U.S. Department of State 2006 Trafficking in Persons Report - Italy
|Publisher||United States Department of State|
|Author||Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons|
|Publication Date||5 June 2006|
|Cite as||United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State 2006 Trafficking in Persons Report - Italy, 5 June 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4680d89315.html [accessed 1 October 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Italy (Tier 1)
Italy is a destination and transit country for men, women, and children trafficked for the purposes of sexual and labor exploitation. The number of victims originating from Albania and Nigeria decreased in 2005, while the number of victims from Romania, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Moldova increased. Other countries of origin included Russia, East and North Africa, China, and South America. The percentage of minors who are trafficking victims increased slightly. Eastern European and Nigerian traffickers routinely moved victims within Italy and Europe. The Italian social research institute PARSEC estimated 2,500 new trafficking victims in 2005. Both NGO and government sources reported an overall decline in the number of identified trafficking victims and women in prostitution in Italy.
The Government of Italy fully complies with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. In 2005, Italy continued implementation of its comprehensive victim-centered approach to trafficking through its assistance and protection programs. The government sustained funding for outreach to potential trafficking victims abroad and conducted bilateral law enforcement cooperation with source countries. Italy's significant influx of illegal immigrants continues to challenge the government's ability to adequately screen for potential trafficking victims; some deportation occurs, especially of Nigerian women in prostitution. Focused and highly visible demand reduction campaigns aimed at customers are greatly needed to effectively tackle the huge demand for trafficking victims within Italy.
In 2004, the Government of Italy continued to demonstrate its proactive anti-trafficking efforts, investigating 1,861 cases and prosecuting 120 cases involving trafficking; incomplete data for 2005 shows Italy conducted 2,045 investigations. The number of convictions in 2004 increased from 32 to 77; incomplete data for 2005 shows there were 50 convictions. The courts reportedly denied 95 percent of convictions appealed. Italy's 2003 anti-trafficking law covers both trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labor; however, some trafficking-related cases filed under the old laws continue to work their way through the courts. While the government failed to produce any sentencing data for 2004, sentences reported for 2005 averaged four years and five months. Convicted traffickers reportedly can receive reduced sentences if they cooperate in prosecutions. There continued to be some isolated reports of local and border officials accepting bribes and facilitating trafficking; the government failed to investigate these reports.
In 2005, the Ministry of Equal Opportunity spent over $3.5 million on 72 projects to provide comprehensive assistance to 7,400 victims. The government issued 922 temporary residence permits to trafficking victims who cooperated with law enforcement authorities. Government funded NGOs provided literacy courses for 428 victims and vocational training for 462; they helped 265 victims find temporary employment and another 840 find permanent jobs. Although some NGOs continue to express concern about improper screening leading to automatic deportation of trafficking victims, the Ministry of Interior reported that it properly screened illegal immigrants for trafficking victims. In 2004, the government provided repatriation and reintegration assistance to 78 victims, up from 66 the previous year.
In 2005, NGOs continued to implement anti-trafficking awareness initiatives funded by the government from the previous year. This included brochures and TV/radio ads, one of which emphasized the link between trafficking and prostitution. The Ministry of Equal Opportunity's hotline for trafficking victims received calls from over 6,500 trafficking victims during 2005. The Ministry of Interior provided specialized training on trafficking laws and best practices for victim care to law enforcement officers. The inter-ministerial committee continued to coordinate the government's anti-trafficking efforts.