2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Croatia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||31 August 2007|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2006 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Croatia, 31 August 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d7492d54.html [accessed 23 October 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor|
|Percent of children 5-14 estimated as working:||Unavailable|
|Minimum age of work:||151241|
|Age to which education is compulsory:||141242|
|Free public education:||Yes1243|
|Gross primary enrollment rate in 2003:||94%1244|
|Net primary enrollment rate in 2003:||87%1245|
|Percent of children 5-14 attending school:||Unavailable|
|Percent of primary school entrants likely to reach grade 5:||Unavailable|
|Ratified Convention 138:||10/08/19911246|
|Ratified Convention 182:||7/17/20011247|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||No1248|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
Children younger than 15 years may participate in artistic endeavors for remuneration with the labor inspector's approval and if the assignment does not threaten their morals or interfere with school.1251 Children 15 to 18 may only work with written permission from a legal guardian and labor inspector, assuming that the work is not harmful to the child's health, morality, education, or development.1252 Children under 18 are prohibited from working overtime, at night, and under dangerous labor conditions. Specifically, this provision applies to work in bars, nightclubs, and gambling establishments.1253 Under Croatian law, anyone forcing minors to beg or perform work inappropriate for their age can be penalized with 3 months to 3 years of imprisonment.1254
The law prohibits international prostitution and solicitation of a minor for sexual purposes, calling for between 1 and 10 years of imprisonment for violations.1255 The law also stipulates 1 to 5 years of imprisonment for using children for pornographic purposes.1256 Trafficking in persons is a separate criminal act for which the law stipulates a minimum prison sentence of 5 years when a child or a minor is involved.1257 Forced and compulsory labor are prohibited.1258 The minimum age for conscription into the military is 18.1259
The Ministry of Economy, Labor, and Entrepreneurship collaborates with the ombudsman for children and the State Labor Inspectorate to enforce minimum age laws.1260 The Inspectorate has 102 inspectors who are responsible for detecting child labor.1261 The ombudsman for children coordinates government efforts to promote and protect the interests of children, and is obligated to report any findings of exploitation to the State's Attorney's Office.1262 A working group including government officials and NGOs has met regularly to exchange information on trafficking cases and programs.1263
Current Government Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Government of Croatia is implementing its National Program for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons 2005-2008,1264 a 2005-2007 National Plan for the Suppression of Trafficking in Children,1265 and a 2006 action plan for trafficking1266 through a national committee and civil society organizations.1267 The government also launched the 2006-2012 National Program for the Protection of the Best Interests of Children to prevent and protect children from sexual abuse, including commercial sexual exploitation.1268 A national-level coordinator has monitored ongoing anti-trafficking efforts in the country.1269 The government has provided funds and support for anti-trafficking public awareness campaigns, a national referral system, victim identification, shelters, and legal, medical, and psychological services for victims.1270 Croatian police forces have included anti-trafficking as part of its academy's curriculum.1271 The government also works with international organizations to assist trafficking victims and cooperates with other governments in the region.1272
Through 2007, Croatia is participating in a Government of Germany-funded regional program implemented by ILO-IPEC to combat the worst forms of child labor in the Stability Pact Countries.1273
1241 Government of Croatia, Croatia Labour Act of 2004 (No. 137/2004), Article 21(1).
1242 U.S. Department of State, "Croatia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2006, Washington, DC, 2006, Section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78806.htm.
1243 Government of Croatia, Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, (December 1990, as amended on April 2, 2001), Article 65; available from http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/hr00000_.html.
1244 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Gross Enrolment Ratio. Primary. Total, accessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.
1245 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Net Enrolment Rate. Primary. Total, assessed December 20, 2006; available from http://stats.uis.unesco.org/.
1246 ILOLEX, Ratifications by Country, accessed January 31, 2007 2007; available from http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/newratframeE.htm.
1248 ILO-IPEC, Programme Countries [website] 2007 [cited March 23 2007]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/about/countries/countries_en.pdf.
1249 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Croatia." Section 6d.
1250 U.S. Embassy Official-Zagreb, E-mail communication to USDOL official, August 1 2007.
1251 Government of Croatia, Croatia Labour Act of 2004, Article 21(2).
1252 Ibid., Articles 22(1), 22(5), and 23(1).
1253 Ibid., Articles 41(5), 62(3), and 23(1). See also Safety and Health Protection at the Workplace Act, 1996, (June 28, 1996), Section 40; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/docs/WEBTEXT/45063/65037/E96HRV01.htm. See also Government of Croatia, Regulations Concerning Jobs at which a Minor May not Be Employed and Jobs at which a Minor May Be Employed after the prior Determination of the Minor's Health Capacity (Official Gazette No. 59/02), as cited in ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request on the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) Croatia (ratification: 2001), [online] 2004 [cited October 19, 2006]; available from http://webfusion.ilo.org/public/db/standards/normes/appl/index.cfm?lang=EN.
1254 Penal Code, Section 213(2), as cited in ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request (No. 182): Croatia.
1255 Government of Croatia, Criminal Code, Article 6, as cited in Interpol, Legislation of Interpol member states on sexual offenses against children, [online] [cited October 19, 2006]; available from http://www.interpol.int/Public/Children/SexualAbuse/NationalLaws/csaCroatia.asp.
1256 Government of Croatia, Criminal Code, Article 196, as cited in Ibid.
1257 U.S. Embassy – Zagreb, reporting, August 27, 2004.
1258 Government of Croatia, Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, Article 23.
1259 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, "Croatia," in Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, 2004, 231; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=966.
1260 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2006: Croatia," Section 6d.
1261 U.S. Embassy – Zagreb, reporting, December 19, 2006.
1262 ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request (No. 182): Croatia.
1263 U.S. Department of State, "Croatia (Tier 2)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2006, Washington, DC, 2006; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2006/65988.htm.
1264 Government of Croatia, National Programme for Suppression of Trafficking in Persons 2005-2008, National Committee for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, Zagreb, 2004; available from http://www.ljudskaprava-vladarh.hr/Download/2005/03/30/Dosta-eng.pdf.
1265 Government of Croatia, National Plan for the Suppression of Trafficking in Children October 2005-December 2007, National Committee for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, Zagreb, 2005; available from http://www.ljudskaprava-vladarh.hr/Download/2006/01/31/NACIONALNI_PROGRAM_ZA_SUZBIJANJE_TRGOVANJA_DJECOM-ENG-MD.doc.
1266 Government of Croatia, Action Plan for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons for 2006, National Committee for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons, Zagreb; available from http://www.ljudskaprava-vladarh.hr/Download/2006/01/31/OPERATIVNI_PLAN_za_suzbijanje_trgovanja_ljudima_engl.doc.
1267 Government of Croatia, OSCE 2006 Human Dimension Implementation Meeting: Trafficking in Human Beings, Office for Human Rights, Warsaw, October 3, 2006.
1268 U.S. Embassy – Zagreb, reporting, December 19, 2006.
1269 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report: Croatia."
1272 UNOHCHR UNICEF, OCSE/ODIHR, Barbara Limanowska., Trafficking in Human Beings in South Eastern Europe: 2004 – Focus on Prevention March 2005, 136-137 and 215; available from http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/Trafficking.Report.2005.pdf. See also U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report: Croatia."
1273 ILO-IPEC official, email communication, November 15, 2006.