The law also prohibits any person from assaulting a child in an indecent manner, abducting girls, and procuring or attempting to procure any girl under the age of 21 for trafficking for prostitution. The maximum punishment for these offenses is imprisonment for up to 5 years.4131 There is no military conscription in Tonga.4132
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
Development policy in Tonga is currently being guided by the Strategic Development Plan Eight (2006-2009). Among other goals, the plan targets vulnerable groups for assistance, including children and youth, and focuses on improving educational standards.4133
4121 Paula Bloomfield, Kingdom of Tonga on the Occasion of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Children, New York, May 8-10, 2002; available from www.un.org/ga/children/tongaE.htm.
4122 Ibid. See also U.S. Department of State, "Tonga," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2006, Washington, DC, March 6, 2007, Section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78793.htm.
4123 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, March 1, 2007.
4126 ILO, IPEC Action Against Child Labour: Highlights 2006, Geneva, October 2006, 29; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/20061018_Implementationreport_eng.pdf.
4127 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Tonga," Sections 5, 6d. See also Ministry of Finance Statistics Department, Report on the Tonga Labour Force Survey 2003, Nuku'alofa, April 2004, 36. See also End Child Labor, Child Labor Information Bank: Tonga, [online] n.d. [cited October 16, 2006]; available from http://www.endchildlabor.org/db_infoBank.cfm. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, Tonga, accessed October 16, 2006; available from http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp.
4128 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Tonga," Section 6d.
4129 Government of Tonga, Constitution of Tonga, (1988), Article 2.
4130 Government of Tonga, Criminal Offenses Act, (1988), Articles 80-81.
4131 Ibid., 125-126, 129.
4132 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Tonga," in Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/resources/global-reports?root_id=159&category_id=165.
4133 Kingdom of Tonga, Strategic Development Plan Eight 2006-2009: Looking to the Future, Building on the Past, 5, 46, 100, 106; available from http://www.tonga-now.to/Resource.aspx?ID=1754.