U.S. Department of State 2001 Trafficking in Persons Report - The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
|Publisher||United States Department of State|
|Author||Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons|
|Publication Date||12 July 2001|
|Cite as||United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State 2001 Trafficking in Persons Report - The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, 12 July 2001, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4680d788c.html [accessed 31 January 2015]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Tier 3)
NOTE: The report on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is discussed in three separate sections on Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro and addresses the trafficking situations in each of these entities. Since federal authority was exercised effectively only over the Republic of Serbia throughout the year, the human rights situations in Kosovo and Montenegro are dealt with in separate sections following this report.
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is a transit and destination country for women trafficked from Eastern Europe, especially Romania, and the New Independent States, including Moldova, Ukraine, and Russia. According to an International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights report, women often are trafficked to Belgrade, from where they are then taken to other parts of Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, Greece, Germany, the Netherlands, and other Western European countries, often for sexual exploitation.
Serbia is also a source country for women trafficked to Italy, Greece, Cyprus, Germany, and the Netherlands. There are reports that Roma women and children also are trafficked to Italy, where the females are used in the sex industry and the male children for begging and stealing. The Yugoslav Government, the Serbian Government, and the Montenegrin Government, do not meet the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to combat trafficking. In Serbia no specific law prohibits trafficking; however, the criminal code prohibits the "illegal transport of others" across borders for "lucrative purposes," and recruiting, inducing, inciting, or luring females into prostitution. Penalties range from 3 months to 5 years in prison and the confiscation of property, and 10 years if the victim is underage. There were no reports of individuals prosecuted for trafficking. The Government provides for no prevention or protection measures. A very small number of NGO's deal with trafficking; public awareness of the problem is low. While the regime of former President Slobodan Milosevic showed little interest in addressing the trafficking problem, the current Yugoslav and Serbian Republic authorities are cooperating to reform border policing in order to combat trafficking.
Montenegro is a transit point for trafficked women and children. Some reports also indicate that it is a destination point. Women are trafficked mainly from Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, Bosnia, and Russia, often through Belgrade and on to Western European countries and Kosovo. Some women also are trafficked through Montenegro to Albania and then on to Western European countries. There have been allegations, denied by the Montenegrin Government, that some Montenegrin authorities have colluded in trafficking. The Montenegrin Criminal Code does not specifically address trafficking in persons. The Montenegrin Government has appointed an official coordinator for trafficking issues, and has adopted an action plan, which includes the organization of special police teams trained in dealing with trafficking and victims of violence.
The U.N. Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), which administers Kosovo under U.N. Security Council Resolution 1244, is aware of the serious problems that exist in Kosovo concerning trafficking and is working to conduct anti-trafficking efforts.