Last Updated: Thursday, 18 September 2014, 13:28 GMT

2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 29 August 2006
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan, 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d749011b.html [accessed 19 September 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments
Ratified Convention 138 
Ratified Convention 182     10/11/2001
ILO-IPEC Member
National Plan for Children 
National Child Labor Action Plan
Sector Action Plan (Bonded Labor)

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

Statistics on the number of working children under age 15 in Pakistan are unavailable.3538 The majority of working children are located in rural areas3539 and engaged in agricultural activities. In urban areas, children mainly work in the informal sector in activities such as street vending, domestic work, auto repair, construction, and assisting in family businesses.3540 Children working on the streets and in private homes are especially vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse.3541 Children are also employed in several hazardous sectors, including leather tanning; mining and quarrying; deep-sea fishing; brick-making; rag-picking; carpet-weaving; manufacturing of surgical instruments and glass bangles; and other manufacturing work that involves exposure to dangerous machinery, electrical wires, and toxic, explosive, or carcinogenic chemicals.3542 Bonded child labor is still reported to exist in Pakistan in agriculture and in the mining, brick, and carpet-weaving industries, among others.3543 The commercial sexual exploitation of both boys and girls also continues to be a problem.3544 Child labor is one of many problems associated with poverty. In 1998, the most recent year for which data are available, 13.4 percent of the population in Pakistan were living on less than USD 1 a day.3545

Boys studying in certain madrassas, or religious schools, are recruited, often forcibly, as child soldiers to fight with Islamic militants in Afghanistan and Pakistani-administered Kashmir.3546 There are reports of girls being used by Pakistani armed groups as well.3547 Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for child trafficking.3548 Girls, primarily from Bangladesh, India, Burma, Afghanistan, Iran, and various Central Asian countries, are trafficked into Pakistan for the purposes of sexual exploitation, begging, domestic service, and bonded labor. Children are trafficked internally for commercial sexual exploitation and other types of exploitative labor, and Pakistani children are trafficked to Middle Eastern countries, Turkey, and Greece for domestic service, bonded labor, and other purposes.3549 Recent attention by NGOs and the media and stronger government enforcement have reduced the number of Pakistani boys that are trafficked to Gulf countries to serves as camel jockeys, but the practice persists.3550

On October 8, 2005, a powerful earthquake struck parts of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. In Pakistan the provinces of northern Punjab, Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), and Pakistani-administered Kashmir were particularly hard-hit, with over 73,000 people killed, over 69,000 injured, and 2.8 million left homeless.3551 According to UNICEF, over half of those killed were children, 17,000 of them in collapsed school buildings in NWFP and Pakistani-administered Kashmir. Thousands of child survivors were orphaned or separated from their families, making them more vulnerable to trafficking and other forms of exploitative child labor.3552 There were reports that increased numbers of children in the affected areas were working in such activities as domestic service and delivery of goods.3553

Some provinces mandate basic education, with varying age requirements, but the federal government has not made basic education compulsory.3554 The Constitution stipulates that the government "shall remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within a minimum possible period."3555 Public education is officially free, but students are often charged fees for books, supplies, and uniforms. Rural children often do not have access to schools, and in urban areas many public schools suffer from low education quality and lack of facilities, leading parents to opt for madrassas or other private schools.3556 Even before the earthquake, low levels of public spending on education resulted in poor performance on many education indicators, including literacy and gender disparity.3557 In 2002, the gross primary enrollment rate was 68 percent and in 2000, the most recent year for which data are available, the net primary enrollment rate was 59 percent.3558 Gross and net enrollment rates are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and, therefore, do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. Primary school attendance statistics are not available for Pakistan.3559

The earthquake demolished the majority of the primary and secondary schools in the region – an estimated 10,000 schools – and school books and supplies were also destroyed. In Muzaffarabad, the capital of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir and the closest city to the quake's epicenter, all of the schools collapsed.3560 Many teachers were also killed. Some schools have reopened, and some are operating in makeshift tents,3561 but rebuilding permanent structures will take years.3562

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

The Constitution prohibits employment of children below the age of 14 years in factories, mines, or other hazardous occupations.3563 The Factories Act of 1934, Shops and Establishments Ordinance of 1969, and the Mines Act of 1923 prohibit the employment of children in certain hazardous situations and processes.3564 The Employment of Children Act of 1991 prohibits the employment of children under age 15 in 6 specific occupations and 14 specific processes deemed hazardous or exploitative, including working on trains or in railway stations, carpet-weaving, building, and manufacturing cement, explosives, and other products that involve the use of toxic substances.3565 The Act also prohibits overtime and night work by children (after 7 p.m.); limits the workday of a child to 7 hours; requires a 1-hour break after 3 hours of work and at least one day of rest per week for children; and requires employers to maintain a register of working children. However, children working in family-run enterprises are excluded from these provisions.3566 The 1995 Employment of Children Rules detail employers' requirements for maintaining minimum standards of health and safety in a child's working environment.3567

The worst forms of child labor may be prosecuted under different statutes in Pakistan. Forced labor is prohibited by the Constitution and by the Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act of 1992, and those found in violation can face 2 to 5 years of imprisonment and fines of 50,000 rupees (approximately USD 838).3568 The Constitution and the Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking and Smuggling Ordinance of 2002 prohibit trafficking in persons, and the Ordinance assigns strict penalties for individuals or groups found guilty of engaging in or profiting from such activities.3569 The Zina (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance prohibits enticing, leading away, concealing, or detaining a female of any age for the purpose of a sexual act.3570 The Penal Code also criminalizes the procuring of a minor for prostitution, punishable by a fine and up to 10 years of imprisonment, and kidnapping or abduction of a minor under 10 years old, punishable by imprisonment or capital punishment.3571 The law does not specifically prohibit child pornography, but the Penal Code prohibits circulation of any obscene material, with violations subject to fines and up to 3 months of imprisonment.3572 There is no compulsory conscription into the Pakistani armed forces. The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 16 years for technical services only, and 17 years to serve in combat.3573 In December 2005, President Musharraf issued an ordinance containing specific accountability requirements for madrassas in the federal capital, in an effort to combat the promotion of militancy in certain religious schools.3574

Since 1999, the Government of Pakistan has submitted to the ILO a list or an equivalent document identifying the types of work that it has determined are harmful to the health, safety or morals of children under Convention 182 or Convention 138.3575 With technical assistance from ILO-IPEC, the Ministry of Labor convened a tripartite committee in September 2002 that identified 29 occupations as hazardous for workers under age 18, including mining, stone crushing, ship breaking, deep-sea fishing, manufacturing glass bangles, fireworks, and tobacco, work with heavy machinery or live electrical wires, and work between the hours of 10 p.m. and 8 a.m.3576

Child labor laws are enforced by provincial governments through the labor inspectorate system,3577 and violations can result in a maximum 1-year prison term and/or a fine of 20,000 rupees (approximately USD 335).3578 However, the U.S. Department of State reports that enforcement of these laws is weak due to an inadequate number of inspectors, lack of training and resources, corruption, and the exclusion of many small businesses from the inspectorate's jurisdiction. Employers found in violation of child labor laws often are not penalized, or the fines levied by the courts are too low to act as a deterrent.3579 The Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) has primary responsibility for enforcing trafficking-related laws.3580 According to the U.S. Department of State, Pakistan has made significant recent improvements in enforcement, with higher numbers of trafficking-related case registrations, arrests, court cases, and convictions.3581

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Since 2000 the Government of Pakistan and provincial-level governments have been implementing a National Policy and Action Plan to Combat Child Labor (NPPA) that calls for immediate eradication of the worst forms of child labor and the progressive elimination of child labor from all sectors of employment. The NPPA further seeks to prevent children from entering the work force by offering educational alternatives.3582 The government's 2003 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) reiterates the government's commitment to the NPPA, and incorporates the reduction of child labor into its target-setting process.3583 The National Commission for Child Welfare and Development is coordinating the National Project on the Rehabilitation of Child Laborers, which is focused on withdrawing children from hazardous employment and providing rehabilitative services.3584 The project is being implemented by "Pakistan Bait-up-Mal," an agency of the Ministry of Social Welfare, which was operating over 100 National Centers for the Rehabilitation of Child Labor as of February 2005. The centers assist in removing children from hazardous work environments and providing non-formal education; school uniforms and other clothing; books; medical care; stipends to children; and stipends to families for income generation activities.3585

The provincial Labor Departments of Punjab, Sindh and NWFP have established Child Labor Resource Centers, and the provincial government of Balochistan has established a Child Labor Vigilance Cell, each for the purposes of providing a focal point for information and data on child labor; forging networks of social partners to combat child labor; and working with the media to disseminate information on efforts to combat child labor.3586 Punjab has also established a Child Protection Welfare Bureau to provide protective and rehabilitative services to street children and many of the trafficked child camel jockeys who have been repatriated from the Middle East.3587

The National Committee on Abolition of Bonded Labor and Rehabilitation of Freed Bonded Laborers oversees the implementation of the National Policy and Plan of Action for the Abolition of Bonded Labor,3588 with support from the ILO.3589 The government has established a fund of 100 million rupees (approximately USD 1.7 million) to educate working children and freed bonded laborers; three new projects were approved from this fund in May, 2005.3590 With support from IOM, the FIA has trained Anti-Trafficking Unit staff to identify and investigate trafficking cases.3591 Also in collaboration with IOM, the government has trained law enforcement officials at national and provincial levels to recognize, apprehend, and prosecute traffickers; piloted a model shelter for trafficking victims under Islamabad Capitol Police protection; and implemented public awareness-raising campaigns on trafficking.3592 In 2005, the FIA established a task force to focus on human trafficking in border and coastal areas.3593

In 2005, the Ministry of Labor, Manpower, and Overseas Pakistanis signed a 5-year extension of its Memorandum of Understanding with ILO-IPEC, through 2009.3594 The government is participating in a USDOL-funded ILO-IPEC Time-Bound Program through 2007, designed to remove and rehabilitate child workers from several target sectors including glass bangle manufacturing, surgical instrument manufacturing, tanning, coal mining, scavenging, deep-sea fishing, and seafood processing.3595 In addition, with support from the Swiss, Norwegian, Italian, German, and Danish governments and other donors, ILO-IPEC is implementing several other child labor projects in Pakistan. These include targeted projects to assist vulnerable groups such as trafficked children, child domestic workers, and children in the carpet-weaving sector, and a project that utilizes the electronic and print media to raise awareness of child labor.3596 With support from USDOL, Save the Children-UK is implementing two child labor projects in collaboration with the government. The first is the USD 5 million "Addressing Child Labor through Quality Education for All" project, which aims to withdraw children from hazardous labor in Punjab province and provide them with education and training.3597 The second is the USD 4 million "Mitigating Child Labor through Education" project, which aims to withdraw children from hazardous work and provide educational services in the provinces of Balochistan, NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).3598

Immediately following the October 2005 earthquake, the government and international organizations took steps to prevent vulnerable children from falling into exploitative child labor. A 6-month ban on the adoption of children was imposed, and relocation of children from the affected zones was restricted.3599 The Ministry of Social Welfare (MOSW) established Child Care and Rehabilitation centers with the capacity to provide shelter, education, health care, and psychosocial services to 3,800 quake-affected children. UNICEF is working with MOSW to register all children in emergency settlements in the affected areas. MOSW is further collaborating with the National Database Registration Authority, as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross and other NGOs, on a comprehensive strategy to find missing children and to assist children who were orphaned, injured, and separated from their families in the disaster.3600 In addition to committing over USD 63 million in earthquake humanitarian assistance and relief,3601 USAID funded the International Rescue Committee to implement child protection programs in certain quake-affected areas.3602 The ILO integrated child protection programs into its earthquake response, to prevent children from being trafficked or from falling into hazardous work.3603

In 2003, the Ministry of Education set a goal of universal primary education by 2015 as part of its National Plan of Action for Education for All (EFA). The National Plan of Action makes primary education its top priority, and its objectives include improving basic education quality, promoting community participation in basic education, and reaching disadvantaged populations, particularly out-of-school and illiterate girls.3604

Administration of the Pakistani education system is largely carried out at the provincial and district levels.3605 Punjab, Pakistan's most populous province, has actively pursued an Education Sector Reform (ESR) program, continuing efforts to improve education access, quality, and governance and to stem the flow of dropouts. Efforts include providing free textbooks; hiring 29,000 additional teachers and over 30,000 support teachers; providing stipends for girls in primary school and for parents of female students; and renovating schools.3606 In 2004, the Punjabi government provided free school books to primary school children grades 1 to 5, resulting in 13 percent increased enrollment; books will be provided through grade 8 for the coming school year.3607 Further, in light of ongoing critical needs in its education system, in March, 2005, the World Bank announced a credit of USD 100 million to Punjab to enhance quality and access to education, strengthen education system accountability, and strengthen parental participation.3608 The provincial governments of NWFP and Balochistan have begun work to replicate Punjab's successful ESR model.3609 In addition, the ADB is supporting projects to restructure technical and vocational training in NWFP and Balochistan.3610

In an effort to rehabilitate the education system after the earthquake, the Pakistani Army and relief organizations instituted makeshift schools in temporary shelters. USAID also continued to fund a number of initiatives focused on the education sector. These include a 5-year, USD 60 million bilateral agreement with the government to implement programs to support Education Sector Reform and increase access to quality education, with a particular focus on the Balochistan and Sindh provinces,3611 and a project cofinanced with the Government of Japan to construct 130 public schools in the FATA.3612


3538 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section.

3539 Government of Pakistan, Information on Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (July 25, 2005) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor", Islamabad, August 15, 2005.

3540 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2004: Pakistan, Washington, D.C., February 28, 2005, Section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41743.htm. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour. News reports indicate that the problem of children working in auto workshops is particularly acute in Peshawar, North West Frontier Province. See IRINnews, "Child labour still widespread in NWFP", IRINnews.org, [online], October 13, 2004 [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=43644&SelectRegion=Central_Asia&SelectCountry=PAKISTAN. See also Sohail Ahmed, "Rough ride for Pakistan's boy-mechanics", BBC News online, [online], September 30, 2003 [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/3139382.stm.

3541 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Pakistan, October 27, 2003, Paragraph 69; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.15.Add.217.En?OpenDocument.

3542 U.S. Department of State, Country Report – 2004: Pakistan, Section 6d. See also ILO-IPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Pakistan, project document, Geneva, September 17, 2003, 9, Table 2.1.

3543 U.S. Department of State, Country Report – 2004: Pakistan, Sections 5 and 6d. See also Anti-Slavery International, The Enslavement of Dalit and Indigenous Communities in India, Nepal and Pakistan through Debt Bondage, London, 2001; available from http://www.antislavery.org/homepage/resources/goonesekere.pdf. See also Ahmad Saleem, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in Pakistan's Mining Sector, ILO, Geneva, March, 2004; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2583.

3544 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Pakistan, Washington, D.C., June 3, 2005; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/46614.htm. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp (Pakistan; accessed June 28, 2005).

3545 World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 [CD-ROM], Washington, DC, 2005.

3546 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC Concluding Observations (2003), Paragraphs 62, 67. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, November 17, 2004; available from http://www.childsoldiers.org/resources/global-reports. See also U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Hearing on U.S. Ratification of the Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Testimony of Jo Becker, Human Rights Watch, March 7, 2002; available from http://www.hrw.org/press/2002/03/childsoldiers0307.htm.

3547 Save the Children UK, Girls and Conflict – Forgotten Casualties of War, London, April 27, 2005, I; available from http://www.rb.se/NR/rdonlyres/C0A44378-E6CE-4C74-9EF5-535E673B8FD1/0/GirlsandConflictForgottencasualtiesofwar.pdf.

3548 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Pakistan. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, (Pakistan).

3549 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Pakistan. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005.

3550 Reports indicate that some trafficked children are as young as 3 years of age. U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Pakistan. See also IRINnews, "Focus on rehabilitation of child camel jockeys", IRINnews.org, [online], June 23, 2005 [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http:www.irinnews.org/report.asp?reportID=47783&SelectRegion=Asia.

3551 Death and injury estimates are those of the Government of Pakistan; homeless estimates provided by IOM. USAID, South Asia – Earthquake fact sheet, Washington, D.C., December 8, 2005; available from http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/south_asia_quake/pdf/12.08.05_south_asia_earthquake_fs29.pdf. UNICEF estimated the death toll at 86,000. See IRINnews, "Interview with UNICEF country representative, Dr. Omar Abdi", IRINnews.org, [online], November 9, 2005 [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=50025.

3552 IRINnews, "Interview with UNICEF representative". See also Basic Education Coalition, After the Earthquake: Pakistan's Affected Children and Schools, Washington, D.C., October, 2005. See also En-Lai Yeoh, "Pakistan Earthquake Orphans Thousands", Guardian Unlimited online, [online], October 18, 2005; available from http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,1280,5352482,00.html.

3553 Suzanna Koster, "UNICEF fears increased child labour in quake area", AlertNet.org, [online], December 6, 2005 [cited December 8, 2005]; available from http://www.alertnet.org/printable.htm?URL=/thenews/newsdesk/ISL254340.htm.

3554 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Second Periodic Reports of States Parties: Pakistan, April 11, 2003, para. 62; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.65.Add.21.En?OpenDocument. See also UNESCO, Education: National legislation, UNESCO, [online] n.d. [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=12388&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. See also Sindh Education Department, Compulsory Primary Education, Government of Sindh, [online] n.d. [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://www.sindhedu.gov.pk/Links/cpe.htm.

3555 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, (1973), Article 37; available from http://www.pakistani.org/pakistan/constitution/part2.ch2.html.

3556 U.S. Department of State, Country Report – 2004: Pakistan, Section 5.

3557 IRINnews, "Bottom of the class – new Asian education report", IRINnews.org, [online], July 14, 2005 [cited September 23, 2005]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=48131. See also IRINnews, "Low public spending equals low levels of health and education development – report", IRINnews.org, [online], November 2, 2004 [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=43960.

3558 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=51 (Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios, Primary; accessed December 2005).

3559 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used. For a more detailed discussion on the relationship between education statistics and work, see the preface to this report.

3560 Koster, "Increased child labour in quake area." Some Pakistani citizens' groups have attributed the number of collapsed schools to misallocation of resources in school construction projects. See David Montero, "The Pakistan quake: Why 10,000 schools collapsed," The Christian Science Monitor (Boston), November 8, 2005; available from http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/1108/p01s03-wosc.htm.

3561 Koster, "Increased child labour in quake area."

3562 IRINnews, "Interview with UNICEF representative."

3563 Constitution of Pakistan, Chapter 1, Article 11(3).

3564 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, October 7, 2005. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour.

3565 Employment of Children Act, (June 4, 1991), Sections 2 and 3 (I, II); available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/22707/64834/E91PAK01.htm. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child has expressed concern over variable and contradictory definitions of a "child" in various Pakistani laws. See UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC Concluding Observations (2003), para. 27.

3566 Employment of Children Act, Sections 3, 7, 8, 11.

3567 Employment of Children Rules, (1995); available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/44242/65005/E95PAK01.htm.

3568 See also Bonded Labor System (Abolition) Act of 1992, as cited in ILO NATLEX National Labor Law Database, http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=PAK&p_classification=03&p_origin=COUNTRY (Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act of 1992 (abstract); accessed October 1, 2005). See also Constitution of Pakistan, Chapter I, Article 11 (2). See also ILO-IPEC, National Legislation and Policies Against Child Labour in Pakistan, [online] March 21, 2005 [cited June 29, 2005]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/newdelhi/ipec/responses/pakistan/national.htm. For currency conversion, see FXConverter, [database online] [cited June 30, 2005]; available from http://www.oanda.com/convert/classic.

3569 Constitution of Pakistan, Article 11(2). See also Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking and Smuggling Ordinance (No. 54 of 2002), as cited in U.S. Department of State, Country Report – 2004: Pakistan, Section 5. See also ILO-IPEC, National Legislation and Policies. Under the Ordinance, trafficking is punishable by fines and 7 to 14 years of imprisonment. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005.

3570 The term zina refers to sexual acts outside of marriage. The ordinance is part of a body of law known as the Hudood Ordinances, which also cover certain crimes against property. See (Enforcement of Hudood) Zina (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance, as cited in ECPAT International CSEC Database, (Pakistan). See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005. See also World Organization Against Torture, Rights of the Child in Pakistan: Report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Pakistan, Geneva, May, 2003; available from http://www.omct.org/pdf/cc/pakistan_report_09_2003_en.pdf. See also Amnesty International Asia-Pacific Regional Office, Hudood Ordinaces – The Crime And Punishment For Zina [sic], [online] n.d. [cited January 18, 2006]; available from http://asiapacific.amnesty.org/apro/APROweb.nsf/pages/svaw_hudoo.

3571 Pakistan Penal Code, Articles 372, 373, and 364(A), as cited in World Organization Against Torture, Rights of the Child in Pakistan. See also UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC Second Periodic Report of States Parties (2003), Paragraph 104. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, (Pakistan).

3572 ECPAT International CSEC Database, (Pakistan).

3573 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers 2004.

3574 Muralidhar Reddy, "More restrictions on madrasas", The Hindu online, [online], December 3, 2005 [cited December 9, 2005]; available from http://www.thehindu.com/2005/12/03/stories/2005120305611400.htm.

3575 ILO-IPEC official, email communication to USDOL official, November 14, 2005.

3576 ILO-IPEC, Time-Bound Program in Pakistan, project document, 34-35. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour. The National Committee on the Rights of the Child has recommended the inclusion of five additional sectors in the list, but the government has not yet approved any additions. See ILO-IPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Pakistan, technical progress report, Geneva, September 12, 2005, 2.

3577 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1.

3578 Employment of Children Act, Section 14. For currency conversion see FXConverter.

3579 U.S. Department of State, Country Report – 2004: Pakistan, Section 6d.

3580 Ibid., Section 5. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005.

3581 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Pakistan. Government and security officials have been implicated in trafficking and during 2004, 17 public officials were prosecuted and 3 FIA inspectors were arrested for involvement in facilitating trafficking. See U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005.

3582 Government of Pakistan, National Policy and Action Plan to Combat Child Labour, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis, Islamabad, May 20, 2000, 11. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour.

3583 ILO-IPEC, National Legislation and Policies.

3584 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, CRC Second Periodic Report of States Parties (2003), Paragraph 21. See also ILO-IPEC, National Legislation and Policies.

3585 ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Labor in the Carpet Industry in Pakistan – Phase II, technical progress report, Geneva, September 13, 2004, 3. See also ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Labor in the Carpet Industry in Pakistan – Phase II, technical progress report, Geneva, March 19, 2005, 2. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour.

3586 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour.

3587 ILO-IPEC, Timebound Programme, technical progress report (September 2005), 2.

3588 ILO-IPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Pakistan, Geneva, March 9, 2004, 3.

3589 ILO, Combating bonded labour in rural Pakistan, ILO, [online] September 14, 2004 [cited June 30, 2005]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/inf/features/04/pakistan.htm.

3590 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour. For currency conversion, see FXConverter.

3591 IOM staff, email communication to USDOL official, June 29, 2005. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Report – 2004: Pakistan, Section 5. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 11, 2005.

3592 IOM staff, email communication, June 29, 2005.

3593 ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Trafficking for Labor and Sexual Exploitation (TICSA Phase II), technical progress report, Geneva, September 12, 2005, 5.

3594 ILO-IPEC, Carpet Industry Project – Phase II, technical progress report (March 2005), 2.

3595 ILO-IPEC, Time-Bound Program in Pakistan, project document, 32, 77-79.

3596 ILO-IPEC, IPEC Action Against Child Labour: Highlights 2004, Geneva, February, 2005; available from http://www.ilo.org/iloroot/docstore/ipec/prod/eng/implementation_2004_en.pdf. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour.

3597 Save the Children – UK, Addressing Child Labour through Quality Education for All, technical progress report, London, September 10, 2005.

3598 International Child Labor Program, ICLP Projects Funded in FY 2005, U.S. Department of Labor, [online] n.d. [cited December 16, 2005]; available from http://www.dol.gov/ilab/programs/iclp/projectchart05.htm.

3599 IRINnews, "UNICEF and government start child registration", IRINnews.org, [online], November 1, 2005 [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/print.asp?ReportID=49883. See also Yeoh, "Earthquake Orphans".

3600 IRINnews, "Child registration."

3601 USAID, South Asia – Earthquake fact sheet.

3602 USAID, South Asia Earthquake 2005: Human Toll (map), USAID, [online] December 8, 2005 [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/south_asia_quake/pdf/USAID_pakistan_EQ_12.14.05.pdf.

3603 International Labor Organization, ILO helps Pakistan earthquake survivors find work and income, press release, Geneva, November 8, 2005; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/public/releases/yr2005/pr05_27.htm.

3604 Government of Pakistan, National Plan of Action on Education for All (2001-2015), Islamabad, August, 2002, Executive Summary and Part 2.1.2; available from http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/file_download.php/0e2791ddb4f9f4a0b56b89cd0dc49defPAKEFA.pdf. See also ILO IPEC, National Legislation and Policies.

3605 ILO-IPEC, Time-Bound Program in Pakistan, project document, 1, 18.

3606 ILO-IPEC, Carpet Industry Project – Phase II, technical progress report (March 2005), 4. See also IRINnews, "Focus on improving basic education in Punjab", IRINnews.org, [online], 2005 [cited April 11, 2005]; available from http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=46562&SelectRegion=Asia&SelectCountry=PAKISTAN.

3607 ILO-IPEC, Carpet Industry Project – Phase II, technical progress report (March 2005).

3608 World Bank, World Bank Approves US $100 Million to Enhance Quality an Access to Education in Punjab, World Bank Group, [online] March 29, 2005 [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,print:Y~isCURL:Y~contentMDK:20419533~menuPK:34470~pagePK: 34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html.

3609 Save the Children – UK, ACL-QEFA, technical progress report (September 2005), 4.

3610 ADB, Project Profiles: Pakistan; accessed June 30, 2005; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/ctry.asp?ctry=23.

3611 USAID, Education Sector Reform Assistance, USAID, [online] April 8, 2005 [cited June 30, 2005]; available from http://www.usaid.gov/pk/program_sectors/education/projects/education_sector_reform_assistance.shtml.

3612 USAID Pakistan, Update on USAID Activities in the Federally Administered Tribal Agencies (FATA), USAID, [online] July 15, 2005 [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://www.usaid.gov/pk/mission/news/fata.htm.

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