2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Croatia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||27 August 2008|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Croatia, 27 August 2008, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48caa46ac.html [accessed 20 September 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor967|
|Working children, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working boys, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working girls, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working children by sector, 5-14 years (%):|
|Minimum age for work:||15|
|Compulsory education age:||14|
|Free public education:||Yes|
|Gross primary enrollment rate (%), 2003:||94|
|Net primary enrollment rate (%), 2003:||87|
|School attendance, children 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Survival rate to grade 5 (%):||–|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||No|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Children in Croatia work in the entertainment, hospitality, tourism, retail, industrial, agricultural, construction, and media sectors.968 Trafficking is a problem.969 In the past Croatia was generally a country of transit; however, increasingly it is becoming a source and destination country for girls trafficked for prostitution.970
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The minimum age for employment is 15; however, children younger than 15 years may participate in artistic endeavors, for which they are compensated, with a labor inspector's approval provided that the assignment does not threaten their morals or interfere with school.971 Children 15 to 18 years old may only work with written permission from a legal guardian and labor inspector, assuming that the work is not harmful to the child's health, morality, education, or development.972 If a labor inspector feels a job being performed by a minor is harming the health of the child the inspector can order a physical exam and can prohibit the minor from performing the job.973 Children under 18 years are prohibited from working overtime, at night, and under dangerous labor conditions.974 Under Croatian law, anyone forcing minors to beg or perform work inappropriate for their age can be penalized with 3 months to 3 years of imprisonment.975
Forced and compulsory labor is prohibited.976 Trafficking in persons is a separate criminal act for which the law stipulates a minimum prison sentence of 5 years with a maximum of 15 years when a child or a minor is involved.977 The minimum age for conscription into the military is 18.978
The law prohibits international solicitation and prostitution of a minor for sexual purposes, calling for between 1 and 10 years of imprisonment for violations. The law also stipulates 1 to 5 years of imprisonment for using children for pornographic purposes.979
The Ministry of Economy, Labor, and Entrepreneurship collaborates with the Ombudsman for Children and the State Labor Inspectorate to enforce minimum age laws.980 As of December 2007, the Inspectorate had 102 inspectors who are responsible for enforcing all labor laws including child labor.981 The Ombudsman for Children coordinates government efforts to promote and protect the interests of children, and is obligated to report any findings of exploitation to the State's Attorney's Office.982 It has increased efforts to investigate and prosecute trafficking crimes, and has increased the amount of trafficking training that government officials receive.983
During the reporting period, the Government doubled the number of trafficking convictions and reduced its use of suspended sentences for convicted traffickers.984
Current Government Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Government launched the 2006-2012 National Program for the Protection of the Best Interests of Children to prevent and protect children from sexual abuse, including commercial sexual exploitation.985 During the reporting period, the Government of Croatia also implemented its National Programme for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons 2005-2008, a 2005-2007 National Plan for the Suppression of Trafficking in Children, and a 2006 action plan for trafficking through a national committee and civil society organizations.986 The Government allocated almost USD 2 million to its anti-trafficking regime in 2007.987 The Government has provided funds and support for anti-trafficking public awareness campaigns, a national referral system, victim identification, shelters, and legal, medical, and psychological services for victims as well as educational and vocational training. The Government continued law enforcement training and Croatian police forces have included anti-trafficking as part of the academy's curriculum.988 The Government also works with international organizations to assist trafficking victims and cooperates with other governments in the region.989
Through July 2007, Croatia participated in a Government of Germany-funded regional program implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat the worst forms of child labor in the Stability Pact Countries.990
967 For statistical data not cited here, please see the Data Sources and Definitions section. For data on ratifications and ILO-IPEC membership, please see the Executive Summary. For minimum age for admission to work, age to which education is compulsory, and free public education, see Government of Croatia, Labour Act of 2004 (No. 137/2004), article 21(1); available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/SERIAL/41244/72720/F484034153/HRV41244.PDF. See also UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Ending Age of Compulsory Education, accessed March 18, 2008; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/. See also Government of Croatia, Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, (December 1990, as amended on April 2, 2001), article 65; available from http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/hr00000_.html.
968 U.S. Department of State, "Croatia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2007, Washington, DC, March 11, 2008, section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100553.htm.
969 U.S. Embassy Official-Zagreb, E-mail communication to USDOL official, August 1 2007.
970 U.S. Department of State, "Croatia (Tier 2 Watch List)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007, Washington, DC, June 23, 2007; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007/.
971 Government of Croatia, Labour Act of 2004, article 21(2).
972 Ibid., articles 22(1), 22(5), and 23(1).
973 ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request on the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Croatia (ratification: 2001), [online] 2007 [cited December 14, 2007]; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/pdconv.pl?host=status01&textbase=iloeng&document=20448&chapter=9&query=%28Croatia%29+%40ref&hi ghlight=&querytype=bool&context=0.
974 Government of Croatia, Labour Act of 2004, articles 23(1), 41(5), and 62(3). See also Safety and Health Protection at the Workplace Act, 1996, (June 28, 1996), section 40; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/45063/65037/E96HRV01.htm.
975 ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request, Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Croatia (ratification: 2001), [online] 2005 [cited December 14, 2007]; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/.
976 Government of Croatia, Constitution, article 23.
977 U.S. Embassy – Zagreb, reporting, August 27, 2004.
978 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Croatia," In Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, 2004, 231; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=966.
979 Government of Croatia, "Croatia," in Legislation of Interpol Member States on Sexual Offences against Children, 2006; available from http://www.interpol.int/public/children/sexualabuse/nationallaws/csaCroatia.asp.
980 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Croatia," section 6d.
981 U.S. Embassy – Zagreb, reporting, March 1, 2007.
982 Government of Croatia, Law on the Ombudsman for Children, (May 29, 2003), article 2; available from http://www.crin.org/Law/instrument.asp?InstID=1145.
983 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007: Croatia."
984 U.S. Department of State, "Croatia (Tier 1)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2008, Washington, DC, June 4, 2008; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2008/.
985 U.S. Embassy – Zagreb, reporting, December 19, 2006.
986 Government of Croatia, National Programme for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons 2005-2008, National Committee for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, Zagreb, 2004; available from http://www.ljudskapravavladarh.hr/Download/2005/03/30/Dosta-eng.pdf. See also Government of Croatia, National Plan for the Suppression of Trafficking in Children October 2005-December 2007, National Committee for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, Zagreb, 2005; available from http://www.ljudskapravavladarh.hr/Download/2006/01/31/NACIONALNI_PROGRAM_ZA_SUZBIJANJE_TRGOVANJA_DJECOMENG-MD.doc. See also Government of Croatia, Action Plan for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons for 2006, National Committee for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, Zagreb; available from http://www.ljudskapravavladarh.hr/Download/2006/01/31/OPERATIVNI_PLAN_za_suzbijanje_trgovanja_ljudima_engl.doc. See also Government of Croatia, OSCE 2006 Human Dimension Implementation Meeting: Trafficking in Human Beings, Office for Human Rights, Warsaw, October 3, 2006.
987 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2008: Croatia."
988 Ibid., U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007: Croatia."
989 OHCHR UNICEF, OCSE/ODIHR, Barbara Limanowska, Trafficking in Human Beings in South Eastern Europe: 2004 – Focus on Prevention, UNDP, New York City, March 2005, 136-137 and 215; available from http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/Trafficking.Report.2005.pdf. See also U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007: Croatia."
990 ILO-IPEC official, E-mail communication to USDOL official, December 12, 2007.