Last Updated: Tuesday, 24 May 2016, 11:51 GMT

U.S. Department of State 2005 Trafficking in Persons Report - Pakistan

Publisher United States Department of State
Author Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
Publication Date 3 June 2005
Cite as United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State 2005 Trafficking in Persons Report - Pakistan, 3 June 2005, available at: [accessed 24 May 2016]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Pakistan (Tier 2)

Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons. Women and girls from Bangladesh, India, Burma, Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan are trafficked to Pakistan for commercial sexual exploitation and bonded labor. Girls and women from rural areas are trafficked within the country to urban centers for commercial sexual exploitation and involuntary domestic servitude. Women trafficked from East Asian countries and Bangladesh to the Middle East often transit through Pakistan. Men, women, and children are trafficked to the Middle East for bonded labor and domestic servitude. Boys are trafficked to Persian Gulf states for use as camel jockeys. Children are trafficked internally for forced begging and bonded labor.

The Government of Pakistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so. Pakistan has improved its anti-trafficking performance over the reporting period. Most notably, it has increased trafficking-related prosecutions and convictions, strengthened implementation of its 2002 Prevention and Control of Human Trafficking Ordinance, established an Anti-Trafficking Unit (ATU) within the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), and co-sponsored several public awareness campaigns. Pakistan should continue expanding on these efforts in order to further its fight against trafficking.


Pakistan's law enforcement efforts greatly increased during the reporting period. In 2004, 479 trafficking-related cases were registered, 289 individuals arrested, 248 court cases filed, and 72 convictions obtained – a significant improvement over the six convictions obtained in 2003. The government also prosecuted and convicted 17 officials for trafficking-related corruption. There were cases during the reporting period in which law enforcement officials mistakenly identified trafficking victims as voluntary participants in human smuggling and initiated criminal procedures against them. In such cases, supervisory personnel acted promptly to ensure charges were dropped and victims protected. The government should continue efforts to train a broad cross section of working-level law enforcement personnel to prevent such mistakes in future.


In 2004, Pakistan made progress in its efforts to protect trafficking victims. Currently, NGOs continue to provide the majority of assistance and protection services for victims. However, new regulations for the implementation of Pakistan's 2002 anti-trafficking law obligate the Government of Pakistan to provide assistance to trafficking victims and allocate funding for their repatriation. Pakistan established the FIA's ATU, through which it coordinates its anti-trafficking law enforcement efforts. In cooperation with IOM, the government is establishing a new model shelter for trafficking victims in Islamabad, and it has committed to replicating similar facilities in other parts of the country. At present, trafficking victims are offered shelter in 267 detention centers in the country, where they are provided with medical assistance, limited legal representation, and some vocational training. The anticipated opening of the model shelter and a joint screening referral process for all trafficking victims are expected to enhance Pakistan's protection efforts.


The government improved its prevention efforts over the reporting period. In collaboration with IOM, it trained about 200 law enforcement and border security personnel in victim recognition methods. It also encouraged its embassies and consulates, particularly in the Gulf region, to play a more active role in identifying, assisting, and repatriating trafficking victims. It conducted, in collaboration with NGOs, several anti-trafficking public campaigns. Pakistan's diplomatic missions in the United Arab Emirates and Oman have worked closely with NGOs, such as Ansar Burney Welfare Trust, in rescuing, repatriating, and rehabilitating children trafficked as camel jockeys.

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