Last Updated: Wednesday, 30 July 2014, 07:28 GMT

2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 27 August 2008
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Pakistan, 27 August 2008, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48caa486c.html [accessed 30 July 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor2639
Working children, 10-14 years (%), 1999-2000:16.4
Working boys, 10-14 years (%), 1999-2000:15.8
Working girls, 10-14 years (%), 1999-2000:17.2
Working children by sector, 10-14 years (%), 1999-2000:
     – Agriculture78.1
     – Manufacturing7.1
     – Services13.4
     – Other1.4
Minimum age for work:14 in specified hazardous occupations
Compulsory education age:Varies by province
Free public education:No
Gross primary enrollment rate (%), 2005:86
Net primary enrollment rate (%), 2005:67
School attendance, children 10-14 years (%), 1999-2000:64.9
Survival rate to grade 5 (%), 2004:70
ILO-IPEC participating country:Yes

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

The majority of Pakistan's working children work in agriculture, most of it family-based.2640 Children also work in manufacturing, construction, transport, domestic service, and in small workshops and family businesses.2641 The country's rapid population growth and high rate of urbanization have increased the number of street children in urban areas. Street children work scavenging garbage and vending various products, among other activities.2642 In Balochistan and Northwest Frontier provinces, the children of Afghan refugees are particularly vulnerable to involvement in the worst forms of child labor.2643

Children are employed in several hazardous activities across the country, including rag-picking, leather tanning, mining, deep-sea fishing, seafood processing, brick-making, and manufacturing of surgical instruments and glass bangles.2644 Children working in carpet-weaving suffer injuries from sharp tools, eye disease and eye strain, respiratory disease due to wool dust, and skeletal deformation and pain due to cramped working conditions.2645 Many working children are vulnerable to physical and sexual abuse, particularly those working far from their families such as child miners and child domestics working in private homes.2646

There are reports of children being kidnapped, maimed, and forced to work as beggars.2647 Bonded child labor reportedly exists in Pakistan in the brick, carpet, and textile industries, in rice mills, domestic servitude, and agricultural activities. In some cases, parents initiate their children's bondage by taking advance payments for their work.2648 Some children working in mining, agriculture, and domestic service are from families who are bonded or indebted to their employers.2649 Commercial sexual exploitation of children continues to be a problem,2650 with some families selling their daughters into prostitution.2651 Recent reports have also highlighted the increasing numbers of young boys exploited as prostitutes.2652 Children are trafficked within Pakistan for begging and other activities, with young boys particularly at risk.2653 The minimum voluntary recruitment age into the Pakistani military is 16 years, and the compulsory enlistment age is 18 years.

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

It is illegal to employ children under 14 years in mines or other hazardous occupations or processes.2654 Among the four occupations and 34 processes considered illegal for children are mixing and manufacturing of pesticides and insecticides, as well as fumigation; work within railway stations or ports; carpet weaving; construction; and manufacturing of cement, explosives, and other products that involve the use of toxic substances.2655 Children 14 to 18 years may work under various restrictions. Such children may work in mines as long as they have a certificate of fitness granted by a medical practitioner and are allowed 12 hours rest per day, at least 7 of which must be between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m. They may work in shops and establishments for no more than 7 hours per day and 42 hours per week, and only between the hours of 9 a.m. and 7 p.m.2656 Children of any age may also work in factories for up to 5 hours per day, provided they do not work between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m., have been granted a certificate of fitness, and are not involved in hazardous occupations and processes.2657 Children of any age may work in non-hazardous occupations, provided they work no more than 7 hours per day and no more than 3 consecutive hours without rest, do not work between 7 p.m. and 8 a.m., and do not work overtime.2658 Employers are also required by law to maintain minimum standards of health and safety in a child's working environment.2659 Violations can result in a 1-year prison term, or up to 2 years for repeat violations. Children working for their families or in Government schools are exempt from these provisions.2660

Forced labor is prohibited by law, and those found in violation face 2 to 5 years of imprisonment.2661 Commercial sexual exploitation of children is a crime, with penalties that can extend up to life imprisonment. Such offenses are defined as selling, letting to hire, or otherwise disposing of a person for the purpose of prostitution, illicit intercourse, or any unlawful and immoral purpose; or buying, hiring, procuring, or otherwise obtaining possession of a person for the same purposes.2662 Parents who cause, encourage, or abet the seduction or prostitution of a girl under 16 years are subject to imprisonment of up to 3 years, as is any person who allows a child under 16 years into a brothel. The law does not specifically prohibit child pornography, but outlaws the circulation of any obscene material, with violations subject to fines and up to 3 months of imprisonment.2663 Importation of a girl for prostitution is punishable by 3 years of imprisonment.2664 Obtaining, securing, selling, purchasing, recruiting, detaining, harboring, or receiving a person by coercion, kidnapping, or abduction for sexual exploitation, slavery, or forced labor is also outlawed, but this prohibition applies only to victims trafficked across the Pakistani border, and not to victims trafficked internally. Penalties for these crimes include from 7 to 14 years of imprisonment, as well as fines.2665 Importing, exporting, trafficking, or dealing in slaves is punishable by life imprisonment.2666 There is no forced conscription into the Pakistani military, and the minimum age for voluntary enlistment is 16 years.2667

Child labor and forced labor laws are enforced by provincial governments through the labor inspectorate system.2668 USDOS reports that enforcement of these laws is weak because of an inadequate number of inspectors; lack of training and resources; corruption; and the exclusion of many small workplaces from the inspectorate's jurisdiction. While authorities do cite employers for child labor violations, the penalties imposed are generally too minor to act as a deterrent.2669 The Government's National Labor Inspection Policy encourages the involvement of voluntary, industry-funded monitoring groups in labor inspection, such as the Independent Monitoring Association for Child Labor (IMAC), which monitors child labor in the sporting goods industry.2670

The Anti-Trafficking Unit of the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) has primary responsibility for enforcing trafficking-related laws, although there are reports of officials complicit in trafficking crimes.2671 In 2007, the Government investigated over 6,000 cases of trafficking, resulting in over 5,000 convictions.2672 A high-profile case in 2007 involving a 13-year old girl in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) sold into commercial sexual exploitation by her father resulted in the arrest and incarceration of the father and brothel owner.2673

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Government of Pakistan's National Action Plan for Children aims to harmonize federal and state child labor programs and works toward the progressive elimination of child labor.2674 Since 2000, the national and provincial-level governments have been implementing a National Policy and Action Plan to Combat Child Labor (NPPA) that calls for immediate eradication of the worst forms of child labor; progressive elimination of child labor from all sectors; educational alternatives to keep children out of work; and rehabilitation of children withdrawn from work.2675 However, the ILO Committee of Experts has noted that implementation of the NPPA has been slow.2676 The Government's 2003 PRSP reiterates the Government's commitment to the NPPA and incorporates the reduction of child labor into its target-setting process.2677 The Government's Poverty Alleviation Strategy provides increased access to micro-credit loans for the families of working children.2678 The National Commission for Child Welfare and Development oversees the National Project on Rehabilitation of Child Labor, implemented by Pakistan Bait-Ul-Mal; an autonomous body established by the Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education. The project withdraws children between 5 and 14 years from hazardous labor in the brick, carpet, mining, tannery, construction, glass bangle, and agricultural sectors, as well as from domestic work and begging. The project also provides them free nonformal education, as well as clothing, and provides stipends to the children and their families. As of December 2007, 151 centers had been established under the project, serving 15,045 students. Over 9,000 children have completed the program and 7,688 have enrolled in Government schools.2679

The provincial labor departments of Punjab, Sindh, and the NWFP have established Child Labor Resource Centers, and the provincial government of Balochistan has established a Child Labor Vigilance Cell, which provide focal points for disseminating information and forging networks of social partners to combat child labor.2680 The district government of Rawalpindi (Punjab) allocated 1 million rupees (USD 16,398) to combating child labor in its 2007-2008 budget.2681

With support from the ILO, the National Commission on Abolition of Bonded Labor and Rehabilitation of Freed Bonded Laborers oversees the implementation of the National Policy and Plan of Action for the Abolition of Bonded Labor and Rehabilitation of Freed Bonded Laborers.2682 As part of implementation, the Government provided an initial allocation of 100 million rupees (approximately USD 1.6 million) to educate working children and freed bonded laborers.2683

USDOL and the Government of Denmark are funding an ILO-IPEC project through 2008 to support the Government of Pakistan's Timebound Program, designed to withdraw 10,100 children and prevent 1,700 children from work in the glass bangle, surgical instrument, tanning, coal mining, scavenging, and deep-sea fishing industries.2684 With the support of the Government of Norway, the Government of Pakistan is participating in a USD 1.2 million ILOIPEC project to engage the media in combating the worst forms of child labor, ending in July 2009. The FIFA international soccer federation is supporting the Government through a USD 0.5 million ILO-IPEC project targeting children in the soccer ball industry in Sialkot, ending in December 2008.2685 USDOL provided USD 3.5 million, and the Pakistan Carpet Manufacturers' and Exporters' Association provided USD 0.9 million to jointly support an ILO-IPEC project to combat exploitive child labor in carpet weaving. The project, which ended in September 2007, withdrew 15,652 and prevented 3,663 children from work in the carpet industry.2686 Also in September 2007, Save the Children-UK completed a USDOL-supported, USD 5 million project to remove children from hazardous work in carpet weaving, leather tannery, shoe manufacturing, automobile workshops, brick kilns, and agriculture in the Sheikhupura and Kasur districts of Punjab.2687 Save the Children-UK is also implementing a USDOL-funded USD 4.3 million project through September 2009 that aims to withdraw 7,300 children and prevent 8,420 children from hazardous work in the provinces of Balochistan, NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.2688 USDOL is also working with the Government on a USD 1.5 million project to provide education and training programs for children in Balakot (NWFP); left vulnerable to hazardous child labor by the earthquake of October 8, 2005. The project targets 500 children for withdrawal and 2,000 children for prevention from hazardous work.2689 In 2007, USDOL also funded a 3-year, USD 3.5 million research project to be carried out by Macro International Inc., on children working in the carpet industry in India, Nepal, and Pakistan.2690

The FIA partners with the IOM to provide training to government officials on trafficking.2691 The Government operates 276 shelters that provide legal representation, vocational training, and medical care to Pakistani trafficking victims, including children.2692


2639 For statistical data not cited here, please see the Data Sources and Definitions section. For data on ratifications and ILO-IPEC membership, please see the Executive Summary. For minimum age for admission to work, age to which education is compulsory, and free public education, see Government of Pakistan, Employment of Children Act, (June 4, 1991, as amended December 20, 2005), sections 2, 3, Schedule; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/22707/64834/E91PAK01.htm. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 13, 2007. See also UNESCO, Education – National Legislation, [online] [cited December 14, 2007]; available from http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=12388&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. See also U.S. Department of State, "Pakistan," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2007, Washington, DC, March 11, 2008, section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100619.htm.

2640 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 13, 2007, para 7. See also UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank Surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, March 1, 2007.

2641 Government of Pakistan, Information on Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (July 25, 2005) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor", Islamabad, August 15, 2005, 3. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 6d.

2642 ECPAT International with Dr. Tufail Muhammad and Dr. Naeem Zafar, Situational Analysis Report on Prostitution of Boys in Pakistan (Lahore & Peshawar), Bangkok, June 2006, xi; available from http://www.ecpat.net/eng/publications/Boy_Prostitution/PDF/Pakistan.pdf.

2643 Save the Children – UK, Mitigating Child Labour Through Education in Pakistan, project document, London, October 2006, 3, 6, 7.

2644 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 6d. See also ILO-IPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Pakistan, project document, Geneva, September 17, 2003, 9-10 and 75-76.

2645 ILO-Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Zafar Mueen Nasir, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in the Carpet Industry of Pakistan, Geneva, 2004, 9; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2725.

2646 UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Concluding Observations: Pakistan, October 27, 2003, para 69; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/(Symbol)/CRC.C.15.Add.217.En?OpenDocument. See also ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Ahmad Saleem, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in Pakistan's Mining Sector, Geneva, March 2004, 15; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2583.

2647 ILO -Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Collective for Social Science Reserach Karachi, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in Domestic Work and Begging in Pakistan, Geneva, March 2004, 4, 22; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2622.

2648 ILO -Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Pakistan Institute of Labour Education and Research, Unfree Labour in Pakistan: Work, Debt and Bondage in Brick Kilns, Geneva, March 2004, xiv, 7; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2724. See also ILO -Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Zafar Mueen Nasir, A Rapid Assessment of Bonded Labour in the Carpet Industry of Pakistan, Geneva, 2004, 18-20; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2725. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 5. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 13, 2007, para 2b. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 1, 2008.

2649 ILO -Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Collective for Social Science Reserach Karachi, Bonded Labour in Domestic Work and Begging, 19. See also ILO -Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Maliha H. Hussein; Abdul Razzaq Saleemi; Saira Malik; and Shazreh Hussain, Bonded Labour in Agriculture: A Rapid Assessment in Sindh and Balochistan, Pakistan, Geneva, March 2004, 16, 28; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=2727. See also ILO – Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour with Ahmad Saleem, Bonded Labour in Pakistan's Mining Sector, 14.

2650 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 5. See also ECPAT International, Global Monitoring Report on the Status of Action Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: Pakistan, Bangkok, 2006, 11-12; available from http://www.ecpat.net/eng/A4A_2005/PDF/South_Asia/Global_Monitoring_Report-PAKISTAN.pdf.

2651 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 13, 2007, para 2b. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 1, 2008.

2652 ECPAT International with Dr. Tufail Muhammad and Dr. Naeem Zafar, Prostitution of Boys in Pakistan, xi, 21, and 39. See also U.S. Department of State, "Pakistan (Tier 2)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007, Washington, DC, June 12, 2007; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007/82806.htm.

2653 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 1, 2008.

2654 United Nations Office High Commissioner for Human Rights, Status of Ratifications of the Principal International Human Rights Treaties, Geneva, June 9, 2004, article 11(3); available from http://www.unhchr.ch/pdf/report.pdf.

2655 UN OHCHR, Status of Ratification of the Principal International Human Rights Treaties, Geneva, June 09, 2004, section 2, 3, Schedule; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/pdf/report.pdf. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 18, 2006.

2656 Networking Project on Hazardous Child Labour, Background Document: Policy and Legal Context in Asia Regarding Hazardous Child Labour, June 16, 2005, 61.

2657 Government of Pakistan, The Factories Act, 1934 (as amended to 1997), (January 1, 1935), articles 2, 52, 54; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/35384/64903/E97PAK01.htm.

2658 Government of Pakistan, Employment of Children Act, (June 4, 1991), sections 6-7; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/22707/64834/E91PAK01.htm.

2659 Government of Pakistan, Employment of Children Rules, 1995; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/44242/65005/E95PAK01.htm.

2660 Government of Pakistan, Employment of Children Act, sections 3, 14.

2661 United Nations Office High Commissioner for Human Rights, reporting, June 9, 2004, article 11 (2). See also ILO NATLEX National Labor Law Database, Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act of 1992 (abstract), accessed December 14, 2007; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=PAK&p_classification=03&p_origin= COUNTRY.

2662 Government of Pakistan, The Offence of Zina (Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance, No. VII, (February 10, 1979), sections 11, 13, 14, 16; available from http://www.punjabpolice.gov.pk/user_files/File/offence_of_zina_ordinance_1979.pdf. See also Government of Pakistan, Penal Code (1860), section 372-373, as cited in ILO – Regional Project on Combating Child Trafficking for Labour and Sexual Exploitation, Anti-child Trafficking Legislation in Asia: A Six-country Review, ILO, Bangkok, 2006, 38; available from http://www.crin.org/docs/ilo_asia_traf_2006.pdf.

2663 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance (1961), sections 7, 10; and Pakistan Penal Code (1860), section 292; as cited in Interpol, "Pakistan," in Legislation of Interpol Member States on Sexual Offences Against Children, Islamabad; available from http://www.interpol.int/Public/Children/SexualAbuse/NationalLaws/csaPakistan.pdf.

2664 Government of Pakistan, Pakistan Suppression of Prostitution Ordinance (1961), as cited in Ibid., section 9.

2665 Government of Pakistan, Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking and Smuggling Ordinance (2002), as cited in ILO – Regional Project on Combating Child Trafficking for Labour and Sexual Exploitation, Anti-child Trafficking Legislation in Asia: A Six-country Review, International Labour Office, Bangkok, 2006, 35, 36; available from http://www.crin.org/docs/ilo_asia_traf_2006.pdf. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 1, 2008.

2666 Penal Code (1860), article 371, as cited in ILO – Regional Project on Combating Child Trafficking for Labour and Sexual Exploitation, Anti-child Trafficking Legislation in Asia, 38.

2667 U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook: Pakistan, [online] December 6, 2007 [cited December 14, 2007]; available from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/pk.html. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Pakistan," in Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, November 17, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/resources/global-reports.

2668 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1.

2669 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 6d. See also U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 13, 2007, para 11.

2670 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 13, 2007, para 10.

2671 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 5.

2672 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, March 1, 2008.

2673 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 5.

2674 Government of Pakistan -Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education, National Plan of Action for Children, Islamabad, May 24, 2006; available from http://www.nccwd.gov.pk/newsfiles/NPA%20for%20Children.pdf.

2675 Government of Pakistan, National Policy and Action Plan to Combat Child Labour, Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Labour, Manpower and Overseas Pakistanis, Islamabad, May 20, 2000, 11. See also Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 2.

2676 ILO Committee of Experts, Individual Observation concerning Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Pakistan (ratification: 2002), [online] 2006 [cited December 6, 2007]; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newcountryframeE.htm.

2677 Government of Pakistan – Ministry of Finance, Accelerating Economic Growth and Reducing Poverty: The Road Ahead (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper), Islamabad, December 2003, 101, 119; available from http://www.moe.gov.pk/prsp_03.pdf.

2678 U.S. Embassy – Islamabad, reporting, December 13, 2007, para 5.

2679 Pakistan Bait-Ul-Mal, National Centre(s) for Rehabilitation of Child Labour, [online] [cited December 10 and 14, 2007]; available from http://www.pbm.gov.pk/new/Introduction_Links.html and http://www.pbm.gov.pk/new/Projects/Ongoing/NCRCL/Introduction.html. See also ILO-IPEC, National Legislation and Policies Against Child Labour in Pakistan, [online] March 21, 2005 [cited December 14, 2007]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/newdelhi/ipec/responses/pakistan/national.htm.

2680 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Annex A, 3.

2681 ILO-IPEC, Supporting the Time-Bound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in Pakistan, Technical Progress Report, Geneva, September 12, 2007, 6. For currency conversion, see OANDA, FX Converter – Currency Converter for 164 Currencies, [online] [cited December 14 2007]; available from http://www.oanda.com/convert/classic.

2682 ILO, A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour, Geneva, 2005, 76; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/DECLARATIONWEB.DOWNLOAD_BLOB?Var_DocumentID=5059.

2683 Government of Pakistan, Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Annex A, 4. For currency conversion, see OANDA, FX Converter.

2684 ILO-IPEC, Time-Bound Programme, project document, 32, 75.

2685 ILO-IPEC Geneva official, E-mail communication to USDOL official, December 12, 2007.

2686 ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Labour in the Carpet Industry in Pakistan – Phase II, Final Technical Progress Report, Geneva, November 16, 2007, 32.

2687 U.S. Department of Labor, Addressing Child Labor Through Quality Education for All: Technical Cooperation Project Summary, 2007.

2688 Save the Children – UK, Mitigating Child Labour in Pakistan, project document, 2, 6. See also U.S. Department of Labor, Mitigating Child Labor Through Education in Pakistan: Technical Cooperation Project Summary, 2007.

2689 ILO-IPEC, Pakistan Earthquake – Child Labour Response, project document, Geneva, September 14, 2006, i, 27, 28.

2690 U.S. Department of Labor, Research on Children Working in the Carpet Industry of India, Nepal and Pakistan: Technical Cooperation Project Summary, 2007.

2691 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Pakistan," section 5.

2692 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007: Pakistan."

Search Refworld

Countries