Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
|Publisher||National Legislative Bodies|
|Author||Supreme People's Assembly|
|Publication Date||5 September 1998|
|Cite as||Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea , 5 September 1998, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b56d0.html [accessed 14 July 2014]|
|Comments||This is the unofficial translation. The amended and supplemented Constitution was adopted on 5 September 1998 by the first session of the 10th Supreme People's Assembly.|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
This is an unofficial translation
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a socialist fatherland of Juche which embodies the idea of and guidance by the great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung.
The great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung is the founder of the DPRK and the socialist Korea.
Comrade Kim Il Sung founded the immortal Juche idea, organized and guided an anti-Japanese revolutionary struggle under its banner, created revolutionary tradition, attained the historical cause of the national liberation, and founded the DPRK, built up a solid basis of construction of a sovereign and independent state in the fields of politics, economy, culture and military, and founded the DPRK.
Comrade Kim Il Sung put forward an independent revolutionary line, wisely guided the social revolution and construction at various levels, strengthened and developed the Republic into a people-centered socialist country and a socialist state of independence, self-sustenance, and self-defense.
Comrade Kim Il Sung clarified the fundamental principle of State building and activities, established the most superior state social system and political method, and social management system and method, and provided a firm basis for the prosperous and powerful socialist fatherland and the continuation of the task of completing the Juche revolutionary cause.
Comrade Kim Il Sung regarded "believing in the people as in heaven" as his motto, was always with the people, devoted his whole life to them, took care of and guided them with a noble politics of benevolence, and turned the whole society into one big and united family.
The great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung is the sun of the nation and the lodestar of the reunification of the fatherland. Comrade Kim Il Sung set the reunification of the country as the nation's supreme task, and devoted all his work and endeavors entirely to its realization.
Comrade Kim Il Sung, while turning the Republic into a mighty fortress for national reunification, indicated fundamental principles and methods for national reunification, developed the national reunification movement into a pan-national movement, and opened up a way for that cause, to be attained by the united strength of the entire nation.
The great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung made clear the fundamental idea of the Republic's external policy, expanded and developed diplomatic relations on this basis, and heightened the international prestige of the Republic. Comrade Kim Il Sung as a veteran world political leader, hew out a new era of independence, vigorously worked for the reinforcement and development of the socialist movement and the nonaligned movement, and for world peace and friendship between peoples, and made an immortal contribution to the mankind's independent cause.
Comrade Kim Il Sung was a genius ideological theoretician and a genius art leader, an ever-victorious, iron-willed brilliant commander, a great revolutionary and politician, and a great human being. Comrade Kim Il Sung's great idea and achievements in leadership are the eternal treasures of the nation and a fundamental guarantee for the prosperity and efflorescence of the DPRK.
The DPRK and the entire Korean people will uphold the great leader Comrade Kim Il Sung as the eternal President of the Republic, defend and carry forward his ideas and exploits and complete the Juche revolution under the leadership of the Workers' Party of Korea.
The DPRK Socialist Constitution is a Kim Il Sung constitution which legally embodies Comrade Kim Il Sung's Juche state construction ideology and achievements.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an independent socialist state representing the interests of all the Korean people.
The DPRK is a revolutionary state which has inherited brilliant traditions formed during the glorious revolutionary struggle against the imperialist aggressors, in the struggle to achieve the liberation of the homeland and the freedom and well-being of the people.
The DPRK is guided in its activities by the Juche idea, a world outlook centered on people, a revolutionary ideology for achieving the independence of the masses of people.
The sovereignty of the DPRK resides in the workers, peasants, working intellectuals and all other working people.
The working people exercise power through their representative organs -- the Supreme People's Assembly and local people's assemblies at all levels.
All the State organs in the DPRK are formed and function on the principle of democratic centralism.
The organs of State power at all levels, from the county People's Assembly to the SPA, are elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Deputies to the organs of State power at all levels have close ties with their constituents and are accountable to them for their work.
The electors may recall the deputies they have elected if the latter are not to be trusted.
The social system of the DPRK is a people-centered system under which the working people are masters of everything, and everything in society serves the working people.
The State shall defend and protect the interests of the workers, peasants and working intellectuals who have been freed from exploitation and oppression and become masters of the State and society.
The DPRK shall strive to achieve the complete victory of socialism in the northern half of Korea by strengthening the people's power and vigorously performing the three revolutions -- the ideological, cultural and technical -- and reunify the country on the principle of independence, peaceful reunification and great national unity.
The DPRK bases itself on the political and ideological unity of the entire people based on the worker-peasant alliance in which the working class plays a leading role.
The State strengthens the ideological revolution and revolutionizes and working-classizes all the social members, and binds the whole society in a united group, linked up with comradeship.
The DPRK shall conduct all activities under the leadership of the Workers' Party of Korea.
The State shall adhere to the class line, strengthen the dictatorship of people's democracy and firmly defend the people's power and socialist system against all subversive acts of hostile elements at home and abroad.
The State shall implement the mass line and apply the Chongsanri spirit and Chongsanri method to all its activities, the spirit and method by which superiors assist their subordinates, mix with the masses to find solutions to problems and rouse them to conscious enthusiasm preferentially through political work, with people.
The State shall powerfully conduct the Three-Revolution Red Flag Movement and other mass movements and accelerate the building of socialism to the maximum.
The DPRK shall champion the democratic, national rights of Koreans overseas and their rights recognized by the international law.
The DPRK shall guarantee the legal rights and interests of foreigners in its region.
Article 17 - 1
After the person or persons under protection moves out from the resettlement support facilities and into their respective places of residence, in accordance to presidential decree, the Minister of Unification shall place those persons under employment protection for two years starting from their first day of employment.
The Minister of Unification can provide the employers of those recognized as protected persons under the regulations of condition one with employment support funds that is within 1/2 of the employee's salary under the presidential decree.
Employers shall recognize any previous occupational status and experience that the protected persons may have had while in North Korea and should be earnestly considered for his/her employment.
The Minister of Unification can support employers who have displayed outstanding achievement in the employment of protected persons by means of purchase preference and privileges over products under the selection by presidential decree.
The Minister of Unification, under the selection by presidential decree, can assist in the employment of protected persons.
Article 17 -2
Minister of Unification can, by the decision of presidential decree, limit employment protection if the protected person or persons fall under any one of the conditions below, despite the regulations stipulated under clause 1 of article 17.
If he/she, without proper reason, does not accept employment with the company introduced and brokered by the minister of unification.
If he/she, without proper reason, arbitrarily resigns from the assigned workplace before completing the minimal requirement for work hours.
If he/she is dismissed from the place of employment for neglect of duty or other illicit conducts.
The Minister of Unification can, in accordance to the decision by presidential decree, provide agricultural training, field experience or any other forms of support for agricultural settlement to any protected person or persons who wish to engage in agricultural occupations.
The law of the DPRK reflects the wishes and interests of the working people and is a basic instrument for State administration.
Respect for the law and its strict adherence and execution is the duty of all institutions, enterprises, organizations and citizens.
The State shall perfect the system of socialist law and promote the socialist law-abiding life.
The DPRK relies on the socialist production relations and on the foundation of an independent national economy.
In the DPRK, the means of production are owned only by the State and social cooperative organizations.
The property of the State belongs to the entire people.
There is no limit to the property which the State can own.
Only the State possesses all the natural resources, railways, airports, transportation, communication organs and major factories, enterprises, ports and banks.
The State shall guarantee giving priority to the growth of its property which plays a leading role in the development of the national economy.
The property of social cooperative organizations belongs to the collective property of working people within the organizations concerned.
Social cooperative organizations can possess such property as land, agricultural machinery, ships, medium-small sized factories and enterprises.
The State shall protect the property of social cooperative organizations.
The State shall enhance the ideological consciousness and the technical and cultural level of the peasants, increase the role of the property of the entire people in leading the cooperative property so as to combine the two forms of property systematically, shall consolidate and develop the socialist cooperative economic system by improving the guidance and management of the cooperative economy and gradually transform the property of cooperative organizations into the property of the people as a whole based on the voluntary will of all their members.
Private property is confirmed to property meeting the simple and individual aims of the citizen.
Private property consists of socialist distributions of the result of labor and additional benefits of the State and society.
The products of individual sideline activities including those from the kitchen gardens of cooperative farmers and income from other legal economic activities shall also belong to private property.
The State shall protect private property and guarantee its legal inheritance.
The DPRK regards the steady improvement of the material and cultural standards of the people as the supreme principle of its activities.
The constantly-increasing material wealth of society in our country, where taxes have been abolished, is used entirely for promoting the well-being of the working people.
The State shall provide all working people with every condition for obtaining food, clothing and housing.
The independent national economy of the DPRK is a solid foundation for the people's happy socialist life and for the prosperity of the fatherland.
The State, holding fast to the line of building an independent national economy, shall accelerate Juche-orientation, modernization and scientific sophistication of the national economy, develop the national economy into a highly developed Juche-oriented one, strive to build a solid material and technical foundation commensurate with a complete socialist society.
Article 26 -2
If he/she was between the ages of fifty and sixty when protection was first issued under the regulations of article 8, despite the regulations of article 56 under the National Pension Law, the person or persons shall be eligible for national pension grants once he/she meets the conditions stipulated below.
1. For anyone below the age of sixty who is in between their fifth and tenth year of membership: On the day he/she reaches the age of sixty.
2. For anyone above the age of sixty who is in their fifth year of membership: On the day the person or persons lose his/her membership eligibility.
The amount of national pension appropriated under the regulations of condition one shall be the sum of what includes an additional supplementary pension equal to 250/1000 of the basic pension amount. When one exceeds his/her fifth year, that additional supplementary pension shall be equal to 50/1000 of the basic pension amount which will be added to the total pension for every exceed year.
Issues pertaining to the national pension of any person or persons under protective status that are not mentioned in the regulations of this law shall be dealt in accordance to the regulations of the National Pension Law.
Article 26- 3
During cases in which the government or other self-governing organizations aim to obtain a license or a commission for the establishment of accommodative amenities within the facilities under their ownership, applications filed by protected person or persons in accordance to this law should take precedence over all other considerations under the decision by presidential decree.
The technical revolution is vital to the development of the socialist economy.
The State shall perform all economic activities by giving top priority to solving the problem of technical development, push vigorously ahead with a mass technical revolution movement by accelerating scientific and technical development and the technical innovation of the national economy, free the working masses from backbreaking labor and narrow down the differences between physical and mental labor.
The State shall accelerate the technical revolution in the rural areas in order to eliminate differences between urban and rural areas, and class distinctions between the working class and the peasantry, industrialize and modernize agriculture, strengthen the guidance and assistance to rural areas by enhancing the role of the county.
The State shall undertake, at its own expense, the building of production facilities for the cooperative farms and modern houses in the countryside.
Socialism and Communism are built by the creative labor of the working masses.
In the DPRK, labor is an independent and creative work of the working masses, who have been freed from exploitation and suppression.
The State renders the labor of our working people, who do not worry about unemployment, more joyful and worthwhile, so that they willingly work with enthusiasm and creativeness for society, organizations and for themselves.
There shall be established the Association of Supporters for Defecting North Korean Residents (hereinafter referred to as "Supporters' Association") to execute the programs stipulated below.
1. Assistance programs to support the livelihood and social adaptation of North Korean defectors.
2. Assistance programs to support the employment of North Korean defectors
3. Other programs commissioned to support groups by the Minister of Unification that are recognized to be vital for resettlement efforts.
The State will decide to shorten the daily working hours depending on the hardness and special conditions of labor.
The State shall organize labor effectively, strengthen labor rules and take fully utilize labor's working hours.
In the DPRK, the minimum working age is 16 years old.
The State shall prohibit child labor under the stipulated working age.
The State shall firmly adhere to the principle of properly combining political guidance with economic and technical guidance, the unified guidance of the State with the creativity of each unit, monolithic leadership with democracy, political and moral incentives with material incentives in the guidance and management of the socialist economy.
The State shall guide and manage the national economy according to the Taean Work System, which is a socialist economic management form whereby the economy is operated and managed in a scientific and rational way depending on the collective power of the producing masses, and according to the agricultural guidance system whereby agricultural management is conducted by industrial methods.
The State shall introduce a cost accounting system in the economic management according to the demand of the Taean work system, and utilize such economic levers as prime costs, prices and profits.
The national economy of the DPRK is a planned economy.
The State shall balance a proportion between accumulation and consumption properly, accelerate the economic construction, continue to raise people's living standard and formulate and implement national economic development plans in order to strengthen the national defense capability.
The State shall formulate unified and detailed plans and guarantee a high rate production growth and a balanced development of the national economy.
The DPRK shall compile and implement the State budget along with the national economic development plan.
The State will intensify campaigns for increased production and expanded economy, carry out financial regulations strictly, increase the State's savings, and expand and develop the socialist property.
In the DPRK, the State and social cooperative organizations shall conduct foreign trade activities.
The State shall develop foreign trade on the principles of complete equality and mutual benefit.
The State shall encourage institutions, enterprises or associations of the DPRK to establish and operate equity and contractual joint venture enterprises with corporations or individuals of foreign countries within a special economic zone.
The State shall pursue a tariff policy with the aim of protecting the independent national economy.
Socialist culture, which is flourishing and developing in the DPRK, contributes to the improvement of the creative ability of the working people and to meeting their sound cultural and aesthetic demands.
The DPRK shall, by carrying out a thorough cultural revolution, train the working people to be builders of socialism and communism equipped with a profound knowledge of nature and society and a high level of culture and technology, thus making the whole of society intellectual.
The DPRK shall develop a truly popular, revolutionary culture which serves the socialist working people.
In building a socialist national culture, the State shall oppose the cultural infiltration of imperialism and any tendency to return to the past, protect its national cultural heritage, and develop it in keeping with the existing socialist situation.
The State shall eliminate the way of life inherited from the outmoded society and establish a new socialist way of life in every sphere.
The State shall put the principles of socialist education into practice and raise the new generation to be steadfast revolutionaries who will fight for society and the people, to be people of a new communist type who are knowledgeable, morally sound and physically healthy.
The State shall give precedence to public education and the training of cadres for the nation and combine general education with technological education, and education with productive labor.
The State shall develop universal compulsory 11-year education which includes a compulsory one-year preschool education at a high level in accordance with the trend of modern science and technology and the practical requirements of socialist construction.
The State shall train competent technicians and experts by enhancing the regular educational system as well as different forms of study while working, and by improving the scientific and theoretical levels of technical education and education on social science and basic science.
The State shall provide education to all pupils and students free of charge and grant allowances to students of universities and colleges.
The State shall strengthen social education and provide the working people with all available conditions for study.
The State shall maintain all children of preschool age in creches and kindergartens at State and public expense.
The State shall establish Juche in scientific research, introduce advanced science and technology in every possible way, open up new areas of science and technology and raise the country's science and technology to the world level.
The State shall draw up a proper plan for scientific research work, consolidate creative cooperation between scientists, specialists and producer masses.
The State shall develop a Juche-oriented, revolutionary literature and art, national in form and socialist in content.
The State shall develop a Juche-oriented, revolutionary literature and art, national in form and socialist in content.
The State shall encourage creative workers and artists to produce works of high ideological and artistic value and enlist the working masses widely in literary and artistic activity.
The State shall provide sufficient modern cultural facilities to meet the demands of the people who want to continually improve themselves, both mentally and physically, so that the working people may enjoy a socialist cultured, aesthetic life to their hearts' content.
The State shall safeguard our language from all attempts to obliterate it and shall develop it to meet present-day needs.
The State shall popularize physical culture and make it in a habit of people's life to make people fully prepared for labor and national defense; and develop physical technique conforming to the actual situation of our country and trends in the development of modern physical technique.
The State shall consolidate and develop the system of universal free medical service, and consolidates the section doctor system and the system of preventive medicine to protect people's life and improve working people's health.
The State shall adopt measures to protect the environment in preference to production, preserve and promote the natural environment and prevent environmental pollution so as to provide the people with a hygienic environment and working conditions.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea rests on the people's nationwide defence system.
The mission of the armed forces of the DPRK is to safeguard the interests of the working people, to defend the socialist system and the gains of the revolution from aggression and to protect the freedom, independence and peace of the country.
The State shall implement the line of self-reliant defence, the import of which is to arm the entire people, fortify the country, train the army into a cadre army and modernize the army on the basis of equipping the army and the people politically and ideologically.
The State shall strengthen military and mass discipline in the army and promote the display of the noble traditional trait of unity between officers and men and unity between the army and the people.
The terms for becoming a citizen of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea are defined by the Law on Nationality.
A citizen is under the protection of the DPRK regardless of the domicile.
In the DPRK the rights and duties of citizens are based on the collectivist principle, "One for all and all for one."
The State shall effectively guarantee genuine democratic rights and liberties as well as the material and cultural well-being of its citizens.
In the DPRK the rights and freedom of citizens shall be amplified with the consolidation and development of the social system.
Citizens enjoy equal rights in all spheres of State and public activities.
All citizens who have reached the age of 17 have the right to elect and to be elected, irrespective of sex, race, occupation, length of residence, property status, education party affiliation, political views or religion.
Citizens serving in the armed forces also have the right to elect and to be elected. A person who has been disenfranchised by a Court decision and a person legally certified insane do not have the right to elect or to be elected.
Citizens are guaranteed freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, demonstration and association.
The State shall guarantee conditions for the free activity of democratic political parties and social organizations.
Citizens have freedom of religious beliefs. This right is granted by approving the construction of religious buildings and the holding of religious ceremonies.
No one may use religion as a pretext for drawing in foreign forces or for harming the State and social order.
Citizens are entitled to submit complaints and petitions.
Complaints and petitions shall be investigated and dealt with according to procedure and within the period fixed by law.
Citizens have the right to work.
All able-bodied citizens choose occupations in accordance with their wishes and skills and are provided with stable jobs and working conditions.
Citizens work according to their abilities and are paid in accordance with the quantity and quality of their work.
Citizens have the right to relaxation. This right is ensured by the establishment of the working hours, the provision of holidays, paid leave, accommodation at health resorts and holiday homes at State expense and by a growing network of cultural facilities.
Citizens are entitled to free medical care, and all persons who are no longer able to work because of old age, illness or a physical disability, the old and children who have no means of support are all entitled to material assistance. This right is ensured by free medical care, an expanding network of hospitals, sanatoria and other medical institutions, State social insurance and other social security systems.
Citizens have the right to education. This right is ensured by an advanced educational system and by the educational measures enacted by the State for the benefit of the people.
Citizens are free to engage in scientific, literary and artistic pursuits.
The State shall grant benefits to inventors and innovators.
Copyright and patent rights shall be protected by law.
The citizens shall have freedom to reside in and travel to any place.
Revolutionary fighters, the families of revolutionary and patriotic martyrs, the families of soldiers of the People's Army and disabled enjoy the special protection of the State and society.
Women are accorded an equal social status and rights with men.
The State shall afford special protection to mothers and children by providing maternity leave, reduced working hours for mothers with many children, a wide network of maternity hospitals, creches and kindergartens, and other measures.
The State shall provide all conditions for women to play a full role in society.
Marriages and the family shall be protected by the State.
The State pays great attention to consolidating the family, the basic unit of social life.
Citizens are guaranteed inviolability of the person and the home and privacy of correspondence.
No citizens can be placed under control or be arrested nor can their homes be searched without a legal warrant.
The DPRK shall grant the right of asylum to foreign nationals persecuted for struggling or peace and democracy, national independence and socialism for the freedom of scientific and cultural pursuit.
Citizens shall firmly safeguard the political and ideological unity and solidarity of the people.
Citizens must value organizations and collectives, and must demonstrate the spirit of devoting themselves to the work for the society and the people.
Citizens shall strictly observe the laws of the State and the socialist standards of life and defend their honor and dignity as citizens of the DPRK.
Work is noble duty and honor of a citizen.
Citizens shall willingly and conscientiously participate in work and strictly observe labor discipline and the working hours.
Citizens shall take good care of State and communal property, combat all forms of misappropriation and waste and manage the nation's economy diligently as the masters.
The property of the State and the social, cooperative organization is inviolable.
Citizens shall constantly increase their revolutionary vigilance and devotedly fight for the security of the State.
National defense is the supreme duty and honor of citizens.
Citizens shall defend the country and serve in the army as required by law.
The Supreme People's Assembly
The Supreme People's Assembly is the highest organ of State power in the DPRK.
The SPA exercises legislative power.
When the SPA is not in session, the SPA Presidium also can exercise legislative power.
The SPA is composed of deputies elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
The SPA is elected for a term of five years.
A new election is held before the term expires according to the decision of the SPA Presidium.
The term is extended if an election is not held due to unavoidable circumstances.
The SPA has the authority to:
1.amend and supplement the Constitution,
2.adopt, amend and supplement departmental laws,
3.approve major departmental laws adopted by the SPA Presidium in the intervals between the sessions of the SPA,
4.establish the basic principles of the State's domestic and foreign policies,
5.elect or transfer the Chairman of the DPRK National Defense Commission,
6.elect or remove the President of the SPA Presidium,
7.elect or transfer the first vice-chairman, vice-chairmen and members of the National Defense Commission according to the recommendation of the Chairman of the DPRK National Defense Commission,
8.elect or transfer the vice-presidents, honorary vice presidents, secretary and members of the SPA Presidium,
9.elect or transfer the Premier of the Cabinet,
10. appoint the vice premiers of the Cabinet, chairmen of commissions, ministers and other members of the Cabinet according to the recommendation of the Premier of the Cabinet,
11. appoint or remove the Prosecutor-general,
12. elect or transfer the Chief Justice,
13. elect or transfer the chairmen, vice chairmen and members of the committees of the SPA,
14. examine and approve the State plan for the development of the national economy and a report on its fulfillment,
15. examine and approve a report on the State budget and on its implementation,
16. receive a report on the work of the Cabinet and national institutions and adopt measures, if necessary,
17. decide on the ratification or abrogation of treaties submitted to the SPA.
The SPA holds regular and extraordinary sessions.
Regular sessions are convened once or twice a year by the SPA Presidium. Extraordinary sessions are convened when the SPA Presidium deems them necessary or at the request of a minimum of one-third of the total number of deputies.
The SPA requires a quorum of at least two-thirds of the total number of deputies in order to meet.
The SPA elects its Chairman and vice chairmen.
The Chairman presides over the sessions.
An item on the agenda to be deliberated on by the SPA is submitted to the SPA Presidium, Cabinet and SPA committees.
Each of the first session of the SPA elects a Credentials Committee and, on hearing the Committee's report, adopts a decision confirming the credentials of deputies.
The SPA adopts laws and decisions.
Laws and decisions of the SPA are adopted when more than half of the deputies attending signify approval by a show of hands.
The Constitution is amended and supplemented with the approval of more than two-thirds of the total number of deputies to the SPA.
The SPA sets up committees such as the legislation committee and the budget committee.
The SPA committees consist of its chairman, vice chairmen and members.
The SPA committees assist in the work of the SPA; they plan or deliberate on the State policy and bills and take measures for their implementation.
When the SPA is not in session, committees operate under the guidance of the SPA Presidium.
Deputies to the SPA are guaranteed inviolability as such.
No deputy to the SPA can be arrested or punished without the consent of the SPA or, when it is not in session, without the consent of the SPA Presidium, except for a flagrant offence.
The National Defense Commission
The National Defense Commission is the highest military leading organ of State power and an organ for general control over national defense.
The NDC consists of its Chairman, first vice chairman, vice chairmen and members.
The term of the NDC Chairman is the same as that of the SPA.
The Chairman of the NDC directs and commands all the armed forces and guides defense affairs as a whole.
The NDC has the duties and authority to:
1.guide the armed forces and guide the State in defense building as a whole,
2.set up or abolish a national institution in the defense sector,
3.appoint or remove major military cadres,
4.set up military titles and confer the military rank of general and higher ranks,
5.proclaim a state of war and orders for mobilization.
The NDC issues decisions and orders.
The NDC is accountable to the SPA.
The SPA Presidium
The SPA Presidium is the highest organ of power in the intervals between sessions of the SPA.
The SPA Presidium consists of its Chairman, vice chairman, secretaries and members.
The SPA Presidium may appoint some honorary vice chairmen.
The honorary vice chairmen may be those from among SPA deputies who have participated in State construction works for a long time and made a noticeable contribution.
The term of the SPA Presidium is the same as that of the SPA.
The SPA Presidium continuously fulfill its duty after its term expires until a new SPA Presidium is elected.
The SPA Presidium has the duties and authority to
1.convene sessions of the SPA,
2.examine and adopt new departmental bills and regulations, raised when the SPA is in recess, and examine and adopt drafts of amendment and supplement to departmental bills and regulations in force, and receive approval from the next SPA session on important departmental bills which will be adopted and implemented,
3.examine and approve the State plan for the development of the national economy, the State budget and its adjusted plan, raised when the SPA is in recess due to unavoidable circumstances,
4.interpret the Constitution, departmental laws and regulations in force.
5.supervise the observance of laws of State organs, and adopt measures,
6.abolish State organs' decisions which violate the Constitution, SPA's laws and decisions, NDC's decisions and orders and the SPA Presidium's decrees, decisions and directions, and suspend the implementation of unwarranted decisions by a local people's assembly,
7.do work for an SPA deputy election, and organize an election for deputies in a local people's assembly,
8.do work with SPA deputies,
9.do work with SPA departmental committees,
10. form or abolish commissions and ministries of the Cabinet,
11. appoint or remove vice premiers, chairman, and Cabinet and ministry members upon a proposal by Premier when the SPA is in recess,
12. appoint or remove members of departmental committees of the SPA Presidium,
13. elect or transfer judges of the Central Court and people's assessors,
14. ratify or abrogate treaties concluded with other countries,
15. decide on and publish the appointment or recall of diplomatic envoys accredited to foreign countries,
16. institute a decoration, a medal, an honorary title and a diplomatic rank, and grant a decoration, a medal, and an honorary title,
17. exercise the right to grant general amnesties or special pardon,
18. institute and reorganize an administration unit and district.
The President of the SPA Presidium organizes and guides the work of the presidium.
The President of the SPA Presidium represents the State and receives credentials and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives accredited by a foreign state.
The SPA Presidium convenes a plenary meeting and an executive meeting.
The plenary meeting consists of all the members and the executive meeting of the President, vice presidents, and secretary.
The SPA Presidium's plenary meeting deliberates on and adopts important issues for the Presidium to implement its duties and authority.
The executive meeting deliberates on and adopts issues which are entrusted to it by the plenary meeting.
The SPA Presidium issues decrees, decisions and directions.
The SPA Presidium may set up its assistant departmental committees.
The SPA Presidium is accountable to the SPA.
The Cabinet is the administrative and executive body of the highest organ of State power and a general state management organ.
The Cabinet consists of the Premier, vice premiers, chairmen of commissions, ministers and some other necessary members.
The Cabinet's term is the same as that of the SPA.
The Cabinet has duties and authority to:
1.adopt measures to execute state policy,
2.institute, amend, and supplement regulations concerning state management based on the Constitution and departmental laws,
3.guide the work of the Cabinet commissions, ministries, direct organs of the Cabinet, local people's committees,
4.set up and remove direct organs of the Cabinet, main administrative economic organizations, and enterprises, and adopt measures to improve the State management structure,
5.draft the State plan for the development of the national economy and adopt measures to put it into effect,
6.compile the State budget and adopt measures to implement it,
7.organize and exercise works in the fields of industry, agriculture, construction, transportation, communications, commerce, trade, land management, city management, education, science, culture, health, physical training, labor administration, environmental protection, tourism and others,
8.adopt measures to strengthen the monetary and banking system,
9.do inspection and control work to establish a state management order,
10. adopt measures to maintain social order, protect State and social cooperation body's possession and interests, and to guarantee citizens' rights,
11. conclude treaties with foreign countries, and conduct external activities,
12. abolish decisions and directions by economic administrative organs, which run counter to the Cabinet decisions or directions,
The Premier of the Cabinet organizes and guides the work of the Cabinet.
The Premier represents the government of the DPRK.
The Cabinet convenes a plenary meeting and an executive meeting.
The plenary meeting consists of all the Cabinet members and the executive meeting of the Premier, vice premier and other Cabinet members whom the Premier nominates.
The Cabinet plenary meeting deliberates on and adopts new and important issues in economic administrative work.
The Cabinet adopts decisions and directions.
The Cabinet may set up non-permanent departmental committees which assist in its works.
The Cabinet is accountable to the SPA, and to the SPA Presidium when the SPA is in recess.
The newly elected Premier of the Cabinet makes an oath in the SPA, representing Cabinet members.
The Cabinet commission and ministries are departmental executive organs, and departmental management organs.
The Cabinet commissions and ministries grasp, guide and manage the work in charge, under the guidance of the Cabinet.
The Cabinet commissions and ministries manage committee assemblies and cadres assemblies. Commission and ministry committee assemblies and cadres assemblies deliberate on and adopt measures to exercise Cabinet decisions, and directions and other important issues.
The Cabinet commissions and ministries issue directions.
Local People's Assembly
Provincial (or municiparity directly under the central authority), municipal (district), and county local people's assemblies are local sovereign power organs.
The LPA consists of deputies elected on the principle of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
The term of provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority), municipal (district), and county local people's assemblies are four years.
A new election of the LPA is held according to a decision of a Local People's Committee (LPC) at the corresponding level before the LPA's term expires.
The LPA has the duties and authority to:
1.deliberate on and approve a report on local plans for the development of the national economy, and their implementation,
2.deliberate on and approve a report on a local budget and its execution,
3.adopt measures to exercise State laws in the area concerned,
4.elect or recall the chairman, vice chairmen, secretary of the people's committee at the corresponding level,
5.elect or recall judges of a court and people's assessors,
6.abolish unwarranted decisions and directions adopted by a people's committee, and a lower people's assembly.
The LPA convenes a regular assembly and an extraordinary assembly.
The regular assembly is convened once or twice in a year by an LPC at the corresponding level.
The extraordinary assembly is held when the people's committee at the corresponding level deems it necessary or at the request of a minimum of one-third of the total numbers of deputies.
The LPA forms a quorum when the two-third of the deputies participate in it.
The LPA elects its chairman.
The LPA issues its decisions.
Local People's Committee
Provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority), municipal (district), and county local people's committees are local sovereign power organs when the corresponding LPAs are in recess, and are administrative executive organs of local sovereignty.
The LPC consists of its chairman, vice chairmen, secretaries and members.
The term of LPC is the same as that of the LPA.
The LPC has the duties and authorities to:
1.convene a people's assembly,
2.do preparatory work for the election of a local assembly,
3.do work with deputies of a people's assembly,
4.exercise laws, decrees, decisions and directions of the people's assembly at the corresponding level, upper people's assemblies, people's committees, and the Cabinet, Cabinet commissions, and ministries,
5.organize and exercise all the administrative work in the area concerned,
6.draft a local plan for the development of the national economy and adopt measures to put it into effect,
7.compile a local budget and adopt measures to put it into effect,
8.adopt measures to maintain social order in the area concerned, protect the property and interests of the State and social cooperative organizations, and to guarantee citizens' rights,
9.do inspection and control work to establish order in state management in the area concerned,
10. guide the lower people's committees in its work,
11. abolish unwarranted decisions and direction adopted by a lower people's committee, and suspend implementation of unwarranted decisions made by a lower people's committee.
The LPC convenes a plenary meeting and an executive meeting.
The plenary meeting consists of all the LPC members, and the executive meeting of the chairman, vice chairmen, and secretary.
The plenary meeting deliberates on and adopts important issues for the LPC to implement its duties and authority.
The LPC issues decisions and directions.
The LPC may set up non-permanent departmental committees which assist in its works.
The LPC is accountable to the LPA at the correspondent level.
The LPC is subordinate to the upper people's committees and the Cabinet.
Public Procurators' Office and Court
Justice is administered by the Central Court, the Court of the province (or municipality directly under the central authority), municipal and county courts and the Special Court.
The term of office of the President of the Central Court is the same as that of the SPA.
The Central Procurators' Office appoints and recalls a public procurator.
The functions of the Public Procurators' Office are to:
1.ensure the strict observance of laws by institutions, enterprises, organizations and by citizens,
2.ensure that decisions and directives of State bodies conform with the Constitution, the SPA's laws and decisions, the NDC's decisions and orders, the SPA Presidium's decrees, decisions, and directions, and the Cabinet decisions.
3.expose and institute legal proceedings against criminals and offenders in order to protect the State power of the DPRK, the socialist system, the property of the State and social, cooperative organizations and personal rights as guaranteed by the Constitution and the people's lives and property.
Investigation are prosecution are conducted under the unified direction of the Central Public Procurators' Office, and all Public Procurators Offices are subordinate to their higher offices and the Central Procurators' Office.
The Central Procurators' Office is accountable to the SPA, and to the SPA Presidium when the SPA is in recess.
Justice is administered by the Central Court, Provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority) Court, People's Court or by the Special Court.
Verdicts are delivered in the name of the DPRK.
The term of director of the Central Court is the same as that of the SPA. The term of judges of the Central Court, Provincial (or municipality directly under the central authority) Court, People's Court, and that of the people's assessors are the same as that of the people's assembly at the corresponding level.
The Central Court appoints and removes the director and judges of the Special Court.
People's assessors of the Special Court are elected by soldiers of the unit concerned or by employees at their meetings.
The court has the duties to:
1.protect through judicial procedure the State power and the socialist system established in the DPRK, the property of the State and social, cooperative organizations, personal rights as guaranteed by the Constitution, and the lives and property of citizens,
2.ensure that all institutions, enterprises, organizations and citizens abide strictly by State laws and staunchly combat class enemies and all law-breakers;
3.give judgements and findings with regard to property and conduct notarial work.
A trial is conducted by a court which consists of one judge and two people's assessors. In a special case, the court may consists of three judges.
Court cases are heard in public and the accused is guaranteed the right of defence.
Hearings may be closed to the public as stipulated by law.
Judicial proceedings are conducted in the Korean language.
Foreign citizens may use their own language during court proceedings.
In administering justice, the Court is independent, and judicial proceedings are carried out in strict accordance with the law.
The Central Court is the supreme court of the DPRK.
The Central Court supervises trial activities of all courts.
The Central Court is accountable to the SPA, and to the SPA Presidium when the SPA is in recess.
The national emblem of the DPRK bears the design of a grand hydroelectric power station under Mt. Paektu, the sacred mountain of the revolution, and the beaming light of a five-pointed red star, with ears of rice forming an oval frame, bound with a red ribbon bearing the inscription "The Democratic People's Republic of Korea."
The national flag of the DPRK consists of a central red panel, bordered both above and below by a narrow white stripe and a broad blue stripe. The central red panel bears a five-pointed red star within a white circle near the hoise.
The ratio of the width to its length is 1:2.
The national anthem of the DPRK is "the Patriotic Song."
The capital of the DPRK is Pyongyang.