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Situation of human rights in Iraq.

Publisher UN Commission on Human Rights
Author UN Commission on Human Rights (49th sess. : 1993 : Geneva)
Publication Date 10 March 1993
Citation / Document Symbol E/CN.4/RES/1993/74
Reference 49
Cite as UN Commission on Human Rights, Situation of human rights in Iraq., 10 March 1993, E/CN.4/RES/1993/74, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f043c.html [accessed 21 August 2014]

1993/74. Situation of human rights in Iraq

The Commission on Human Rights,

Guided by the principles embodied in the Charter of the United Nations, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenants on Human Rights,

Reaffirming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and to fulfil the obligations they have undertaken under the various international instruments in this field

Mindful that Iraq is a party to the International Covenants on Human Rights and to other human rights instruments,

Recalling Security Council resolution 688 (1991) of 5 April 1991, in which the Council demanded an end to the repression of the Iraqi civilian population and insisted that Iraq cooperate with humanitarian organizations to ensure that the human and political rights of all Iraqi citizens were respected,

Recalling also Security Council resolutions 706 (1991) of 15 August 1991, 712 (1991) of 19 September 1991 and 778 (1992) of 2 October 1992,

Recalling in particular its resolution 1991/74 of 6 March 1991, in which the Commission requested its Chairman to appoint a special rapporteur to make a thorough study of the violations of human rights by the Government of Iraq, based on all information the special rapporteur might deem relevant, including information provided by intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and any comments and material provided by the Government of Iraq,

Recalling further its pertinent resolutions condemning the flagrant violations of human rights by the Government of Iraq, including the most recent, resolution 1992/71 of 5 March 1992, by which it extended the mandate of the Special Rapporteur for a further year and requested him in pursuing his mandate to visit again the northern area of Iraq, in particular, and to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its forty-seventh session and a final report to the Commission at its forty-ninth session,

Recalling General Assembly resolutions 46/134 of 17 December 1991, in which the Assembly expressed its deep concern at the flagrant violations of human rights by the Government of Iraq, and 47/145 of 18 December 1992, in which the Assembly decided to continue the examination of the situation of human rights in Iraq at its forty-eighth session in the light of additional elements provided by the Commission on Human Rights and the Economic and social council,

Deeply concerned by the continued massive and grave violations of human rights by the Government of Iraq, such as summary and arbitrary executions, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, enforced or involuntary disappearances, arbitrary arrests and detentions, lack of due process and the rule of law and of freedom of thought, of expression and of association, as well as of the existence of specific and serious discrimination within the country in terms of access to food and health care,

Deeply concerned at the fact that chemical weapons have been used on the Iraqi civilian population, at the forced displacement of hundreds of thousands of Kurds and at the destruction of Iraqi towns and villages, as well as at the fact that tens of thousands of displaced Kurds have to take refuge in camps and shelters in the north of Iraq and at the deportation of thousands of Kurdish families,

Deeply concerned also that the severe and grave violations of human rights by the Government of Iraq have led to a deterioration of the situation of the civilian population in southern Iraq, in particular in the southern marshes,

Regretting that the Government of Iraq has not seen fit to respond to the formal request of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iraq to visit Iraq, and noting that, despite the formal cooperation extended to the Special Rapporteur by the Government of Iraq, such cooperation needs to be improved, in particular by giving full replies to the inquiries of the Special Rapporteur,

Expressing concern at the exceptional gravity of the human rights situation in Iraq and, therefore, welcoming the Special Rapporteur's proposal for the deployment of a team of human rights monitors,

1. Takes note with appreciation of the report on the situation of human rights in Iraq submitted by the Special Rapporteur (E/CN.4/1993/45) and the conclusions and recommendations contained therein;

2. Expresses its strong condemnation of the massive violations of human rights, of the gravest nature, for which the Government of Iraq is responsible, resulting in an all-pervasive order of repression and oppression which is sustained by broad-based discrimination and widespread terror, in particular:

(a) Summary and arbitrary executions, orchestrated mass executions and a mass graves throughout Iraq, extrajudicial killings, including political killings, in particular in the northern region of Iraq, in southern Shiah centres and in the southern marsh area;

(b) The widespread routine practice of systematic torture in its most cruel forms;

(c) Enforced or involuntary disappearances, routinely practised arbitrary arrests and detention, including of women, the elderly and children, and consistent and routine failure to respect due process and the rule of law;

(d) Suppression of freedom of thought, expression and association and violations of property rights;

(e) The unwillingness of the Government of Iraq to honour its responsibilities in respect of the economic rights of the population;

3. Calls once again upon Iraq, as a State party to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and to the International he Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, to abide by its freely undertaken obligations under the Covenants and under other international instruments on he human rights, and particularly to respect and ensure the rights of all individuals irrespective of their origin within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction;

4. Calls upon the Government of Iraq to release immediately all persons arbitrarily arrested and detained, including Kuwaitis and nationals of other States;

5. Urges the Government of Iraq to set up an independent commission of inquiry and to take all necessary Steps to cooperate closely with the Working he Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances to look into the fate of tens of thousands of disappeared persons;

6. Also urges the Government of Iraq to take immediate steps to bring the action of its security apparatus into line with the standards of international law, in particular those of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;

7. Expresses its special alarm at the repressive policies and practices directed against the Kurds, which continue to have an impact on the lives of the Iraqi people as a whole;

8. Also expresses its special alarm at the continued policy of discriminatory and repressive acts against the Shiah communities and the civilian population in southern Iraq, which is the result of a preconceived policy against the marsh Arabs;

9. Further expresses its special alarm at all internal embargoes which permit essentially no exceptions for humanitarian needs and which prevent the equitable enjoyment of basic foodstuffs and medical supplies, and calls upon Iraq, which has sole responsibility in this regard, to remove them and to take steps to cooperate with international humanitarian agencies in the provision of relief to those in need throughout Iraq;

10. Regrets the failure of the Government of Iraq to provide satisfactory replies concerning the violations of human rights brought to the attention of the Special Rapporteur, and calls upon the Government to reply without delay in a comprehensive and detailed manner so as to enable the Special Rapporteur to formulate the appropriate recommendations for improving the situation of human rights in Iraq;

11. Requests the Secretary-General, in consultation with the Special Rapporteur, to take the necessary measures in order to send human rights monitors to such locations as would facilitate improved information flows and assessment and would help in the independent verification of reports on the situation of human rights in Iraq;

12. Decides to extend for a further year the mandate of the Special Rapporteur as contained in Commission resolutions 1991/74 and 1992/71;

13. Urges the Government of Iraq to accord its full cooperation to the Special Rapporteur, notably during his next visit to Iraq;

14. Requests the Special Rapporteur to submit an interim report to the General Assembly at its forty-eighth session and a report to the Commission at its fiftieth session on the situation of human rights in Iraq;

15. Requests the Secretary-General to provide appropriate additional resources, within existing overall United Nations resources, to fund the sending of human rights monitors;

16. Also requests the Secretary-General to provide the Special Rapporteur with all the necessary assistance to perform his task;

17. Decides to continue its consideration of the situation of human rights in Iraq, under the same agenda item, at its fiftieth session.

66th meeting
10 March 1993
[Adopted by a roll-call vote of 36 to 1, with
15 abstentions. See chap. XII.]

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