Last Updated: Thursday, 31 July 2014, 17:47 GMT

2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 27 August 2008
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia, 27 August 2008, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48caa477c.html [accessed 1 August 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor1710
Working children, 5-14 years (%):
Working boys, 5-14 years (%):
Working girls, 5-14 years (%):
Working children by sector, 5-14 years (%):
     – Agriculture
     – Manufacturing
     – Services
     – Other
Minimum age for work:15
Compulsory education age:Varies*
Free public education:Yes**
Gross primary enrollment rate (%), 2005:115
Net primary enrollment rate (%), 2005:95
School attendance, children 5-14 years (%):
Survival rate to grade 5 (%), 2004:89
ILO-IPEC participating country:Yes
* Is compulsory for 9 years, or approximately age 15
** Must pay for miscellaneous school expenses

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

The majority of child work in Indonesia occurs in rural areas. Children work in agriculture on palm oil, cacao, tobacco, rubber, tea, and sugar plantations. Children also work in fisheries, construction, manufacturing, footwear production, food processing, textiles, and the small-scale mining sector.1711 Other children work in the informal sector, including those living on the street, selling newspapers, shining shoes, street vending, scavenging, and working beside their parents in family businesses or cottage industries.1712 Children, primarily females, are also engaged in domestic service where some are exploited and can be subject to forced labor, including debt bondage.1713

Indonesia is primarily a source and, to a lesser extent, a destination country for individuals trafficked internationally and internally, including children.1714 Children, primarily girls, are trafficked internationally from Indonesia to Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, and Singapore, and are trafficked internally mainly from rural to urban areas. There is emerging evidence that girls are also trafficked into Indonesia, mainly from China and Eastern Europe.1715 Girls are primarily trafficked both internationally and domestically for commercial sexual exploitation and domestic work, whereas boys are trafficked internally to work on fishing platforms. There are reports of children being trafficked to work in organized begging rings.1716 Children are also exploited in the production of pornography and in the international sex industry, increasingly through sex tourism.1717 Likewise, children are known to be involved in the production, trafficking, and/or sale of drugs.1718

The tsunami of December 26, 2004 and the May 27, 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake left thousands of children in Indonesia orphaned or separated from their families. It also left them without access to schooling, thus increasing their vulnerability to trafficking and other forms of labor and sexual exploitation. Although some children affected by the tsunami were immediately reunited with extended family or families within their communities, a secondary separation occurred soon after due to slow reestablishment of family livelihoods, decreased international support, and low institutional capacity to deliver services. Because of the secondary separation, in Aceh, approximately 2,500 children were placed in orphanages. All of these children continue to be highly vulnerable to exploitation.1719

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

The law sets the minimum age for work at 15 years.1720 The law contains an exception for employing children from 13 to 15 years to perform light work that does not disrupt their physical, mental, and social development. A set of requirements is outlined for employment of children in this age range, including a maximum of 3 hours of work per day, parental permission, and no disruption of schooling.1721 Employing and involving children under 18 years in the worst forms of child labor or economic exploitation are prohibited under the law; failure to comply can result in criminal sanctions of 2 to 5 years of imprisonment. The law defines the worst forms of child labor as slavery; use of children in prostitution, pornography and gambling; use of children for the production and trade of alcohol, narcotics, and addictive substances; and all types of work harmful to the health, safety, and morals of children. The law identifies a list of such harmful activities and provides detailed descriptions and examples of these activities. These include jobs that require children to work with machines; where physical, chemical, or biological hazards are present; with inherent hazards such as construction, offshore fishing, lifting heavy loads (among others); and jobs that harm the morals of children including working in bars, massage parlors, discotheques, or promoting alcohol or drugs to arouse sexual desire.1722 Persons who expose children to such hazardous activities are liable to terms of up to 5 years of imprisonment or a fine.1723 An Indonesian decree calls for general programs to ban and abolish worst forms of child labor and improve family income, for specific programs for non-formal education, and returning children to school by providing scholarships.1724 Additional specific legal sanctions are laid out against offenses of commercial sexual exploitation, child trafficking, involving children in the production or distribution of alcohol or narcotics, and involving children in armed conflict.1725 Anyone exercising legal custody of a child under 12 years for the purpose of providing that child to another person, knowing that the child is going to be used for the purposes of begging, harmful work, or work that affects the child's health, may face a maximum sentence of 4 years of imprisonment.1726 The law protects children in emergencies such as natural disasters.1727

Indonesian law prohibits sexual intercourse outside of marriage with a female recognized to be under 15 years, engaging in an obscene act with a person under 15 years, and forcing or allowing the sexual abuse of a child; with maximum penalties ranging from 7 to 15 years of imprisonment.1728 The law also prohibits trafficking in persons. A comprehensive new antitrafficking law came into effect in April 2007, providing key definitions and harsher punishments than previous laws utilized to prosecute traffickers. If the trafficking crimes involve children, the standard sentence for violation of the law is 3 to 15 years, with penalties for officials increasing by one-third. The new law also details specific procedures for working with child witnesses and/or victims.1729 Additional laws are also used to prosecute trafficking. The Penal Code provides a maximum penalty of 6 years imprisonment for trading or selling children and the Child Protection Act stipulates a prison sentence of 3 to 15 years and/or a fine for the same offence.1730 The minimum age for recruitment or enlistment into the Armed Forces is 18 years, with violations incurring a maximum sentence of 5 years and/or a fine.1731 The law also prohibits the use or involvement of children in the misuse, production, or distribution of narcotics and stipulates a maximum sentence of the death penalty or life imprisonment.1732

Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration (MOMT) authorities at the provincial and district levels have responsibility for enforcing child labor laws.1733 The national police's antitrafficking unit and other law enforcement bodies have increased efforts to combat trafficking of children. In 2007, there were 46 trafficking-related convictions.1734 In 2006, the latest year for which data are available, there were five convictions specifically for child trafficking.1735 The anti-trafficking task force has rescued hundreds of victims, primarily children. Police have an ongoing operation to rescue children trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation.1736 Despite these efforts, USDOS reports that the Indonesian Government does not enforce child labor laws in an effective manner due to a lack of resources and lack of child labor inspections.1737

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The 20-year National Plan of Action (NPA) for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor completed its first 5-year phase in 2007. The first phase, established by Presidential Decree No. 59 (2002), focused on mapping child labor problems, raising awareness, and eliminating five priority worst forms of child labor: offshore fishing and diving; trafficking for purposes of prostitution; mining; footwear production; and drug trafficking.1738 The Government underwent an in-depth assessment and evaluation of Phase I in preparation for prioritizing sectors, geographic areas, and strategies for Phase II, which began in 2008. The report of findings had not been released as of March 2008.1739 The MOMT chairs a National Action Committee for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, which coordinates child labor elimination efforts throughout the country and produces annual reports on the implementation of the NPA.1740 The National Plan of Action of Human Rights in Indonesia (2004-2009) contains a specific objective on protecting the rights of the child, with a series of activities aimed at combating trafficking and protecting against sexual exploitation, pornography, and worst forms of child labor.1741

The Indonesia National Medium Term Development Plan (2004-2009) recognizes the problem of child labor and supports the implementation of the National Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor.1742 The country's Poverty Reduction Strategy (2005-2009) includes objectives of preventing exploitation and the worst forms of child labor, increasing protection for street children and child workers, and preventing child trafficking. In the monitoring and evaluation system, the plan also has a 2009 target to decrease the number of child trafficking cases.1743

The National Plan of Action to Combat the Trafficking of Women and Children and the National Plan of Action to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation are in place to help reduce the trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation of children.1744 The NPA to Combat Trafficking expired at the end of 2007.1745 In support of these plans, the national Government sponsors a nationwide media campaign to raise awareness on trafficking.1746 In 2007, the Government provided an anti-trafficking budget for the first time ever, allocating USD 4.8 million.1747 The Foreign Affairs Ministry operates shelters at its embassies and consulates in several countries including, Kuwait, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, and Singapore.1748 The Indonesian National Police operate a medical recovery center for victims of trafficking in Jakarta, and are also operating recovery centers in Surabaya, Pontianak, and Makassar.1749 The Ministry of National Education initiated a new program in 2007 to prevent trafficking of girls through provisions of grants to schools to carry out activities.1750 Indonesia is one of several countries in South East Asia participating in a campaign by MTV to raise awareness on human trafficking.1751 A number of local governments have also established and are operating shelters for trafficking victims,1752 and several districts and provinces have implemented anti-trafficking activities through their Anti-Trafficking Committees and district action plans. As of the end of 2007, 26 provinces had such committees or task forces. Also in 2007, the number of women's help desks for assisting exploited women and children, including those exploited through trafficking, increased to 304 nationwide.1753

In July 2007, the Government launched the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program in seven provinces. The program provides cash transfers to very poor families who meet a set of conditions, one of which is withdrawing their children from labor and ensuring that they are enrolled in school.1754 The August 2007 National Labor Force Survey included a question on child labor in order to establish a sampling framework for the National Child Labor Survey and to obtain an estimate of the scale of child labor in the country.1755 The MOMT reports that Action Committees on Child Labor have been established in 22 of 33 provinces and 77 of 458 districts in Indonesia.1756 As of December 2007, there were 15 provincial and 65 district child labor action committees that help implement of Indonesia's laws and policies on child labor by formulating local policies and programs appropriate to local needs.1757 Several provincial governments such as East Kalimantan, East Java, Central Java, North Sumatra, North Sulawesi, and Lampung allocated specific budgets for eliminating the worst forms of child labor and/or have undertaken specific child labor activities during 2007. Actions include forming child labor action committees; operating "Child Helpline 129" to provide emergency assistance to children, including to child laborers; training provincial labor inspectors; publishing guidelines for mapping the worst forms of child labor; and mapping child labor in a number of districts.1758

The Government of Indonesia is participating in a USD 4.1 million USDOL-supported ILOIPEC Timebound Program to progressively eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The program is being implemented from 2003 through 2008, and aims to withdraw 2,750 children and prevent 9,960 children from exploitive labor in the five priority sectors identified in the NPA.1759 In 2007, USDOL awarded ILO-IPEC USD 5.55 million for a 4-year second phase of the project, targeting an additional 6,000 children for withdrawal and 16,000 for prevention from exploitive work in domestic service, commercial agriculture, drug trafficking, and trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.1760 In support of the national Timebound Program, USDOL also funds a USD 6 million Child Labor Education Initiative project to combat child trafficking in Indonesia that aims to withdraw 1,500 child trafficking victims and prevent 17,932 children from being trafficked.1761 The Netherlands supported a new USD 22.6 million youth employment and child labor project, focusing on six provinces in the eastern part of Indonesia.1762

To address the vulnerability of children to worst forms of child labor in the tsunami-stricken areas of Indonesia in 2005, USDOL funded a USD 1.5 million addendum to the ILO-IPEC Timebound Program and a USD 2.5 million addendum to the Education Initiative project, which closed in March 2008. The ILO-IPEC project aims to prevent 3,000 children from entering exploitive labor, and the Education Initiative project aims to prevent 10,530 children from entering exploitive labor.1763

USDOS supports a project that provides technical assistance and policy advocacy training to help national and local governments establish and implement policies to reduce vulnerability to trafficking.1764 This project assisted the Indonesian Government in developing and passing an anti-trafficking law, and supported 50 projects by Indonesian civil society institutions in the areas of prevention and protection.1765 USAID and USDOS support additional projects to combat trafficking in persons, including training to the Ministry of Women's Empowerment and civil society to raise awareness on trafficking, as well as assistance to develop and implement policies and procedures to fight trafficking in persons.1766 President Bush included Indonesia as one of nine target countries in his USD 50 million anti-trafficking in persons initiative. Indonesia has received approximately 10 percent of the total funding.1767


1710 For statistical data not cited here, see the Data Sources and Definitions section. For data on ratifications and ILO-IPEC membership, see the Executive Summary. For minimum age for admission to work, age to which education is compulsory, and free public education, see Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Concerning Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety and Morals of Children, Decree No. Kep.235/MEN/2003, (October 31, 2003), article 3; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=04&p_origin=S UBJECT. See also Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, Law No. 23, (2002), article 48 and 53; available from http://www.ri.go.id/produk_uu/uu-2002.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, "Indonesia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2007, Washington, DC, March 11, 2008, section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100521.htm. See also Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act.

1711 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Indonesia," section 6d. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007. See also ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Project Document, INS/03/P50/USA, Geneva, September 30, 2003, 2-3. See also End Child Labor, Indonesia Child Labor by Industry or Occupation, accessed November 21, 2007; available from http://www.endchildlabor.org/db_infoBank.cfm?Action=View. See also International Trade Union Confederation, Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Indonesia, Geneva, June 2007, 15-18; available from http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/Indonesia_report_final_FINAL.pdf. See also University of North Sumatra, Study of Child Workers in Tobacco Plantations in Sumatra Indonesia, 2004, Executive Summary; available from http://www.eclt.org/activities/research/indonesia.html.

1712 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Indonesia," section 5 and 6d. See also Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, The National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Presidential Decree Number 59, (August 13, 2002), 5. See also International Trade Union Confederation, Internationally Recognized Core Labour Standards in Indonesia, 15-18. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1713 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Indonesia," section 5 and 6d. See also "Swept Under the Rug: Abuses Against Domestic Workers Around the World," Human Rights Watch 18, no. 7(C) (2006), 53 and 54; available from http://hrw.org/reports/2006/wrd0706/wrd0706webwcover.pdf. See also "Always on Call: Abuse and Exploitation of Child Domestic Workers in Indonesia," Human Rights Watch 17, no. 7(C) (2005). See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1714 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1715 International Catholic Migration Commission and The Solidarity Center, When They Were Sold: Trafficking of Women and Girls in 15 Provinces of Indonesia, Jakarta, November 2006, 53-54; available from http://solidarity.timberlakepublishing.com/content.asp?contentid=638. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1716 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Indonesia," section 5. See also Ruth Rosenberg, ed., Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia, Jakarta, 2003, 16,19, 31, and 172; available from http://solidarity.timberlakepublishing.com/content.asp?contentid=502. See also International Catholic Migration Commission and The Solidarity Center, When They Were Sold, 29, 31, 36-37, 43 and 45. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1717 ECPAT International CSEC Database, Indonesia, accessed November 21, 2007; available from http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/index.asp. See also Rosenberg, Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia, 19. See also UNICEF, Factsheet on Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking of Children; available from http://www.unicef.org/indonesia/Factsheet_CSEC_trafficking_Indonesia.pdf.

1718 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Indonesia," section 6d. See also Emma Porio and Christine S. Crisol, The Use of Children in the Production, Sales, and Trafficking of Drugs, ILO-IPEC, Manila, September 2004, 2. See also ILO-IPEC, Indonesian Timebound National Action Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Project Document, 4. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1719 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta official, E-mail communication to USDOL official, December 13, 2007. See also Office of the United Nations Recovery Coordinator for Aceh and Nias and the Executing Agency for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Aceh and Nias, Tsunami Recovery Indicators Package for Aceh and Nias, Banda Aceh, March 2007, Executive Summary; available from http://www.e-aceh-nias.org/upload/TRIP-Report-English_Final.pdf. See also Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR) and International Partners, Aceh and Nias One Year After the Tsunami: The Recovery Effort and Way Forward, 2005; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/0,,contentMDK:207577 01~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:226301,00.html. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, March 3, 2006.

1720 Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Concerning Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety and Morals of Children, article 3.

1721 Government of Indonesia, Manpower Development and Protection Act (no. 13), (March 25, 2003), article 26, 68,and 69.

1722 Ibid., article 74 and 183. See also Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, Concerning Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety and Morals of Children. See also ILO NATLEX National Labor Law Database, Protection of Children Undertaking Jobs to Develop Talent and Interest Decree No. KEP.115/MEN/VII/2004, March 13, 2008; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=04&p_origin=S UBJECT. See also Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration, The National Plan of Action WFCL, 10.

1723 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, article 59-60 and 78-89.

1724 Government of Indonesia, Decree of the Minister of Home Affairs and Regional Autonomy on the Control of Child Workers, Law No. 5, (January 8, 2001), article 5.

1725 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, article 80-89.

1726 Government of Indonesia, Penal Code of Indonesia, article 301.

1727 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, article 59-60 and 78-89. See also Government of Indonesia, Law No. 39 Concerning Human Rights, (September 23, 1999), article 52-66.

1728 Government of Indonesia, Penal Code of Indonesia, article 287-291. Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, article 80-89.

1729 Government of Indonesia, Law of the Republic of Indonesia on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons, Number 21, (April 19, 2007), article 6-7, 17 and 38-40. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, April 24, 2007. See also U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1730 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, article 83. See also Government of Indonesia, Penal Code of Indonesia, article 297.

1731 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, article 87. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Indonesia," in Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=852.

1732 Government of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, article 89.

1733 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1734 U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1735 U.S. Embassy Jakarta, reporting, December 18, 2006, 9.

1736 U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1737 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Indonesia," section 6d. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1738 Republic of Indonesia, The National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, August 13, 2002, 15-16.

1739 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Technical Progress Report, Geneva, September 2007, 3.

1740 Government of Indonesia, Presidential Decree on National Action Plan for Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour No. 12/2001, (January 17, 2001); available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=04&p_origin=S UBJECT. See also National Action Committee on the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Report on the Implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (2002-2004 period), Jakarta, 2005.

1741 Republic of Indonesia, National Plan of Action of Human Rights in Indonesia for 2004-2009; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=01.05&p_origin =COUNTRY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.

1742 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Technical Progress Report, Geneva, March 2005, 2. See also Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia Country Report on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Washington, DC, March 2005, 4.

1743 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, Technical Progress Report, March 2005.

1744 Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Country Report on the Elimination of the WFCL, 7-8.

1745 U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1746 U.S. Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 12, 2007. See also U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1747 U.S. Department of State, "Indonesia (Tier 2)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007, Washington, DC, June 12, 2007; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007/82804.htm.

1748 Ibid. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, April 24, 2007. See also U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1749 Save the Children, Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking through Education (ENABLE), Technical Progress Report, September 28, 2005, 3. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, April 24, 2007. See also U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1750 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, Technical Progress Report, Geneva, March 2007, 5.

1751 U.S Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, June 27, 2007.

1752 U.S Embassy-Jakarta, reporting, February 29, 2008.

1753 Ibid.

1754 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, Technical Progress Report, September 2007, 5. See also ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, Technical Progress Report, March 2007, 5.

1755 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, December 10, 2007.

1756 U.S Embassy Jakarta, E-mail communication USDOL official, July 28, 2008.

1757 Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Written communication, submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (November 8, 2007) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor." Washington, DC, December 11, 2007. See also ILO-IPEC, Project of Support to the Indonesian Time-bound Program on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Phase II, project document, Geneva, 2008.

1758 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, Technical Progress Report, March 2007, 4-5. See also ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, Technical Progress Report, September 2007, 5-7. See also Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, written communication, December 11, 2007.

1759 Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Information Series on Indonesian Effort in Combating Trafficking in Persons: May 2004, Washington, DC, May 2004, 1. See also ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action, Technical Progress Report, March 2005, 1.

1760 U.S. Department of Labor, Project of Support to the Indonesian Timebound Programme on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour – Phase II, ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary, Washington, DC, 2007.

1761 U.S. Department of Labor, Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking through Education (ENABLE), ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary, Washington, DC, 2004.

1762 Royal Netherlands Embassy in Jakarta, The Netherlands Contributes to ILO-Programme, [online] [cited December 3, 2007]; available from http://indonesia.nlembassy.org/algemeen/news/the_netherlands?mode=print&popup=true.

1763 ILO-IPEC, Addendum to Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Timebound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, project document, Geneva, February 2005, cover page, 13. See also U.S. Department of Labor, Enabling Aceh to Combat Exploitation through Education (ENABLE/ACEH), ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary, Washington, DC, 2005.

1764 U.S. Department of State, U.S. Spearheads Women's Programs in East Asia, Pacific, [online] February 2005 [cited October 13, 2006]; available from http://usinfo.state.gov/dhr/Archive/2005/Feb/23-799318.html. See also U.S. Department of State, U.S. Government Funds Obligated for Anti-trafficking in Persons Projects, Fiscal Year 2007, [online] February 2008 [cited March 13, 2008]; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/rpt/101295.htm.

1765 U.S Embassy – Jakarta, E-mail communication USDOL official, July 30, 2007.

1766 USAID, Indonesia Education Program Overview, [online] [cited September 26, 2006]; available from http://indonesia.usaid.gov/(S(3vk4uq55r2v3cya4b1ovlwex))/en/ProgramOverview.aspx?id=2. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, April 24, 2007. See also U.S. Department of State, U.S. Government Funds Obligated for Anti-trafficking in Persons Projects, Fiscal Year 2007. See also U.S Embassy Jakarta, E-mail communication, July 28, 2008.

1767 U.S. Department of State, The President's $50 Million Initiative to Combat Trafficking In Persons: Country Funding, [online] April 12, 2006 [cited November 21, 2007]; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/fs/2006/69696.htm. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting May 21, 2004.

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