China: Whether men are under threat of sterilization due to family planning policies
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa|
|Publication Date||3 June 2009|
|Citation / Document Symbol||CHN103176.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, China: Whether men are under threat of sterilization due to family planning policies, 3 June 2009, CHN103176.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a7040b2c.html [accessed 18 June 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
The United States (US) Department of State Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2008 indicates that when couples reach their child limit according to family planning policies, "one parent [is] often pressured to undergo sterilization" (25 Feb. 2009, Sec.1f). The US Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC) Annual Report 2008 states that couples who violate family planning policies are "in some cases, subjected to forced sterilization" (31 Oct. 2008, 96). In a 9 February 2009 public letter, the Executive Director of the Laogai Research Foundation stated that couples in violation of family planning policies are "routinely subjected to forced abortions and/or sterilizations." However, specific reports of men undergoing forced sterilizations could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
According to an article published on the China Population Information and Research Center website, based on 2003 data collected by the National Population and Family Planning Commission of China, 8.9 percent of men have had sterilization surgery, compared to 37.6 percent of women (29 Oct. 2003).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
China Population Information and Research Center. 29 October 2003. Zhu Baoxia. "Men's Health Issues Underlined."
Laogai Research Foundation. 9 February 2009. Harry Wu. "LRF Executive Director Harry Wu Sends Open Letter to Secretary Clinton."
United States (US). 25 February 2009. Department of State. "China." Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2008.
_____. 31 October 2008. Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC). Annual Report 2008.
Additional Sources Consulted
Publications: Fertility, Family Planning, and Population Policy in China (2006); Governing China's Population: From Leninist to Neoliberal Biopolitics (2005).
Oral sources: Human Rights in China (HRIC), the US Congressional-Executive Commission on China (CECC), the Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC), the National Research Institute for Family Planning and two professors did not provide information within the time constraints of this Response. The World Health Organization (WHO) in China and two additional professors did not have information on this subject.
Internet sites, including: Amnesty International (AI), Asian Legal Resource Centre (ALRC), Australian Government – Refugee Review Tribunal, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Center for Reproductive Rights, China Daily [Beijing], China Health and Nutrition Survey, China Population Information and Research Center (CPIRC), Chinese Human Rights Defenders, European Country of Origin Information Network (ecoi.net), Fédération des Ligues des droits des hommes, The George Institute for International Health, The Guardian [London], Human Rights in China (HRIC), Human Rights Watch (HRW), Radio Free China, Shenzhen Daily, The Swiss Academy of Medicine and Ethics, United Kingdom (UK) Border Agency, World Health Organization (WHO).