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Policies of apartheid of the Government of South Africa A International solidarity with the liberation struggle in South Africa

Publisher UN General Assembly
Author UN General Assembly
Publication Date 5 December 1988
Citation / Document Symbol A/RES/43/50
Reference 68th plenary meeting
Cite as UN General Assembly, Policies of apartheid of the Government of South Africa A International solidarity with the liberation struggle in South Africa , 5 December 1988, A/RES/43/50, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3b00f18f20.html [accessed 14 July 2014]

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolution 42/23 A of 20 November 1987,

Having considered the report of the Special Committee against Apartheid, in particular paragraphs 183 to 194,

Gravely concerned at the escalating repression of and State terror against opponents of apartheid and the increasing intransigence of the racist regime of South Africa, exemplified by the continuous extension of the state of emergency, the imposition of severe restrictions on peaceful anti-apartheid organizations and individuals, the increasing number of arbitrary detentions, trials, torture and killings, including those of women and children, the increased use of vigilante groups and the stifling of the press,

Noting with serious concern the racist regime's continuing acts of aggression and destabilization against neighbouring independent African States, including assassinations and abductions of freedom fighters in those States and elsewhere, and the continuing illegal occupation of Namibia,

1.         Reaffirms its full support to the majority of the South African people in their struggle, under the leadership of their national liberation movements, the African National Congress of South Africa and the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, to eradicate apartheid totally, so that all the people of South Africa as a whole, irrespective of race, colour or creed, may enjoy equal and full political and other rights, and participate freely in the determination of their destiny;

2.         Reaffirms further the legitimacy of the struggle of the people of South Africa and their right to choose the necessary means, including armed struggle, to attain the eradication of apartheid, and the establishment of a free, democratic, unfragmented and non-racial South Africa;

3.         Condemns the racist regime and its policies and practices of apartheid and, in particular, the execution of patriots and captured freedom fighters in South Africa and demands that the racist regime:

(a)        Stop the execution of political prisoners at present on death row;

(b)        Recognize prisoner-of-war status of captured freedom fighters in accordance with the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and Additional Protocol I of 1977 thereto;

4.         Demands again:

(a)        The lifting of the state of emergency;

(b)        The immediate and unconditional release of Nelson Mandela and all other political prisoners and detainees;

(c)        The lifting of the ban on all political organizations and opponents of apartheid;

(d)        The safe return of all political exiles;

(e)        The withdrawal of the regime's troops from black townships;

(f)         The repeal of restrictions on the freedom of the press;

(g)        The end of the policy of bantustanization and forced population removals;

(h)        The end of military and paramilitary activities aimed at the neighbouring countries;

5.         Demands in particular that all detained children be unconditionally released and that the abhorrent practice of applying repressive measures to children and minors cease immediately;

6.         Considers that the implementation of the above demands would create the appropriate conditions for free consultations among all the people of South Africa with a view to negotiating a just and lasting solution to the conflict in that country;

7.         Appeals to all States, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, mass media, and city and other local authorities as well as individuals to increase urgently political, economic, educational, legal, humanitarian and all other forms of necessary assistance to the people of South Africa and their national liberation movements;

8.         Also appeals to all States, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to step up material, financial and other forms of support to the front-line and other neighbouring independent States;

9.         Urges all countries to contribute generously to the Action for Resisting Invasion, Colonialism and Apartheid Fund set up by the Eighth Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries with the aim of increasing support to the national liberation movements fighting the apartheid regime and to the front-line and other neighbouring independent States;

10.       Decides to continue the authorization of adequate financial provision in the regular budget of the United Nations to enable the South African liberation movements recognized by the Organization of African Unity - namely, the African National Congress of South Africa and the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania - to maintain offices in New York in order to participate effectively in the deliberations of the Special Committee against Apartheid and other appropriate bodies;

11.       Requests Governments and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to exert their influence towards the implementation of the present resolution.

B

Military collaboration with South Africa

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolutions and those of the Security Council on the arms embargo, as well as other resolutions on collaboration with South Africa,

Taking note of the report of the Special Committee against Apartheid, including annex I thereof,

Considering that the full implementation of an arms embargo against South Africa is an essential element of international action against apartheid,

Taking note of the statement adopted on 18 December 1987 by the Security Council Committee established by resolution 421 (1977) of 9 December 1977 concerning the question of South Africa, which "noted with alarm and great concern that large quantities of arms and military equipment, including highly sophisticated materiel, were still reaching South Africa directly or via clandestine routes",

Regretting that some countries surreptitiously continue to deal in arms with South Africa and allow South Africa to participate in international arms exhibitions,

1.         Strongly urges those States which directly or indirectly infringe the arms embargo and continue to collaborate with South Africa in the military, nuclear, and military intelligence and technology fields, in particular certain Western States and Israel, to terminate forthwith such acts;

2.         Urges the Security Council to consider immediate steps to ensure the scrupulous and full implementation of the arms embargo imposed by the Council in resolution 418 (1977) of 4 November 1977 and its effective monitoring;

3.         Requests the Special Committee against Apartheid to keep the matter under constant review and to report thereon to the General Assembly and the Security Council as appropriate.

C

Comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against the racist regime of South Africa

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolution 42/23 C of 20 November 1987,

Recalling its earlier resolutions and those of the Security Council calling for concerted international action to force the racist regime of South Africa to eradicate apartheid,

Having considered the report of the Special Committee against Apartheid, in particular paragraphs 188 to 194,

Noting with satisfaction the entering into force on 3 April 1988 of the International Convention against Apartheid in Sports,

Gravely concerned at the continuing defiance by the apartheid regime of the will of the international community, the regime's provocative non-compliance with resolutions of the Security Council and the General Assembly, its escalating terror against the people of South Africa, its continuing illegal occupation of Namibia, and its acts of military aggression and political and economic destabilization against independent African States,

Expressing serious concern at the continuing violation of the arms embargo against South Africa,

Noting with grave concern that some Member States and transnational corporations have continued economic relations with South Africa, while some others have begun to exploit opportunities created by sanctions imposed by other States thus substantially increasing their trade with South Africa,

1.         Reaffirms that apartheid is a crime against humanity and a threat to international peace and security, and that it is a primary responsibility of the United Nations to assist in efforts to eliminate apartheid without further delay;

2.         Encourages States that have not yet done so to accede to the International Convention against Apartheid in Sports, and calls upon all States to support the work of the Commission against Apartheid in Sports;

3.         Calls upon those States which have increased their trade with South Africa and, particularly, Japan, which recently emerged as the most important trading partner of South Africa, to sever trade relations with South Africa;

4.         Decides once again that the imposition of comprehensive and mandatory sanctions by the Security Council under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations would be the most appropriate, effective and peaceful means to bring apartheid to an end and to discharge the responsibilities of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security, which are threatened and violated by the apartheid regime;

5.         Urgently requests the Security Council, therefore, to consider immediate action under Chapter VII of the Charter with a view to applying comprehensive and mandatory sanctions against the racist regime of South Africa and calls upon those Governments which are opposed to the application of comprehensive and mandatory sanctions to reassess their policies and cease their opposition to the application of such sanctions by the Security Council;

6.         Appeals to the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America to co-operate in the imposition of comprehensive, mandatory sanctions by the international community against racist South Africa as a means for achieving peaceful change in that country;

7.         Urges the Security Council to strengthen the mandatory arms embargo imposed by its resolutions 418 (1977) of 4 November 1977 and 558 (1984) of 13 December 1984 in order to bring to an end the continued violations of the arms embargo.

D

Imposition, co-ordination and strict monitoring of measures against racist South Africa

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolutions on sanctions against South Africa,

Taking note of the report of the Special Committee against Apartheid, in particular paragraphs 191 to 194, and of the Secretary-General's report on implementation of national measures adopted against South Africa,

Considering that measures taken by States individually and some collectively, while commendable, vary in coverage and degree of enforcement, which allows for the exploitation of existing gaps and loopholes,

Concerned at the increasing number of States that exploit the trade gaps created by the imposition of these measures,

Commending the action taken by labour unions, women's organizations, student groups and other anti-apartheid organizations for the isolation of the apartheid regime,

1.         Urges all States that have not yet done so, pending the imposition of comprehensive and mandatory sanctions, to adopt legislative and/or comparable measures to impose effective sanctions against South Africa and, in particular:

(a)        To impose embargoes on the supply of all products, technologies, skills and services that can be used for the military and nuclear industry of South Africa, including military intelligence;

(b)        To impose embargoes on the supply of oil and petroleum products;

(c)        To prohibit the import of coal, gold, other minerals and agricultural products from South Africa and Namibia;

(d)        To induce transnational corporations, banks and financial institutions to withdraw effectively from South Africa by ceasing equity and non-equity investment, transfer of technology and know-how, and provision of credit and loans;

(e)        To sever all air, sea and other transport links with South Africa;

(f)         To prevent, through appropriate measures, their citizens from serving in South Africa's armed forces and other sensitive sectors;

(g)        To take appropriate measures to ensure the effectiveness of the sports and cultural boycott of the racist regime of South Africa;

2.         Further urges all States to monitor strictly the implementation of the above measures and adopt when necessary legislation providing for penalties on individuals and enterprises violating those measures;

3.         Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session on new legislative and/or comparable measures adopted and implemented by States against South Africa, especially on areas in which the South African economy depends on the outside world.

E

Relations between South Africa and Israel

The General Assembly,

Recalling its resolution 42/23 D of 20 November 1987,

Having considered the report of the Special Committee against Apartheid, particularly annex I on recent developments concerning relations between South Africa and Israel,

1.         Calls upon Israel to abide by the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly and the Security Council by terminating forthwith all forms of military, nuclear, intelligence, economic and other collaboration, particularly its long-term contracts for military supplies, with South Africa;

2.         Requests the Special Committee against Apartheid to continue to monitor the relations between South Africa and Israel and keep them under constant review, including the implementation of the measures adopted by Israel, and report to the General Assembly and the Security Council as appropriate.

F

Programme of work of the Special Committee against Apartheid

The General Assembly,

Having considered the report of the Special Committee against Apartheid,

1.         Commends the Special Committee against Apartheid for its work in the discharge of its responsibilities in promoting international action against apartheid;

2.         Takes note of the report of the Special Committee and endorses the recommendations contained in paragraph 194 of the report relating to its programme of work;

3.         Decides to make a special allocation of 400,000 dollars to the Special Committee for 1989 from the regular budget of the United Nations to cover the cost of special projects to be decided upon by the Committee;

4.         Requests Governments and organizations to provide financial and other assistance for the special projects of the Special Committee and to make generous contributions to the Trust Fund for Publicity against Apartheid;

5.         Appeals to all Governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, information media and individuals to co-operate with the Centre against Apartheid and the Department of Public Information of the Secretariat in their activities against apartheid, and in particular in disseminating information on the deteriorating situation in South Africa in order to mitigate the effects of the restraints on the press in South Africa and to effectively counteract South African propaganda.

G

Special session of the General Assembly on apartheid and its destructive consequences in southern Africa

The General Assembly,

Gravely concerned at the escalating repression mounted against the opponents of apartheid in South Africa,

Further concerned about the racist regime's continued aggression against the front-line States and its destructive consequences,

Taking note of the Declaration of the Conference of Foreign Ministers of Non-Aligned Countries held at Nicosia from 7 to 10 September 1988,

Indignant at the continued non-implementation of the General Assembly and Security Council resolutions by South Africa,

1.         Decides to hold a special session of the General Assembly on apartheid and its destructive consequences in southern Africa before its forty-fourth session, on a date to be determined by the Secretary-General in consultation with the Special Committee against Apartheid;

2.         Requests the Secretary-General to make the necessary administrative arrangements towards the convening of the special session.

H

Dissemination of information against the policies of apartheid of the regime of racist South Africa

The General Assembly,

Recalling and reaffirming the legislative mandate of its resolutions 32/105 H of 14 December 1977, paragraph 4, and 33/183 I of 24 January 1979, in which it requested the Secretary-General to undertake, in co-operation with Member States, a regular programme of radio broadcasts directed at South Africa,

Recalling further its resolutions 13 (I) of 13 February 1946, 595 (VI) of 4 February 1952, 1335 (XIII) of 13 December 1958, 1405 (XIV) of 1 December 1959, 3535 (XXX) of 17 December 1975, 32/105 B of 14 December 1977, 33/115 of 18 December 1978, 34/181 and 34/182 of 18 December 1979, 35/201 of 16 December 1980, 36/149 of 16 December 1981 and 40/64 D of 10 December 1985, in which it requested the Secretary-General to intensify and expand radio programmes for broadcast to southern Africa,

Strongly convinced of the need to intensify and expand activities aimed at mobilizing world public opinion against the evil system of apartheid in South Africa,

Mindful of the important role of the United Nations and its specialized agencies in the dissemination of information against apartheid, as enshrined in the relevant General Assembly resolutions,

Bearing in mind the malicious propaganda activities of the racist regime of South Africa, which continues to commit numerous acts of military aggression and destabilization against the front-line States and other neighbouring States in the region, and the imperative need to effectively counter these activities,

Alarmed at the planned reduction in the establishment of the Anti-Apartheid Programmes Section of the Department of Public Information of the Secretariat,

Concerned at the continuous reduction in programme output over the years, and distressed at the prospect of the Department of Public Information's proposal to further reduce radio programmes directed at the people of South Africa and Namibia at this crucial period when the racist regime has escalated its disinformation campaign and mass media black-out,

Bearing in mind resolution 41/213 of 19 December 1986 regarding the restructuring of the administrative and financial functioning of the United Nations and, in particular, the need to ensure that reforms are implemented with flexibility and not have a negative impact on mandated and priority programmes,

Noting with appreciation that the Secretary-General has initiated radio programmes in co-operation with Member States whose broadcasts can be heard in southern Africa in the main languages spoken in South Africa, which are English, Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Xhosa and Zulu,

Taking into consideration that radio is the commonly and widely used as well as easily accessible medium of communication in the region,

1.         Urges the Secretary-General to:

(a)        Intensify, increase and expand these radio broadcasts as well as the production of audio-visual material and to maintain, without interference, the unique linguistic features and characteristics of these programmes;

(b)        Provide all appropriate technical and financial assistance to radio stations of those Member States which are broadcasting or willing to broadcast to South Africa, in order to enable their radio transmitters to be heard inside South Africa;

(c)        Ensure regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of these programmes;

(d)        Retain and commensurately increase the personnel in these programmes in accordance with the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly, in particular, resolution 42/220 of 21 December 1987;

(e)        Further strengthen and enhance these radio programmes by engaging, at the upper echelons of the Secretariat and senior policy-making and supervisory levels, personnel from the region who will readily understand, interpret and be responsive to developments in the region;

(f)         Maintain these radio programmes as an exclusively separate entity for purposes of enhancing their effectiveness;

2.         Appeals to all Governments, non-governmental organizations and the specialized agencies to co-operate with the Secretary-General in order to ensure the widest possible dissemination of information against apartheid, in particular, these radio programmes;

3.         Expresses its appreciation to those Member States and international organizations which have provided the Department of Public Information of the Secretariat with their broadcasting facilities, as well as their contribution to the Trust Fund for Publicity against Apartheid, and request those which have not done so to do the same;

4.         Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session on the implementation of the present resolution.

I

United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa

The General Assembly,

Recalling its earlier resolutions on the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa, in particular resolution 42/23 H of 20 November 1987,

Having considered the report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa, to which is annexed the report of the Committee of Trustees of the Trust Fund,

Gravely concerned at the continued nation-wide state of emergency and security regulations which criminalize and stifle political dissent and protest,

Increasingly alarmed by the continued detentions without trials, forced removals, bannings, restriction orders, political trials, death sentences imposed on opponents of apartheid, harassment of trade unions, church and other organizations and individuals involved in peaceful protest and dissent,

Reaffirming that increased humanitarian and legal assistance by the international community to those persecuted under repressive and discriminatory legislation in South Africa and Namibia is more than ever necessary to alleviate their plight and sustain their efforts,

Strongly convinced that increased contributions to the Trust Fund and to the voluntary agencies concerned are necessary to enable them to meet the extensive needs for humanitarian and legal assistance,

1.         Endorses the report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Trust Fund for South Africa;

2.         Expresses its appreciation to the Governments, organizations and individuals that have contributed to the Trust Fund and to the voluntary agencies engaged in rendering humanitarian and legal assistance to the victims of apartheid and racial discrimination;

3.         Appeals for generous and increased contributions to the Trust Fund;

4.         Also appeals for direct contributions to the voluntary agencies engaged in rendering assistance to the victims of apartheid and racial discrimination in South Africa and Namibia;

5.         Commends the Secretary-General and the Committee of Trustees of the Trust Fund for their persistent efforts to promote humanitarian and legal assistance to persons persecuted under repressive and discriminatory legislation in South Africa and Namibia, as well as assistance to their families and to refugees from South Africa.

J

Oil embargo against South Africa

The General Assembly,

Having considered the report of the Intergovernmental Group to Monitor the Supply and Shipping of Oil and Petroleum Products to South Africa,

Recalling its resolutions on an oil embargo against South Africa, in particular resolution 42/23 F of 20 November 1987,

Noting that, while oil-exporting States have committed themselves to an oil embargo against South Africa, very few major shipping States have done so,

Concerned that the racist regime of South Africa has been able to circumvent the oil embargoes and comparable measures adopted by States,

Commending action taken by labour unions, student groups and anti-apartheid organizations against companies involved in the violation of the oil embargo against South Africa, and for the enforcement of the embargo,

Convinced that an effective oil embargo against South Africa would complement the arms embargo against the apartheid regime, and serve to curtail both its acts of aggression against the front-line States and its repression of the people of South Africa and Namibia,

1.         Takes note of the report of the Intergovernmental Group to Monitor the Supply and Shipping of Oil and Petroleum Products to South Africa;

2.         Urges the Security Council to take action without further delay to impose a mandatory embargo on the supply and shipping of oil and petroleum products to South Africa as well as the supply of equipment and technology to, financing of and investment in its oil industry and coal liquefaction projects;

3.         Requests all States concerned, pending a decision by the Security Council, to adopt effective measures and/or legislation to broaden the scope of the oil embargo in order to ensure the complete cessation of the supply and shipping of oil and petroleum products to South Africa and Namibia, whether directly or indirectly, and in particular:

(a)        To apply strictly the "end users" clause and other conditions concerning restriction on destination to ensure compliance with the embargo;

(b)        To compel the companies originally selling or purchasing oil or petroleum products, as appropriate to each nation, to desist from selling, reselling or otherwise transferring oil and petroleum products to South Africa and Namibia, whether directly or indirectly;

(c)        To establish strict control over the supply of oil and petroleum products to South Africa and Namibia by intermediaries, oil companies and traders by placing responsibility for the fulfilment of the contract on the first buyer or seller of oil and petroleum products who would, therefore, be liable for the actions of these parties;

(d)        To prevent access by South Africa to other sources of energy, including the supply of raw materials, technical know-how, financial assistance and transport;

(e)        To prohibit all assistance to apartheid South Africa, including the provision of finance, technology, equipment or personnel for the prospecting, development or production of hydrocarbon resources, the construction or operation of oil-from-coal or oil-from-gas plants or the development and operation of plants producing fuel substitutes and additives such as ethanol and methanol;

(f)         To prevent South African corporations from maintaining or expanding their holdings in oil companies or properties outside South Africa;

(g)        To terminate the transport of oil to South Africa by ships flying their flags, or by ships that are ultimately owned, managed or chartered by their nationals or by companies within their jurisdiction;

(h)        To develop a system for registration of ships, registered or owned by their nationals, that have unloaded oil in South Africa in contravention of embargoes imposed;

(i)         To impose penal action against companies and individuals that have been involved in violating the oil embargo, and to publicize cases of successful prosecutions in conformity with their national laws;

(j)         To gather, exchange and disseminate information regarding violations of the oil embargo, including ways and means to prevent such violations, and to take concerted measures against violators;

4.         Decides to hold hearings in April 1989 on the strengthening of the oil embargo against South Africa, to be organized by the Intergovernmental Group in co-operation with the Special Committee against Apartheid;

5.         Requests the Intergovernmental Group to submit to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session a report on the implementation of the present resolution, including proposals for strengthening the mechanism to monitor the supply and shipment of oil and petroleum products to South Africa;

6.         Requests all States to extend their co-operation to the Intergovernmental Group in the implementation of the present resolution;

7.         Requests the Secretary-General to provide the Intergovernmental Group with all necessary assistance for the implementation of the present resolution.

K

Concerted international action for the elimination of apartheid

The General Assembly,

Alarmed by the continuous aggravation of the situation in South Africa caused by the policy of apartheid, and in particular by the extension and further tightening of the nation-wide state of emergency,

Convinced that the root-cause of the crisis in southern Africa is the policy of apartheid,

Noting with grave concern that in order to perpetuate apartheid in South Africa the authorities there have committed acts of aggression and breaches of the peace,

Convinced that only the total eradication of apartheid and the establishment of majority rule on the basis of the free and fair exercise of universal adult suffrage can lead to a peaceful and lasting solution in South Africa,

Noting that the so-called reforms in South Africa have the effect of further entrenching the apartheid system and further dividing the people of South Africa,

Recognizing that the policy of bantustanization deprives the majority of the people of their citizenship and makes them foreigners in their own country,

Recognizing the responsibility of the United Nations and the international community to take all necessary action for the eradication of apartheid, and, in particular, the need for increased and effective pressure on the South African authorities as a peaceful means of achieving the abolition of apartheid,

Encouraged, in this context, by the growing international consensus, as demonstrated by the adoption of Security Council resolution 569 (1985) of 26 July 1985, and the increase in and expansion of national, regional and intergovernmental measures to this end,

Considering sanctions to be the most effective peaceful means available to the international community to increase pressure on the South African authorities,

Convinced of the vital importance of the strict observance of Security Council resolution 418 (1977) of 4 November 1977, by which the Council instituted a mandatory arms embargo against South Africa, and Council resolution 558 (1984) of 13 December 1984 concerning the import of arms, ammunition and military vehicles produced in South Africa, and of the need to make these embargoes fully effective in conformity with Council resolution 591 (1986) of 28 November 1986,

Commending the national policies not to sell and export oil to South Africa,

Considering that measures to ensure effective and scrupulous implementation of such embargoes through international co-operation are essential and urgent,

Taking note, in this respect, of the efforts undertaken by the Intergovernmental Group to Monitor the Supply and Shipping of Oil and Petroleum Products to South Africa,

Noting with deep concern that, through a combination of military and economic pressures, in violation of international law, the authorities of South Africa have resorted to economic reprisals and aggression against, and destabilization of, neighbouring States,

Alarmed by the seriously deteriorating situation of millions of refugees, returnees and displaced persons in southern Africa caused by these policies and actions,

Considering that contacts between apartheid South Africa and the front-line and other neighbouring States, necessitated by geography, colonial legacy and other reasons, should not be used by other States as a pretext for legitimizing the apartheid system or justifying attempts to break the international isolation of that system,

Convinced that the existence of apartheid will continue to lead to ever-increasing resistance by the oppressed people, by all possible means, and increased tension and conflict that will have far-reaching consequences for southern Africa and the world,

Convinced that policies of collaboration with the apartheid regime, instead of respect for the legitimate aspirations of the genuine representatives of the great majority of the people, will encourage its repression and aggression against neighbouring States and its defiance of the United Nations,

Expressing its full support for the legitimate aspiration of African States and peoples, and of the Organization of African Unity, for the total liberation of the continent of Africa from colonialism and racism,

1.         Strongly condemns the policy of apartheid that deprives the majority of the South African population of their dignity, fundamental freedoms and human rights;

2.         Strongly condemns the South African authorities for the killings, arbitrary mass arrests and detention of members of mass organizations as well as other individuals who are opposing the apartheid system and the state of emergency, and for the detention of and use of violence against children;

3.         Further condemns the overt and the covert aggressive actions, which South Africa has carried out for the destabilization of neighbouring States, as well as those aimed against refugees from South Africa and Namibia;

4.         Demands that the authorities of South Africa:

(a)        Release immediately and unconditionally Nelson Mandela and all other political prisoners, detainees and restrictees;

(b)        Immediately lift the state of emergency;

(c)        Abrogate discriminatory laws and lift bans on all organizations and individuals, as well as end restrictions on and censorship of news media;

(d)        Grant freedom of association and full trade union rights to all workers of South Africa;

(e)        Initiate without pre-conditions a political dialogue with genuine leaders of the majority population with a view to eradicating apartheid without delay and establishing a representative government;

(f)         Eradicate the bantustan structures;

(g)        Immediately end the destabilization of front-line and other States;

5.         Urges the Security Council to consider without delay the adoption of effective mandatory sanctions against South Africa;

6.         Further urges the Security Council to take steps for the strict implementation of the mandatory arms embargo instituted by it in resolution 418 (1977) and of the arms embargo requested in its resolution 558 (1984) and, within the context of the relevant resolutions, to secure an end to military and nuclear co-operation with South Africa and the import of military equipment or supplies from South Africa;

7.         Appeals to all States that have not yet done so, pending mandatory sanctions by the Security Council, to consider national legislative or other appropriate measures to increase the pressure on the apartheid regime of South Africa, such as:

(a)        Cessation of further investment in, and financial loans to, South Africa;

(b)        An end to all promotion of and support for trade with South Africa;

(c)        Prohibition of the sale of krugerrand and all other coins minted in South Africa;

(d)        Cessation of all forms of military, police or intelligence co-operation with the authorities of South Africa, in particular the sale of computer equipment;

(e)        An end to nuclear collaboration with South Africa;

(f)         Cessation of export and sale of oil to South Africa;

(g)        Other measures within the economic and commercial fields;

8.         Recognizes the pressing need, existing and potential, of South Africa's neighbouring States for economic assistance, as a complement and not as an alternative to sanctions against South Africa, and appeals to all States, organizations and institutions:

(a)        To increase assistance to the front-line States and the Southern African Development Co-ordination Conference in order to increase their economic strength and independence from South Africa;

(b)        To increase humanitarian, legal, educational and other such assistance and support to the victims of apartheid, to the liberation movements recognized by the Organization of African Unity and to all those struggling against apartheid and for a non-racial, democratic society in South Africa;

9.         Welcomes the Declaration and Plan of Action adopted by the International Conference on the Plight of Refugees, Returnees and Displaced Persons in Southern Africa, which was held at Oslo from 22 to 24 August 1988;

10.       Appeals to all Governments and organizations to take appropriate action for the cessation of all academic, cultural, scientific and sports relations that would support the apartheid regime of South Africa, as well as relations with individuals, institutions and other bodies endorsing or based on apartheid;

11.       Commends the States that have already adopted voluntary measures against the apartheid regime of South Africa in accordance with General Assembly resolution 42/23 G of 20 November 1987 and invites those which have not yet done so to follow their example;

12.       Reaffirms the legitimacy of the struggle of the oppressed people of South Africa for the total eradication of apartheid and for the establishment of a non-racial, democratic society in which all the people, irrespective of race, colour or creed, enjoy fundamental freedoms and human rights;

13.       Pays tribute to and expresses solidarity with organizations and individuals struggling against apartheid and for a non-racial, democratic society in accordance with the principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights;

14.       Requests the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly at its forty-fourth session on the implementation of the present resolution.

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