Chad: Information on the Ouaddais, on the size of this group in Chad, in the Ouaddai region, in other regions of Chad and in the capital; on whether members of the Ouaddais ethnic group are experiencing problems in regions outside of the Ouddai region, if so where; on the number of Ouddais in positions of power or influence in the government, military, and public service; on whether the documents referring to the Ouddais refer to the region or the ethnic group; and on the numbers of other ethnic groups living in the Ouaddai region
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||1 July 1995|
|Citation / Document Symbol||TCD21093.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Chad: Information on the Ouaddais, on the size of this group in Chad, in the Ouaddai region, in other regions of Chad and in the capital; on whether members of the Ouaddais ethnic group are experiencing problems in regions outside of the Ouddai region, if so where; on the number of Ouddais in positions of power or influence in the government, military, and public service; on whether the documents referring to the Ouddais refer to the region or the ethnic group; and on the numbers of other ethnic groups living in the Ouaddai region, 1 July 1995, TCD21093.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6acf958.html [accessed 17 April 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Information, further to that provided in Response to Information Request TCD20346.E of 5 April 1995, on the above-mentioned subjects is limited among the sources consulted by the DIRB. None of the sources consulted by the DIRB refers to an ethnic group by the name of Ouaddais.
According to The New Encyclopedia Britannica, the Ouaddai (also Ouaddaï) is the "historic and cultural region in eastern Chad ... [that] roughly corresponds to the formerly independent Ouaddaï Muslim Sultanate" (1989, 8). The dominant group of the Ouaddai are "the Maba, a Negroid, Sudanic people" who are Muslims (ibid.). Arabs and the Fulani and "various other peoples" are also present (ibid.). This source provides no additional information on these groups or their numbers. For additional information about the region, please consult the attached article from this source.
The Encyclopaedia of the Third World states that Ouadai is one of 14 prefects in Chad (1992, 355). This source lists the Maba as a northern people amounting to five per cent of the population of Chad, which was estimated to be 5.017 million in 1990 (ibid., 351-52). This source also lists the Arabs and the Fulani "including M'Bororo" as northern peoples; the former amounting to 14 per cent and the latter one per cent of Chad's population (ibid.). No figures are available for the Ouddai region.
The Maba language is Boro Mabang, while Arabic is the language of the Arabs and the Fulani (ibid., 352). For additional general information on Chad, please consult the excerpts from The Encyclopaedia of the Third World and La grande encyclopédie du monde attached to this Response.
For brief references to the situation of people living in the Ouddai region, please consult the Amnesty International report, Chad: Empty Promises: Human Rights Violations Continue with Impunity, which is available at Regional Documentation Centres, and the attachments from Agence France Presse and West Africa.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the DIRB within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Encyclopedia of the Third World. 1992. 4th ed. Vol. 1. Edited by George Thomas Kurian. New York: Facts on File.
The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1989. 15th ed. Vol. 9. Edited by Philip W. Goetz. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Agence France Press (AFP). 3 November 1994. "Leaflet Orders Non-Moslems Out of Northern Chad." (NEXIS)
Encyclopedia of the Third World. 1992. 4th ed. Vol. 1. Edited by George Thomas Kurian. New York: Facts on File, pp. 349-56.
La grande encyclopédie du monde. 1989. Vol. 11. Montréal: Editions Atlas Canada, pp. 4724, 4728-29.
The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1989. 15th ed. Vol. 9. Edited by Philip W. Goetz. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, p. 8.
West Africa [London]. 14-20 November 1994. "CAR/Chad: Patasse Lashes Out," p. 1963.
Additional Sources Consulted
Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents. 1989.
Africa Confidential [London]. 1995.
L'Afrique contemporaine [Paris]. 1995.
Africa Report. [New York]. 1995.
Africa Research Bulletin: Political Series [London]. 1995.
Africa South of the Sahara. 1990.
Amnesty International Report 1994.
Amnesty International DIRB Country File.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. 1995.
Critique: Review of the Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices. 1994.
DIRB Country File.
L'Etat du monde 1995.
The Europa World Year Book 1994.
L'Expresse International. 1995.
Human Rights Watch World Report 1995.
Islam and Islamic Groups. 1992.
Jeune Afrique [Paris]. 1995.
Keesing's Record of World Events. 1994. "Reference Supplement."
La lettre du continent [Paris]. 1995.
The Minority Rights Group Reports. 1988. "Chad."
New African [London]. 1995.
New African Yearbook 1995-1996.
News From Africa Watch [New York].
Political Handbook of the World 1994-1995.
Political Parties of Africa and the Middle East. 1993.
Revolutionary and Dissident Movements: An International Guide. 1991.
World Directory of Minorities. 1990.
World Minorities in the Eighties. 1980.
World Refugees Survey 1995.
On line searches of news articles. 1994-1995.