Pakistan: The Jammu Kashmir Liberation League (JKLL), including its structure, mandate and activities, leaders, current status, and treatment of its members by the Azad Kashmiri and Pakistani authorities (1994 to September 1999)
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||24 September 1999|
|Citation / Document Symbol||PAK32735.E|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Pakistan: The Jammu Kashmir Liberation League (JKLL), including its structure, mandate and activities, leaders, current status, and treatment of its members by the Azad Kashmiri and Pakistani authorities (1994 to September 1999), 24 September 1999, PAK32735.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6ad6e90.html [accessed 30 January 2015]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Only limited information on the Jammu (and) Kashmir Liberation League (JKLL) in the UK could be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
Political Parties of Asia and the Pacific provided the following information in 1985 on the Azad Kashmir Liberation League (AKLL):
Founded in 1962 by K.H. Khurshid, then president of Azad Kashmir, the AKLL was one of the very few well-organized parties in the territory. Upon winning seven of the twenty-five seats in the Provincial Legislature in 1970, the AKLL established itself as the second largest partynext to the Pakistan People's Partyin Azad Kashmir. Although it had lost four of these members to other parties by the 1975 elections, the AKLL remained the second party with five of its members sitting in the expanded forty-two member Azad Kashmir Legislative Assembly following the 1975 elections.
The main, and most controversial, plank of the party's program demanded Pakistan's recognition of the Azad Kashmir government as the legitimate authority representing the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Although a partner in the four-party alliance that won the 1975 elections in the territory, the AKLL merged with the Azad Kashmir unit of the PPP in 1976. Following the military junta's usurpation of power in 1977, the party, still led by Khurshid, openly supported the regime's decision to postpone the legislative elections. On the Kashmir issue, the AKLL was prepared to respect the resolutions of the United Nations (1985, 894-95).
According to the Website of the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) of Amanullah Khan, 12 Kashmiri political, social and religious organizations, including the JKLL, met in Rawalpindi in July 1989 and formed an alliance called the Kashmir Liberation Alliance (KLA) (JKLF 29 May 1997a). Because some of the members violated the code of conduct, and the PPP lost interest in the KLA following the change of government, the KLA gradually became inactive (ibid.). Although it was revived in 1993, renamed the JKLA and increased its membership to over 30 groups, according to the JKLF, "it did not become active and did not achieve much" (ibid.).
Justice (Retd.) Abdul Majeed (Malik) has been referred to as the head of the JKLL (JKLF 29 May 1997b), its chief (Ministry of Information and Media Development 12 May 1999), and its president (Hasan Feb. 1999). On 31 August 1998 Maroof Akhter Abassi was acting president of the JKLL (MSANEWS 2 Sept. 1998).
In December 1995 Chaudhry Mohammed Sadiq from Birmingham was the senior vice president of the JKLL, although the source was not clear whether he held the position in the UK branch of the JKLL or the main group itself (India Abroad 29 Dec. 1995). At that time, Sadiq participated in a meeting of the leaders of several Kashmiri groups that met in Southall to challenge the claims of Pakistan to Kashmir and those of the pro-Pakistani Kashmir groups (ibid.).
The JKLF publication MSANEWS reported in October 1996 that on 14 September 1996 the Indian army had arrested all the leadership of the All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) in order to "make the process of the so-called elections to the state assembly successful" (MSANEWS 8 Oct. 1996). MSANEWS stated that Mirwaiz Maulvi Umar Farooq, APHC chairman, as well as the leader of the JKLL had been "confined to their houses in Srinagar and Islamabad respectively" while Syed Ali Gilani, Khawaja Abdul Ghani Lone, Yasin Malik, Javed Ahmed Mir and other Kashmiri leaders had been detained in the Ontipura police station (ibid.).
In mid-May 1999 Justice (Retd.) Abdul Majeed (Malik) was reported by the Pakistani paper The Nation to have stated at a news conference in Rawalpindi that
Kashmiris will never allow the division of Kashmir and they expect pressure from Pakistan and international community on India for the removal of Indian forces from Occupied Kashmir. Pakistan should not indicate deviation from its principled stand on Kashmir (Daily Press Summary 12 May 1999).
The Research Directorate was unable to obtain information on the JKLL structure, current status, or treatment of its members by the Azad Kashmiri and Pakistani authorities.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Hasan, Khalid. February 1999. Kashmir Freedom Movement: A Chronology: 1924-1998.
India Abroad [New York]. 29 December 1995. Sanjay Suri. "Pakistan's Claims Challenged in Britain." (The Ethnic NewsWatch/NEXIS)
Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF). 29 May 1997a. Important Events: Kashmir Liberation Alliance (KLA).
_____. 29 May 1997b. Important Events: All Parties Conference.
[JKLF] MSANEWS. 2 September 1998. "JKSLF Two-Day ConventionStarts Public Campaign for JKLF Formula, Newly Elected Body Takes Oath.
_____. 8 October 1996. KPI's Kashmir's News: Sept. 1-16.
[Pakistan] Ministry of Information and Media Development. 12 May 1999. Daily Press Summary.
Political Parties of Asia and the Pacific. 1985. Vol. 2. Edited by Haruhiro Fukui et al. Westport, CT.: Greenwood Press.
Additional Sources Consulted
Asian Survey [Berkeley, Calif.]. Monthly. January 1997-March/April 1999.
Human Rights Commission of Pakistan (HRCP). February 1998. State of Human Rights in 1997.
International Commission of Jurists (ICJ). 1995. Human Rights in Kashmir: Report of a Mission.
Kashmir Study Group. 1997. The Kashmir Dispute at Fifty: Charting Paths to Peace: 194701997.
Mondes rebelles: acteurs, conflits et violences politiques: Vol. 2: Asie, Maghreb, Proche et Moyen-Orient, Europe. 1996.
Political Handbook of the World 1998. 1998.
Refugees, Immigration and Asylum Section (RIAS), Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia. June 1994. Country Profile: India.
_____. October 1993. Refugee Determination: Country Profile: Pakistan.
Revolutionary and Dissident Movements of the World: An International Guide. 1991.
Thomas, Raju G.C. (ed). 1992. Perspectives on Kashmir: The Roots of the Conflict in South Asia.
Electronic sources: Internet, NEXIS.
Unsuccessful attempts to contact six oral sources.