Last Updated: Friday, 27 May 2016, 08:49 GMT

UK Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate Country Assessment - Tanzania

Publisher United Kingdom: Home Office
Author Country Information and Policy Unit, Asylum and Appeals Policy Directorate, Immigration and Nationality Directorate
Publication Date 1 March 1999
Cite as United Kingdom: Home Office, UK Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate Country Assessment - Tanzania, 1 March 1999, available at: [accessed 30 May 2016]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.


1.1          This assessment has been produced by the Country Information & Policy Unit, Immigration & Nationality Directorate, Home Office, from information obtained from a variety of sources.

1.2          The assessment has been prepared for background purposes for those involved in the asylum determination process.The information it contains is not exhaustive, nor is it intended to catalogue all human rights violations.It concentrates on the issues most commonly raised in asylum claims made in the United Kingdom.It represents the current assessment by the Immigration & Nationality Directorate of the general socio-political and human rights situation in the country.

1.3          The assessment is sourced throughout.It is intended to be used by caseworkers as a sign-post to the source material, which has been made available to them.The vast majority of the source material is readily available in the public domain.

1.4          It is intended to revise the assessment on a 6-monthly basis while the country remains within the top 35 asylum producing countries in the United Kingdom.

1.5          The assessment has been placed on the Internet (http: // electronic copy of the assessment has been made available to:

Amnesty International UK

Immigration Advisory Service

Immigration Appellate Authority

Immigration Law Practitioners' Association

Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants


Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture

Refugee Council

Refugee Legal Centre

UN High Commissioner for Refugees


2.1          The United Republic of Tanzania consists of the mainland, formerly known as Tanganyika, with a landmass of some 945,087 sq km (364,900 sq miles), including some 20,000 sq miles of inland water, on the African mainland and the nearby islands of Zanzibar and Pemba.The mainland lies on the east coast of Africa, bordered by Uganda and Kenya to the north, by Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) to the West, and by Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south.Zanzibar and Pemba are in the Indian Ocean, about 40km (25 miles) off the coast of the mainland, north of Dar es Salaam.The climate varies with the altitude, ranging from tropical in Zanzibar and on the coast and plains, to semi-temperate in the highlands.The mainland boasts the continents highest mountain, Mt Kilimanjaro, and several of the largest game reserves.Tanzania has a population of approximately 31.5 million, of whom about 27.5 million live on the mainland and about 813,000 live on Zanzibar and the islands.There are approximately 120 tribes, none of which represent more than 10% of the population, the most well-known being the Maasai.The official languages are Swahili, spoken by virtually all the tribes, and English.Arabic is widely spoken in Zanzibar.There are also numerous tribal languages spoken. [1][2][165]

The Economy

2.2          Tanzania is one of the least urbanised and least industrialised countries in Africa and living standards remain low.In terms of GNP per head, Tanzania is among the world's poorest countries.Agriculture (including forestry and fishing) contributed an estimated 52.2% of GDP in 1996 and employs approximately 85% of the population in 1997.Although much has been achieved in education, health and other social fields since independence in 1961, the socialist policies of Nyerere also led to severe economic decline from the mid-1970s until the mid-1980s.From about 1986, a number of agreements with the IMF, the World Bank and donor countries produced a modest economic revival, but also resulted in increasing cuts in public expenditure affecting parastatals and public servants. [2][6][85][128]

2.3          VAT was introduced on the mainland on 1 July 1998, however, the Government of Zanzibar have delayed it's implementation in the islands until 1 January 1999.The new tax is applied at a standard rate of 20% except for certain items that are zero-rated.Since its implementation the Government has seized 43 unscrupulous businessmen in Dar es Salaam for various offences including failure to register for VAT.Despite drought problems economic growth in 1997 was 4.7%.The rate for 1998 is expected to exceed 3.5% and a figure as high as 6% has been suggested for 2000.Inflation continues to fall, from 22.7% in 1996 to 16.5% in 1997, a trend which looks set to be confirmed in 1998. [40][138][165]

2.4          The tourist industry which had been rapidly expanding in Tanzania since 1993 (growing 14% annually), received a setback in the wake the violent El-Nino rains and the bombings of the US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in August 1998 (see also section D.17).[99]


3.1          Tanzania was formed in 1964 by the union of the former German colony of Tanganyika, which came under British control after the First World War and became independent in 1961, and the former British protectorate of Zanzibar, following the armed overthrow of the sultan in January 1964.Under the leadership of Julius Nyerere, a new constitution was introduced in 1965 which provided for a one-party state ( the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) and its counterpart on Zanzibar, the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) became the only official political parties).In 1967, TANU accepted a programme of socialism and self-reliance, embodied in the Arusha Declaration.However, the significant improvements in education, health and social welfare were not matched by economic advances and, by the 1980s, the economy had virtually collapsed.In 1977, the TANU and the ASP merged to form the Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM).[1][2]

3.2          Tanzania began to move away from the single-party socialist vision of Julius Nyerere in the late 1980s.Nyerere retired as President in November 1985, although he remained Chairman of the CCM until 1990.He was succeeded as President by Ali Hassan Mwinyi, who favoured economic reform, in line with IMF requirements, and a more liberal approach to government, and the CCM divided along these lines.President Mwinyi also became the Chairman of the CCM after Nyerere had resigned.Following the trend in Eastern Europe and Africa, a presidential commission published recommendations for the establishment of a multi-party political system in December 1991.Constitutional amendments to this effect were ratified by a special congress of the CCM in February 1992, which stipulated that all new political organizations should command support in both Zanzibar and mainland Tanzania, and should be free of tribal, religious or racial bias, in order to protect national unity.[1][2]

3.3          Several political organisations were officially registered from mid-1992, however the government continued to impose restrictions on opposition activities.The CCM's authority was further challenged in February 1995 when Augustine Mrema, the Minister for Home Affairs, precipitated his own dismissal from the cabinet and soon after joined the opposition National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR-Mageuzi).[1][2][128]

3.5          Multi-party elections were held in Zanzibar on 22 October 1995, with international observers present.According to the Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC), the CCM presidential candidate, Salmin Amour, beat the Civic United Front (CUF) candidate, Seif Sharrif Hamad.


Salmin Amour



Seif Sharrif Hamad




Of the 50 elective seats available in the election to the Zanzibar House of Representatives, the result was as follows.







In addition to the elective seats, five seats are reserved for regional commissioners, 10 for presidential nominations, and 10 for women.[1][2]

3.6          The international observation team found serious discrepancies in the way that the elections on Zanzibar were conducted and concluded that, given the narrow margin between the Presidential candidates, the result of the Presidential election declared by the ZEC may be inaccurate.Nevertheless, Salmin Amour was inaugurated and used his Presidential powers to appoint only CCM figures to the extra seats in the House of Representatives, giving CCM a significant majority.In the period since the election, calls for a new election by opposition parties were met with reprisals by the authorities in the islands.In response most donors halted economic aid to Zanzibar. [14][15][17] [23][120][168]

3.7          Elections for the Tanzanian Presidency and Union Parliament were held on 29 October 1995, with some of them re-run on 19 November due to administrative failings.


Benjamin Mkapa (CCM)



Augustine Mrema (NCCR)



Ibrahim Lipumba (CUF)



John Cheyo (UDP)




Of the 232 elective seats to the National Assembly the election results were as follows: -


Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM)


Civic United Front (CUF)






United Democratic Party (UDP)



In addition to the elective seats there are 37 nominated seats allocated to women, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives, and one to the Attorney General. [2][14] [15][24] [25][54][90] [166]

3.8          In contrast to the Zanzibar elections, the international observers concluded that, despite serious organizational problems, the mainland elections had been conducted properly and that the results were fair.In elections held on 6 October 1996, the unsuccessful Presidential candidate for the NCCR-Mageuzi, Augustine Mrema was declared the winner of the Temeke by-election on 8 October 1996, beating the CCM candidate.Since winning the by-election for NCCR-Mageuzi, the party has been dogged with political in fighting and has since split into two factions, one led by Mrema and the other by Mabele Marando. [2][14][23] [24][48] [90][107] [166]


3.9          It is important to recognise that Zanzibar has a cultural and political history separate to that of the mainland, and even after the Act of Union with Tanganyika in April 1964, retained a separate administration and Constitution.Even when the CCM was the sole party, there was tension between the inhabitants of the main island, Unguja, and those of Pemba, between Zanzibar's African and Arab populations and between advocates and opponents of the Union with the mainland.In particular, rivalry between the Zanzibari Chief Minister Seif Sharrif Hamad and President Wakil in 1988 led to the expulsion of Hamad and his followers from the CCM, amid accusations of a coup plot.Hamad is now the de facto leader of the CUF, which goes some way to explaining the bitter rivalry between that party and some elements of the CCM hierarchy on the islands.[2][8] [84]


Political system.

4.1          Tanzania is a multi-party democracy.Legislative power is exercised by the Parliament of the United Republic, which is vested by the Constitution with complete sovereign power, and of which the present unicameral National Assembly, known as the Bunge, is the legislative house.The Assembly also enacts all legislation concerning the mainland.Internal matters in Zanzibar are the exclusive jurisdiction of the Zanzibar executive, the Supreme Revolutionary Council of Zanzibar, and the Zanzibar legislature, the House of Representatives.The National Assembly comprises both directly-elected members (chosen by universal adult suffrage) and nominated members (including five members elected from the Zanzibar House of Representatives).The number of directly-elected members exceeds the number of nominated members.The National Assembly has a term of five years.[1][2][165]

4.2          The President is the Head of State, Head of the Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces.The President has no power to legislate without recourse to Parliament.The Constitution can be amended by an act of Parliament of the United Republic, when the proposed amendment is supported by no fewer than two-thirds of all the members of the Assembly.[1][2]

4.3          The Political Parties Act 1992 details the electoral amendments relating to the registration of political parties; prohibits independent candidates; requires standing Members of Parliament to resign if they join another political party; requires all political parties to support the Union with Zanzibar and forbids parties based on ethnic, regional, tribal or religious affiliation.Parties that are provisionally registered may hold public meetings and recruit members.Non-registered parties are prohibited from fielding candidates. [46][124] [125][128] [168]

4.4          The most prominent unregistered party is the Reverend Mtikila's Democratic Party, which advocates the expulsion from the mainland of minorities and the establishment of a Christian state.Mtikila successfully challenged the prohibition of independent electoral candidates in the High Court in late 1994.The Reverend Mtikila has been arrested on several occasions for various offences stemming from unlawful assembly, but including breach of the peace, sedition and using abusive language.Despite his party's lack of government recognition, Rev.Mtikila was able to publicise his views through his legally registered church and through on-going lawsuits against the Government. [2][3][9] [89][92][122][123] [124][128][130] [168]

Current political situation.

4.5          Since his victory in the Presidential elections, Benjamin Mkapa has consolidated his position within the CCM by working to replace the old guard with more liberal minded party officials.At the CCM Conference held on 22 June 1996 at Dodoma, Mr Mkapa was elected the National Chairman of the CCM.As part of a general change, five senior CCM officials, including the Secretary-General, Dr Lawrence Gama, resigned the following day, being reappointed to high Government office elsewhere.President Mkapa has pressed on with measures against corruption and with economic reform, which has released more (previously frozen) aid from donor countries.In January 1996, he appointed a special presidential commission, under the chairmanship of the former Prime Minister, Joseph Warioba, to carry out a full investigation of corruption in high public office.On 28 June 1996 the Dar es Salaam City Council was dissolved for being corrupt and inefficient.In December 1996 the Warioba commission issued a report asserting that corruption was widespread in the public sector.Several high ranking officials and Government Ministers have been dismissed following evidence of their involvement in corrupt practices.The police in Tanzania netted a total of 100 people for corruption in 1997, and recovered a total of US$4,260.The number of corruption cases in 1997 were 82, 9 less than 1996, and the police uncovered 633 cases of theft in government and parastatal organisations. [1][2][22][25][28][51][53][86][88] [89][96][139][141][142] [145]

4.6          The elections on the mainland were accepted as being free and fair, while the elections on Zanzibar were acknowledged by international observers as being unfair and inaccurate.This has resulted in Zanzibar being governed by an increasingly authoritarian CCM regime.During 1998, the Secretary-General of the Commonwealth, Chief Emeka Anyaoku put forward proposals to both sides in order to resolve their political differences. [18][19][20] [49][50] [84][91] [168]

4.7          President Mkapa made it clear that there would not be a re-run of the Zanzibar elections and that both sides would have to compromise.Widespread violence was avoided and, on 17 August 1996, the CUF were able to hold their first rally on Zanzibar since the 1995 elections, which passed off peacefully.However, despite encouragement to negotiate, both sides remained firmly entrenched in their positions.Since August 1997 CUF have been banned from holding public rallies in the west region of Zanzibar until such time as they can ensure peace at their rallies and agree to refrain from using inflammatory language and incitement.In March 1997 Reverend Mtikila of the unregistered Democratic Party announced that he was joining Chadema. [2][20][57][78][79] [84][89]

4.8          In September 1997, in the eastern region of Zanzibar Town, security was enhanced after a spate of acts which threatened security.Several threats to burn government buildings and vehicles were received from unidentified individuals.All allegations of human rights abuses on Zanzibar have been vehemently denied by the authorities, who base the allegations on opposition propaganda.[2][19][20][21][56][77] [89]

4.9          A new political party was launched in Tanzania on 21 May 1998.The Justice and Development Party [Chama cha Haki na Usitawi Chausta] was officially launched in Dar es Salaam and the new Chairman is James Mapalala (former national chairman of CUF).[82]

4.10        Parliament suspended opposition MP Augustine Mrema after he failed to produce evidence to substantiate his allegations that the Government was trying to kill him and CUF Vice-Chairman Seif Sharif Hamad.He was suspended for the rest of the 12th session.Parliament allowed him to continue to work at the constituency level.Mr Mrema applied for a temporary injunction against his suspension.He finally decided to appear before a parliamentary court to defend himself over why he should not be penalised.Mr Mrema returned to Parliament in October 1998. [68][98][112][146][151]

4.11        On 10th July 1998 the Tanzanian High Court annulled the result of the 1995 election in Sengerema constituency, Mwanza region, and stripped the winner Dr William Shija (CCM), the Minister of Commerce & Industry, of his parliamentary privileges.In a summing up Judge Anthony Mrema said he agreed with the plaintiff, Dr Fatinatus Masha (UDP) that the election had not been free and fair.On 10 August 1998 another Minister, Hassy Kitine, resigned following widespread condemnation regarding his wife's medical treatment abroad.In October 1998 Shija recaptured his Sengerema seat in a by-election.[70][75][140]

4.12        On 17 July 1998 the Government formed a special committee to gather public opinion on constitutional reform.The committee is chaired by the Hon Justice Robert Kisanga, a judge of the Tanzanian Court of Appeal.The committee has been given six months to complete the exercise.The Chairman of eight opposition parties forming the Committee for Constitutional Reform (KAMAKA) condemned the government's white paper on constitutional reform and vowed to fight for a new constitution, after Attorney-General Andrew Chenge ruled out the possibility of drafting a new constitution.A number of religious bodies, women's and human rights groups formed a lobby group in October 1998, called the Citizens Coalition for a New Constitution, to make the public more aware of the need for constitutional reform. [42][71] [111][114][160]

4.13        The next Legislative and Presidential elections for Tanzania are due to be held in the year 2000.[1][2][57][168]

The Judiciary.

4.14        The legal system is based on the British model with modifications to accommodate customary and Islamic law in civil cases.Military courts do not try civilians and there are no security courts.Defendants in civil and military courts may appeal decisions to the High Court and the Court of Appeal.Criminal trials are open to the public and the press.Courts must give reasons on the record for holding secret proceedings.Criminal defendants have a right of appeal.The Chief Justice assigns lawyers to indigent defendants charged with serious crimes such as murder, manslaughter and armed robbery.Criminal trials are open to the public and to the press.Tanzania retains the death penalty for the most serious crimes of murder and treason.Capital punishment is mandatory for crimes of murder and discretionary for treason.All judgements in which the death sentence is passed are forwarded to the President who has the prerogative to commute the sentence.[3][6][128][168]

4.15        Zanzibar's court system parallels that of the mainland, but retains Islamic courts to handle Muslim family cases.Cases concerning Zanzibar constitutional issues are heard only in Zanzibar courts.All other cases may be appealed to the Tanzania Court of Appeal.[3][6]

4.16        The independence of judges is secured by provisions which prevent their removal, except on account of misbehaviour or incapacity, when they may be dismissed at the discretion of the President.In the past, the government sometimes tried to pressure judges and reassign judges who made unpopular rulings but the judiciary have increasingly shown independence in the political sphere, annulling both Government and opposition election victories However, they were heavily criticised in the Warioba report for endemic corruption.The judiciary bureaucracy is widely criticised as inefficient and government efforts to correct this have been slow.During 1997, several magistrates resigned after the Chief Justice was presented with credible evidence of corruption.In September 1998 a High Court judge ordered the release of a man detained on the orders of the Vice-President, Omar Juma, warning the executive against using such absolute powers without following the proper procedures.In June 1998 the Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal denied the Government's appeal against an injunction granted to the National Women's Council, thereby permitting its continued operation. [1][3][4][5][6][128][150] [168]

The Security Forces.

4.17        The security forces are made up of the regular police force, the armed forces and a paramilitary force.The paramilitary forces comprises of the Special Field Forces Unit and a reservist Citizen's Militia.The police and security forces maintain primary responsibility for law and order.Military service is on a voluntary basis.The police were previously supported by citizen's anti-crime groups and patrols called "sungusungu", but these have largely become inactive since 1995 although they are still in existence.The U.S Department of State Report covering 1998 reports that there are incidences where police threaten, mistreat or beat criminals during and after their arrest and interrogation.The police also use the same methods to obtain information about suspects from family members.Police in Zanzibar use torture including beatings and floggings, notably on Pemba.Although government officials usually criticise these practices, the Zanzibar Government seldom prosecutes police for such abuses.Corruption is a serious problem in the police force.The Warioba Commission report on corruption (see section 4.5 above) found that police arrest innocent persons and file false charges against them if they refuse to pay a bribe.The US Department of State report states there were reports of such abuses during 1998. [1][2][6][103] [122][128][168]

4.18        Arbitrary arrest and detention does occur.The Criminal Procedure Code requires that a person arrested for a crime, other than a national security charge under the Preventative Detention Act, should be charged before a magistrate within 24 hours.In practice, the police often fail to comply.Because of backlogs, on average cases take between 2 to 3 years to come to trial.The code provides for a right to defence council.The authorities acknowledge that some cases have been pending for several years.Early in 1998, two police officers arrested a herdsman for not paying a bribe.He subsequently paid, and in March 1998 the officers were dismissed for accepting the bribe and for the improper arrest.During 1998, the Government began to take action to punish police for abuse of their positions, but the impact of these efforts was limited.[168]



A.1         The Constitution of Tanzania guarantees the fundamental human rights and freedoms of every Tanzanian citizen.It also prohibits torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.Where a person thinks he has been subjected to such treatment he may petition the High Court under section 30(3) of the Constitution for relief. Although there are reports of beatings of prisoners by police officers, there is no convincing evidence that the authorities condone any act of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; all of which are proscribed by the Constitution.[3][5][6][85] [128]

A.2         There is no convincing evidence of any organised, systematic persecution by the State of individuals or specific groups in Tanzania.There are a number of infringements and abuses of individuals' human and Constitutional rights by agents of the state but these are arbitrary in nature and not condoned.Instances of mob justice against suspected criminals claim a significant number of lives.There have been reports in which mobs have killed suspected thieves, who were stoned, lynched, beaten to death or doused with petrol and set on fire.The belief in witchcraft has led, in some instances, to the killing of alleged witches by their victims, aggrieved relatives or mobs.The Government has estimated that in the Mwanza region alone at least 50 people are killed every year by those who believe them to be witches.Government officials criticise these practices and arrests are made, however, most perpetrators elude arrest and the Government has not as yet taken preventative measures to stamp out the practices.[1][2][52][55] [56][89][168]


B.1         Amnesty International have reported instances of harassment and ill-treatment by the police.This harassment includes the use of detention and criminal charges against journalists and opposition members.There have been isolated cases in which individual police officers or other officials have used unwarranted force in the execution of their duties.All indications are that such abuses of authority are taken seriously.Individuals are not able to act with impunity, as instanced by the detention of six policemen in Mbeya in September 1994 following the death of a suspected criminal in their custody.Following the shooting in June 1996 of Lt General Imran Kombe, the former Director of Intelligence and Security, five policemen were charged with murder and the government set up an enquiry into his death.In June 1997 police in Arusha were charged with torturing 10 women detainees, one of whom had a miscarriage.In December 1997, six detainees died in detention in Morogoro.The police provided no explanation for their deaths.[3][4][6][7][8][11][12] [52][56][87][89][168]

B.2         In January 1998, two policemen were convicted of a 1996 killing and sentenced to death; nine other police officers were convicted in a murder case in Arusha.In June 1998 seven suspects, including a policeman, were arrested by police in connection with the killing of a senior Tanzanian pilot in downtown Dar es Salaam.Elizeus Rutazaha was shot dead by two bandits at about 11am as he stopped his car at traffic lights.[137] [168]

B.3         There are no indications that the Tanzanian Government does not observe its international obligations.The Government cooperates with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and traditionally maintains a generous open border policy both with regard to neighbouring countries' refugees and to persons seeking political asylum.Following an influx of Rwandan refugees in early 1995 the Government closed its borders with Rwanda and Burundi.Despite this tens of thousands of asylum seekers were able to enter the country.By early 1997 virtually all Rwandans had departed.At the end of 1998 there were 6,543 Rwandans still in the country.There also remains approximately 310,000 refugees in Tanzania mostly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo.They are assisted by the UNHCR, and other non-governmental agencies such as the Red Cross. [1][5][6][11][12][26][27][127][143][157] [168]

B.4         Amnesty International have reported that thousands of refugees from Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo were forcibly repatriated during 1997.On a visit to Tanzania an Amnesty International delegation met with President Mkapa, and other government officials to discuss the issue.At the conclusion of the meeting, the President stated that there would be no forced repatriation of Burundi refugees.Following continued unrest in the Democratic Republic of Congo, thousands more refugees flooded back into Tanzania during 1998.The United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was formally inaugurated in Arusha, Tanzania in June 1995 in order to investigate allegations of serious human rights violations during the 1994 conflict.[1][5][6][11][12][26][27][143][157]

B.5         Both the UNHCR and Amnesty International have offices in Tanzania.The Government for more than three years has withheld the registration of non-governmental organisations (NGO) such as Defenders of Human Rights in Tanzania, and the Tanzania Human Rights Education Society.During 1997 this organisation was finally denied registration.The Government continued to refuse registration of the African Human Rights and Justice Protection Network on the grounds that it was politically orientated However, Government officials have stated that international human rights groups are welcome to visit Tanzania and Amnesty International visited three times throughout 1998.There were discussions, both within the Government and among NGOs concerning the formation of a human rights commission, but there are differences on how independent it should be.[6][128][168]

B.6         There have been no reports of political killings or disappearances or proven state-sponsored extra-judicial killings, since the introduction of multipartyism.Amnesty International have declared the 18 CUF members detained in November and December 1997 and charged with attempting to overthrow the government on Zanzibar, prisoners of conscience.(see sections C.3 & C.5).[6][13][108][159]

Prison Conditions

B.7         Prison conditions are harsh.Government officials acknowledge that prisons are overcrowded and living conditions are poor with inadequate nutrition, medical care and sanitation.In April 1998, the Government distributed an emergency ration of 3,000 tons of food to overcrowded prisons.Earlier, the Commissioner of Prisons stated that his department received inadequate funds for medicine and medical supplies.There is currently no outside monitoring of prison conditions, however, government officials have indicated that they would welcome visits by international human rights groups, including visits to prisons.Prisons are authorised to hold 21,000 prisoners, but the actual prison population is estimated at 47,000 people.The Government is expanding prisons, but its efforts have not kept pace with the growing numbers of prisoners.Some prisoners are released on parole or receive suspended sentences as a means of relieving overcrowding.Diseases, such as dysentery, malaria and cholera are common and result in many deaths.Pretrial detainees are held together with those serving sentences but are allowed to receive food from outside.[3][5][6][67][156] [168]


Civic United Front (CUF)

C.1         On 31 January 1993, a local policeman shot and killed a member of the Civic United Front (CUF) and injured another, during a confrontation on the island of Pemba.The policeman was eventually charged with murder without intent, he was freed on bail and the case still remained outstanding at the end of 1998.CUF leaders have complained that the President and Attorney General of Zanzibar have blocked the police officer's prosecution.In September 1995, two people were killed on separate occasions during clashes between CCM and NCCR-Mageuzi supporters.No-one was arrested or charged. [3][4][6][55][92][168]

C.2         Since the CCM victory in October 1995, the Zanzibar authorities have become increasingly hardline against members of the CUF.There are reports that CUF members and suspected supporters, are arrested, detained, harassed and intimidated by CCM youths and by the Police and Field Force Unit on both Unguja and Pemba.As a result, many Pembans returned to Pemba (where CUF are in the majority) from Unguja and many other CUF supporters left the islands for the mainland.In March 1996 the CUF leadership fled to the mainland, having allegedly uncovered a plot to assassinate them, but returned to the islands a week later when the plot had received press coverage.In April 1996 an explosion occurred at the Mtoni Transformer on Unguja, which led to 63 arrests (according to Zanzibar CCM) or 600 arrests (according to CUF).Charges were brought against some 23 people, but none have been brought to trial.A number of those concerned were granted bail.Despite orders from the Union Government's Inspector General of Police, officers in Zanzibar continued their harrasment of CUF members.It is clear that, whilst the Union exists, political parties and individuals have the right to address grievances through the mainland courts, where the Zanzibar CCM have little influence.In January 1999, the deputy director for defence and security of CUF, Mr Othman Makame Abdallah was arrested by police at his home.Other CUF officials feared he would be become the 19th CUF member accused of treason. [19][20][21][61] [77][100][101][102][109][118][119][121] [168]

C.3         CUF members have been able to move to the mainland to avoid harassment, and there is no harassment of CUF supporters on the mainland.In February 1996 the Zanzibar Government banned demonstrations by CUF in southern Pemba.However, CUF were able to hold campaign rallies for the Mkunazini by-election held on 1 December 1997.Several CUF officials were arrested on the eve of the by-election which CUF won.A rally was also held in Zanzibar town on 7 December 1997 during which the winning CUF candidate spoke out about police harassment concerning the arrests.Several more CUF officials, members/supporters were arrested after the election and a total of 18 were charged with treason for having attempted to overthrow the government.In a statement to the Guardian newspaper in Tanzania, the Secretary-General of CUF, Shaaban Mloo declared that CUF would not engage in direct confrontation with the CCM in Zanzibar, so as to avoid bloodshed in the isles. [4][5][6][11][16][31][32][33][35][60][62][77][80][86][87][94][95][100][101][155]

C.4         On 9 August 1998 CUF said, in an official statement, that it had agreed to go back to parliament and participate in the business of the House of representatives, thus ending their previous boycott.The party also agreed to recognise Dr Salmin Amour as the rightful president of Zanzibar.The proposals and a number of others, if accepted by the CCM, would be ratified in Zanzibar by the two leaders of the respective parties.The agreement had been brokered by the Commonwealth Secretary General's Representative, Dr Moses Anafu.The return of CUF would mean that the ruling CCM would no longer have the two thirds majority required to amend the Zanzibar Constitution, thus effectively barring Salmin Amour from seeking a third term in the general election in the year 2000.A special committee of the National Executive Council of CCM in Zanzibar stated it had received a letter containing the proposals put forward by the Commonwealth Secretary-General and they were discussing the contents.In its statement the special committee also said it was greatly relieved that the CUF had accepted the 1995 results.On 27 February 1999, the special committee announced that it would soon be releasing a draft report on their findings. [43][44][76][83][97][116][133][149][158][159]

C.5         The trial of the 18 CUF members for treason is continuing.Diplomatic observers have been in court following the case.Seif Sharif Hamad was questioned for one hour on 9 July 1998 by officers conducting the treason investigation.Amnesty International had feared that he would be arrested along with the other 18 CUF members.During 1998 the hearing was repeatedly postponed by the Government prosecutors.In January 1999 the Zanzibar High Court dismissed an appeal by four of the detainees concerning illegal arrest and denial of bail.On 25 February 1999 the treason charges were finally read almost 41 months after the leaders were first arraigned in court.The case was however adjourned for one week to allow the prosecution more time to study the evidence in the case file.On 3 March the trial resumed, and the prosecution alleged that CUF had planned to recruit retired soldiers for a coup attempt to overthrow the union and Zanzibar governments. [12][13][37][38][41][81][97] [115][131][132][134][135][152] [168]


C.6         As a part of the Commonwealth, Tanzania is a party to the 1991 Ottowa Declaration on Women and Structural Adjustment, and the 1991 Harare Commonwealth Declaration, which places emphasis on the equal rights of women.Tanzania is also a signatory to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.Tanzania has a Ministry of Community Development, Women's Affairs and Children, in both the national government and on Zanzibar.There are no restrictions in law on the participation of women in politics and government.Eight of the 232 elected Members of Parliament for the Union are women, and another thirty seven women, from the CCM and opposition parties have been appointed to parliament, in seats reserved for women.Currently three of the 23 cabinet posts are occupied by women.The President has set a goal that women should constitute 30% of parliamentarians elected in 2000.[1][5][127][168]

C.7         Violence against women remains.Legal remedies exist, in the form of assault provisions under the criminal code, but in practice are difficult to obtain.The Marriage Act of 1971 makes a declaration against spousal battery, but does not prohibit it or provide for any punishment.The Ministry of Home Affairs noted that an average of 10,000 cases of wife beating are, however, reported annually.Traditional customs which subordinate women remain in both urban and rural areas, however, progress on women's rights has been more noticeable in urban areas.Several Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) have been formed in the last few years to address concerns of families, the disabled, women and children, and during 1997 new NGOs were formed which emphasised gender and environmental problems.They provide counselling and education programmes on women's rights issues, particularly sexual harassment and molestation.In September 1996 the Ministry of Home Affairs suspended the registration of the National Women's Council as the were allegedly engaged in political activity against its charter.The organisation was deregistered in 1997.In June 1998, the organisation was reinstated following a Court of Appeal ruling.(see section 4.16 above) The Government has called on the organisation to rewrite its Constitution to prevent it from involvement in such activity.Formation of the 'Baraza la Wanawake wa Tanzania' or Bawata, an inter-party women's organisation, is expected to exert pressure on the current reviews by the Land Commission and Law Reform Commission in order to benefit women's rights.In November 1998, the Law Reform Commission recommended the formation of a compensation fund to cater for victims of sexual and domestic violence.[5][6][46][128][161] [168]

C.8         Cases of sexual harassment against women drastically dropped in Zanzibar in 1997.The Minister for Women and Children's Affairs, Asha Bakari, told the House of Representatives that only 10 cases had been reported in the islands during 1997 compared to 31 cases the year before. The minister of state attributed the decline to the education program launched by the Government and NGOs against sexual harassment.[136]

C.9         Female genital mutilation (FGM) is officially discouraged by the authorities, however it is still performed at an early age by approximately 20 of the country's 130 main ethnic groups, affecting about 18% of the population.In some groups FGM is compulsory, and in others, women who have not undergone the ritual may not be able to marry.Some local government officials have taken action against the practice, and in 1996 five persons were convicted and imprisoned for assault for mutilating young girls between the ages of 1 and 3 years.In April 1998 the Justice and Constitutional Affairs Minister, Bakari Mapacho, said that a new bill on rape crimes would aim at strengthening existing laws and would also propose that the circumcision of women and girls would be considered a crime.The new legislation, the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act was introduced in July 1998 (see section C.12) Seminars regularly held, which are sponsored by both government and non-governmental organisations, in order to educate the public on the dangers of FGM and other traditional practices.These practices include the tradition of inherited wives, which critics claim contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS.[6][64][110][162]


C.10        Government funding of programmes for children's welfare remains small.The Government has made some constructive effort to address children's welfare, including working closely with the U.N.Children's Fund and other international and local organizations to improve the well-being of orphans and neglected children.While juvenile courts have theoretically existed since 1964, no separate facilities existed for young offenders until 1997, when a separate juvenile court facility was opened.However, the court is underutilized and many juvenile offenders are still tried in adult courts.In September 1998, a magistrate ordered prosecutors to stop the prosecution of juveniles in adult courts.The law provides for 7 years of compulsory schooling.The primary school dropout rate is between 30% and 40%.In the past girls who became pregnant were expelled from school.In 1996 officials put into effect procedures to permit pregnant girls to continue their education following their maternity absences. [6][168]

C.11        By law children under 12 are prohibited from working in the formal wage sector in both urban and rural areas, and the Government enforces this prohibition.However, this provision does not apply to children working on family farms or herding domestic livestock.Children between the ages of 12 and 15 may be employed on a daily wage and on a day-to-day basis, between the hours of 6am and 6pm only, but they must have prior parental permission, and return to their homes at night.Child prostitution is a problem.[6][168]

C.12        Rapists and child abusers face tougher sentences under the Sexual Offences Special Provisions Act introduced in July 1998.A 36 year old education student at the University of Dar es Salaam was the first person to be punished under the new legislation when he was sentenced to life imprisonment for abusing his own son.[110][147] [162]


Freedom of Assembly

D.1         The Constitution provides for the freedom of peaceful assembly and association.Until October 1994, permits were required from District Commissioners for any public meeting, except for political rallies during official campaign periods.Sometimes permits were issued too late to publicise rallies or restricted times or locations and occasionally requests for permits were denied.However, in October 1994, a High Court judge determined that permits were no longer needed for public meetings.The authorities dispersed several demonstrations in 1998.Parliament amended this in December 1994, requiring registered political parties to obtain approval for political rallies from the Police, who were authorised to deny permission on public safety or security grounds or if the permit seeker belonged to an unregistered organization or party.On Zanzibar, officials continued to require permits, arguing that the mainland High Court ruling did not apply to Zanzibar.Opposition complaints that the Police abuse their authority to veto rallies by imposing long periods when they consider it to be a security risk, are currently being challenged by them in the courts.The Government in Zanzibar did occasionally allow CUF meetings during 1998.In November 1998, the Dar es Salaam Police Commissioner banned a demonstration organised by the opposition NCCR-Mageuzi to march to State House to oppose muzzling of opposition parties.The NCCR held the demonstration in defiance. [1][5][8][10][11][31][34][63][117][168]

Freedom of Speech and of the Press

D.2         Freedom of speech and press is provided for in the Constitution.Political activists openly criticise the Government and ruling party in public fora, including parliament.Persons using abusive language against the country's leadership may be subject to arrest.The Government occasionally used this provision.An opposition leader in Zanzibar was sentenced in April 1998 to six months in prison for insulting the island's President.[5][58][88][168]

D.3         National radio is government controlled and non-governmental access to it is restricted.However, licences have been granted to privately owned local radio stations, and are currently being granted to independent companies to broadcast in major towns around the country on both television and radio.Opposition access to the government owned radio station, which had been limited to a single weekly programme before the election campaign, improved during the 2 month period before the elections, and political news was reported in a more balanced manner.On 19 September 1995, the four presidential candidates participated in a public debate on equal footing, which was broadcast over government owned radio and private television.In June 1998, the Government issued clarification on how programmes broadcast by Radio Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, can be utilized by all political parties in the country.On Zanzibar, radio and television are controlled by the government and is biased in favour of the CCM, although residents of Zanzibar can receive mainland television.[3][4][5][47][69]

D.4         The press in Tanzania is, on the whole, lively and outspoken.There are over 50 privately owned newspapers and periodicals, some of which are owned or influenced by political parties, both the CCM and the opposition.The editor and two publishers of the private Swahili daily 'Majira' were charged with sedition in February 1995 for an article over the purchase of radar equipment.The case has not yet been heard and the newspaper continued to publish similar articles.Majira was banned on Zanzibar in January 1996 for its articles on the post election situation there.This ban is still in force on Zanzibar.In June 1998 the government banned three newspapers under Section 25 of the Newspaper Act No 3 of 1976 for continuing to publish abusive cartoons and other slanders without considering their impact on children and others.In October 1998 the ban on one of the newspapers, Chombeza was lifted, but reimposed in December 1998 when they again published lewd material.In August 1998, The African's sister newspaper 'Mtanzania' was banned by Zanzibar's President Amour for what he described as misinformation regarding the political developments in Zanzibar.[4][5][6][11][66][93][102][121][122][148][168]

D.5         On 10 December 1997, the Zanzibar court awarded the Zanzibar Electoral Commission (ZEC) Chairman, Zubier Juma Mzee libel damages of 120 million shillings ($195,000) arising from a defamation suit against Majira and a politician of CUF.The editor and publisher of the biweekly 'Shaba' were briefly detained in May and July 1995 for publishing letters from anonymous army and police officers criticising the government.They were detained again in November for publishing articles critical of the government's handling of the elections in 'Rafiki' newspaper and the paper was banned.Currently no newspapers are banned on the mainland.Government attempts to curb the critical independent press, both through revocation of licences and proposed legislation, have attracted harsh criticism and have been unsuccessful.In March 1997 a journalist was sentenced to 1 year in prison for possessing a supposedly secret document, which was in fact a personal letter.The arrest and conviction were widely publicized and a court later overturned the conviction.In May 1998 a prominent Tanzanian judge, Mark Bomani, advised the government to stop intimidating journalists with threats of punitive action on stories they find objectionable, saying well-founded criticism of government policies should be encouraged.[4][5][6][11][36][9][93][121][154]

Freedom of Religion

D.6         The mainland population comprises approximately 45% Christians, 30% Muslim and 20% indigenous beliefs, as well as Hindu, Baha'i and Greek Orthodox communities.Zanzibar and the islands are almost exclusively Muslim (over 99%).[3][5][165]

D.7         Freedom of religion is provided for in the Constitution and is respected in practice.Missionaries are allowed to enter the country freely and to proselytise and Tanzanians are free to go abroad for pilgrimages and other religious purposes.Since 1988, the government has allowed the Jehovah's Witnesses, who were banned in Tanzania for many years, to hold services, to register as an organisation and to proselytise.The law prohibits preaching if it incites persons against other religions.A few leaders in the Christian and Muslim communities appear to be fomenting religious tension between their groups.[3][5][168]

D.8         The Muslim community claim to be disadvantaged in terms of its representation in the civil service and government and in state-owned business, in part because past administrations have failed to recognise the credentials of traditional muslim schools.This has resulted in resentment by Muslims of the perceived advantages enjoyed by Christians.Christians in turn have been critical of what they perceive as undue favouritism accorded to Muslims in appointments, jobs and scholarships by former President Mwinyi, a Muslim.Despite these perceptions, there does not appear to be any serious widespread problem of religious discrimination in access to employment or educational opportunities.[2][5][6][168]

D.9         Following the arrest of a Muslim leader who was charged with preaching in violation of a law prohibiting incitement against other religions, rioting took place in February 1998 and at the end of March 1998, outside a mosque in Dar es Salaam.Rioters burned Government vehicles, looted shops and ransacked CCM offices.Three people were reported killed, having been shot by police and 5 seriously injured during the February 1998 riot.Over 50 people were arrested and the mosque was closed down.The rioting, incited by muslim fundamentalists, arose after police banned a gathering by 16 muslim women, previously arrested after the February riots.The women concerned were acquitted of all charges in the earlier case and had demanded an apology from the Government over their treatment in custody.Police used tear gas to restore order and announced later that they were still searching for the Secretary of the Committee for Muslims Rights in connection with the riots.The Vice President called for muslims to avoid conflict with other religions.The mosque re-opened over a week later.Twenty three MPs demanded parliamentary discussion of police brutality in connection with the incident, but the Speaker of the National Assembly denied the request stating it was and internal police matter.Muslims called for the government to create an independent commission to investigate the riots.[63][65][113][164] [168]

D.10        Following the riots, the Government charged that some religious leaders were inciting adherents to violence.The Prime Minister said that the Government would further restrict persons and organisations that were involved.The Minister of Home Affairs subsequently sent 22 religious organisations a letter demanding that they show cause why they should not be deregistered and expelled from the country.The Ministry is in the process of assessing the responses.[168]

Freedom to travel.

D.11        Short term domestic travel is not restricted, and there are no entry controls whatsoever for Zanzibari-born Tanzanians onto the mainland.Zanzibaris may travel to live and work quite freely on the mainland, subject to the same laws as would apply to mainlanders, and there is no requirement for mainlanders to show identification to travel to Zanzibar.Mainlanders are allowed to work in the islands but not allowed to own land there.Zanzibaris own property, work and run businesses on the mainland.The "Kazi Nguvu" laws, which date back to the colonial period, and the Human Resources Development Act 1983, were intended to prevent migration to the cities from agricultural areas, and to support the Ujumaa policies of Nyerere to resist urbanisation.They stipulate that persons who are unemployed must return to their home region.These laws are however practically never used, with the exception of removing professional beggars from city streets.Tanzanian citizens can return to their country without difficulty.[5][6][101][103][107][168]

D.12        Citizens who leave Tanzania without seeing an Immigration Officer commit an offence under Section 22(2) of the Immigration Regulations 1972.A new East African passport will be issued in 1999 for citizens of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda.All citizens of the three countries will qualify for the passports, which will allow them to travel freely around the region, settle and do business for six months without the requirement for an entry visa.Each country will receive an initial allocation of 100,000 passports.[5][104][105][106][169]

Internal flight.

D.13        There are no restrictions on freedom of movement to the mainland from Zanzibar.There is therefore, no reason why those persons, who allegedly experience problems on Zanzibar, could not easily travel to the mainland where they could receive the protection of their national authorities. [80][101][103][108][109]


D.14        Homosexuality is illegal in Tanzania.Homosexual acts between men are an offence under Sections 154 to 157 of the Penal Code, with a maximum penalty of fourteen years imprisonment.However prosecution occurs very rarely.[106][126]


D.15        The Constitution prohibits discrimination based on nationality, tribe, origin, political affiliation, colour, religion, or lifestyle.Discrimination based on sex, age, or disability is not specifically prohibited by law but is publicly discouraged in official statements.Tanzania is a party to the 1979 Lusaka Declaration on Racism and Racial Prejudice.[5]

D.16        There are around 120 different tribes in Tanzania, the largest of which are the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi.The Asian community has declined over the years by 50% to about 50,000, as a result of considerable antipathy by many African Tanzanians.There are, however, no laws or official policies which discriminate against them.[2][5][6]

National security.

D.17        On 7 August 1998 terrorists bombed the U.S Embassy in Dar es Salaam, killing 11 people and injuring more than 85 others.An investigation was still on-going at the end of 1998.[73][74][163][167][168]

Foreign relations.

D.18        In March 1996 President Mkapa signed a protocol, with the leaders of Kenya and Uganda, which established the Secretariat of the Permanent Tripartite Commission for East African Co-operation: this was generally regarded as the first stage in the revival of the East African Community (EAC) dissolved in 1977, when relations between the three countries became strained.In June 1998 the three countries all presented their budgets to their respective parliaments on the same afternoon in a show of unity to symbolize the new EAC movement.There is currently free movement of people across the borders of the three countries.[1][39][144]

D.19        After the military coup in Burundi in July 1996, relations between the two countries have steadily deteriorated, with Burundi alleging that Tanzania is supporting Hutu rebels based in refugee camps, an allegation strongly refuted by the Tanzanian authorities.Several clashes have occurred along the land borders between the two countries.In July 1998 the border between the two countries closed.Tanzania agreed to reopen the Burundian embassy in Dar es Salaam.President Mkapa met with the Burundian Minister of Foreign Affairs and promised to clear the embassy building currently being occupied by rebels. [1][11][29][30][59][72][129]



Arabs from Oman invade Zanzibar.


Sultan of Oman transfers his capital to Zanzibar.


Tanganyika declared a German Protectorate.


Zanzibar, Pemba & the Islands become a British Protectorate.


Maji Maji rebellion against German rule, finally suppressed in South; resultant famine kills between 75,000 300,000.


Tanganyika placed under League of Nations Mandate with Britain as the administrating power.


Formation of the Tanganyika African Association (TAA).


Tanganyika becomes a United Nations Trust Territory, still under British administration.


Julius Nyerere (President of TAA) converts TAA into Tanganyika African National Union (TANU).


1st General Elections.TANU sweeps to victory.




Tanganyika achieves internal self-government.


Tanganyika gains full independence.


Tanganyika becomes a Republic.Julius Nyerere becomes the first President.


Zanzibar becomes an independent Sultanate.


Armed uprising in Zanzibar and the Sultan overthrown.Zanzibar declared a Republic and the Afro-Shiraz Party take power.Abeid Karume becomes the first African leader.


Nyerere signs an Act of Union with the Government of Zanzibar, however, Zanzibar retains a separate administration.Any opposition is ruthlessly suppressed.


The Union is named Tanzania


New Constitution provides for a "one-party" state.


Nyerere returned to power in 1st 'one-party' elections.


TANU accepts programme of socialism & self-


reliance known as "Arusha Declaration".The age of 'Ujamma' is born.


On Zanzibar Karume survives two assassination




Karume assassinated.Successor Aboud Jumbe reorganises the Zanzibar Government.Power of the ASP extended.


International relations with Burundi and Uganda deteriorate.


Fundamental principles of socialism incorporated into the Constitution.


Collapse of East African Community (EAC)


TANU & ASP merge to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) with Nyerere as Chairman and Jumbe as Vice- Chairman.


Relations with Uganda worsen.Fighting at border


during October 1978.


Tanzanian based force enters Uganda.


Zanzibar adopts a separate Constitution.


Hi-jacking of Air Tanzania flight to the United Kingdom.


Coup plot uncovered.20 soldiers & 9 civilians detained.


Political crisis in Zanzibar amidst growing


dissatisfaction with the Union.Jumbe & 3 ministers resign.


Ali Hassan Mwinyi elected President of Zanzibar. Mwinyi supports Union and sweeping changes made to Zanzibar Supreme Revolutionary Council.


More liberal Constitution adopted in Zanzibar.


Nyerere retires and is succeeded by Mwinyi who brings in fundamental changes in economic policy, viewed as a retreat from socialist policies.


9 people received life imprisonment for their part in the 1983 coup.(all those convicted received Presidential pardons in October 1995)


Zanzibar Chief Minister, Seif Sharrif Hamad dismissed along with 5 others.


Value of Union to Zanzibar increasingly called into question.Two dissident movements Movement for Democratic Alternative (MDA) and smaller religiously based group on Pemba, Bismillah Party become active even before multi-partyism.


Hamad arrested for allegedly being in possession of secret government documents, and attending illegal meetings on Pemba.


4,000 troops sent to Zanzibar in response to reports of a coup.


Two opposition parties, Tanzania Democratic Forum 1990 led by Oscar Kambona, and Tanzania Youth Democratic Movement (TYDM) led by Moussa Membar, one of the 1982 Hi-jackers, formed in the United Kingdom.


Dr Salmin Amour elected as President of Zanzibar.


An independent forum led by Abdullah Fundikira attempts to steer national opinion towards a multi-party democratic system.


President Mwinyi establishes a Presidential Commission to look into electoral reforms.


Commission publishes a recommendation for the establishment of a plural political system.


Constitutional amendments are ratified to make way for multi-partyism.


Opposition party on Zanzibar, Kamati Ya Maguezi Huru (Kamahuru) merges with the mainland Chama Cha Wanachi to form the Civic United Front (CUF).


Several political organisations officially register, however there are still restrictions on opposition activities.


4 members of the Democratic Party (DP) including it's leader Reverend Christopher Mtikila are arrested and sentenced to 4 months imprisonment for holding an illegal meeting.


Mtikila and the others have their sentences quashed in the High Court.


Zanzibar Government arranges for islands to join the Organisation of Islamic Conference (OIC), and infringement on the 1964 Articles of the Union.


Anti-Asian rhetoric of leader of the unregistered DP, Rev.Mtikila provokes a number of attacks on Asians and their businesses in Dar es Salaam.Rev Mtikila is detained for sedition.Person killed on Pemba during an opposition demonstration.


A Parliamentary Commission rules Zanzibar action regarding OIC unconstitutional.


First multi-party by-election won by CCM.Young muslim radicals attack pork butcheries in Dar es Salaam.Violent clashes between Islamic fundamentalists and the security forces occur.


Zanzibar withdraws from membership of the OIC.


Failed coup in Burundi prompts waves of refugees to flood into Tanzania.


High Court rules in favour of opposition party Chadema, that CCM unfairly won 3rd by-election of multi-party era.


Civil war in Rwanda results in mass influx of refugees.


Foreign donors suspend aid, in protest at official connivance in widespread tax evasion.


Former CCM Home Minister, Augustine Mrema defects to National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR-Maguezi).


Further influx of refugees from Burundi and Rwanda.Tanzania closes border with Burundi.


Multi-party Legislative and Presidential elections take place concurrently on both Zanzibar and the mainland.On Zanzibar the result was announced with CCM winning 26 seats and CUF 24.CUF refused to accept election results amid allegations of ballot rigging.CUF delegates boycott the House of Representatives.Salmin Amour becomes Zanzibar president.On the mainland CCM win 186 out of 232 seats in the National Assembly, CUF 24, NCCR- Maguezi 16, Chadema 3 and the United Democratic Party 3.


Benjamin Mkapa (CCM) wins Presidential election with 61.8% of vote.


Nyerere mediates peace talks with Burundi.




Foreign donors suspend aid to Zanzibar in protest at alleged human rights abuses.


Zanzibar authorities ban CUF demonstrations in south Pemba.


The East African Community renewed.


500 killed in ferry disaster on Lake Victoria.


Mkapa elected CCM Chairman.


Former Director of Intelligence & Security, Lt General Imran Kombe, shot dead after police mistake him for a notorious car thief.Five officers charged with murder.


Mkapa imposes economic sanctions in protest at the overthrow of democratically elected government in Burundi.Relations with Burundi steadily worsen amid allegations that Tanzania is supporting Burundi rebels in refugee camps near Burundi border.


Government establishes a Commission of Enquiry, chaired by former Prime Minister Joseph Warioba, to look into corruption.Allegedly corrupt Dar es Salaam City Council disbanded.


Minister of Finance Simon Mbilinyi resigns, amid allegations of corrupt practices by the parliamentary select committee investigating bribery allegations.


Former Presidential candidate Augustine Mrema wins by-election in Dar es Salaam.


Warioba report published regarding corruption.


Relations with Burundi worsen, several clashes on border.


Mainland CUF recognise the legitimacy of Amour's government on Zanzibar.


Rev Mtikila announces joining Chadema.Tanzanian government ask for international assistance to cope with remaining refugees after food shortages, due to drought.


Former Secretary General of the CCM, Horice Kolimba dies following intense questioning by CCM Central Committee re his recent criticism of party ideology.


Economic sanctions, on certain humanitarian goods, were lifted against Burundi.


Police in Arusha charged with torturing 10 women one of whom had a miscarriage.


High Court cancels planned opposition party congress, amid fear of disturbances by opposing factions in NCCR-Maguezi.


Mkapa sacks officials for corruption in Mtwara region.


Government investigates opposition groups said to be planning to cause disorder.Believed groups being organised by opposition party leader.


Government to investigate "abduction" of Zanzibar MP.Swaleh Mbaruk.


CUF banned from holding public rallies in western region of Zanzibar.

Late August

Tensions begin to arise with Burundi.Peace talks cancelled.Burundi Government refuse to take part in peace talks.


500 refugees return to DRC


Security tightened in Zanzibar after threats to burn government property.


Splits emerge in NCCR-Maguezi.


President Mkapa opens ruling party congress. Announces 1500 civil servants and employees of parastatals have been dismissed for corruption.


Tanzanian troops are deployed at border with Burundi.Tensions rise.


Mkapa re-elected ruling party Chairman.


Tanzania Union of Journalists launched.Given 6 months to register.


Six senior CUF members arrested on eve of Mkunazini by-election, after CUFs final campaign rally.

Dec 1997

Six detainees die in detention in Morogoro.


CUF win Mkunazini by-election.


Police arrest CUF Deputy Secretary General


CUF hold rally in Zanzibar Town.Juma Haji, winner of by-election speaks out about police harassment.


Police detain more CUF officials including Seif Sharrif Hamad's personal assistant.


Non-resident workers in Tanzania to be issued with ID cards alongside national ID cards to be introduced after the bringing in of the Registration & Identification of Persons Act 1996. President Mkapa pledges to fight corruption. Zanzibar court awards damages to ZEC Chairman in libel suit.


11,406 refugees are voluntarily repatriated to Democratic Republic of Congo.


14 CUF members charged with treason and case will go to the High Court.After an outbreak of Cholera on Zanzibar claims 91 lives.

Jan 1998

Two policemen are convicted of a 1996 killing and sentenced to death; nine others are convicted of murder in Arusha.


President Mkapa calls on Zanzibar Government and opposition to start a dialogue.


Zanzibar President states no political disagreement in Zanzibar but an external plot to destabilize the country.


Commonwealth Secretary-General warns of prevailing political crisis in Zanzibar.


Zanzibar denies reports by a Dar es Salaam journalist that it intends to secede from the Union.


Three CUF MPs arrested on Zanzibar and charged with threatening to cause trouble.


Members of CUF are suspended from the Zanzibar House of Representatives for 20 days after failing to attend House sessions for two consecutive days.


Rioting occurs outside a mosque in Dar es Salaam.


vehicles are burnt and shops looted.3 people are killed and 5 seriously injured.Over 50 arrests are made.Two policemen are dismissed for taking a bribe and improper arrest.

April 98

The Government distributes emergency food rations to overcrowded prisons.An opposition leader in Zanzibar is sentenced to six months imprisonment for insulting the island's President.

May 98

A prominent judge advises the government to stop intimidating journalists.A new political party is launched by James Mapalala.

June 98

The government bans three newspapers for continuing to publish abusive cartoons.Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania present their budgets to their respective parliaments at the same time on the same day in a show of unity for the EAC.The government issues clarification on how programmes broadcast by Radio Tanzania can be utilized by all political parties.Seven suspects including a policeman are arrested in connection with the killing of a senior Tanzanian pilot.Parliament suspends opposition MP Augustine Mrema for making allegations that the government was trying to kill him.Civil servants gain a salary increase.The Chief Justice of the Court of Appeal denies the Govenrment's appeal against an injunction granted to the National Women's Council, thereby permitting its continued operation.

July 98

VAT is introduced on the mainland.The High Court annuls the result of the 1995 Sengerema constituency result stripping the winner William Shija of his seat.The government forms a special committee to gather public opinion on constitutional reform.The move is condemned by an opposition reform group called KAMAKA.Seif Sharrif Hamad is questioned in connection with the treason investigation of 18 CUF suspects.The Sexual Offences Special provisions Act comes into force.The border between Tanzania and Burundi closes.


A terrorist bomb explodes at the USA Embassy in Dar es Salaam, minutes after a similar explosion in Nairobi.10 people are killed and 70 injured. Persons are arrested in the aftermath, in connection with the incidents.Links are made to Saudi dissident Osama Bin Laden.

Aug 98

CUF announces in an official statement that it has agreed to end their boycott of Parliament and recognise Salmin Amour as President of Zanzibar. 'Mtanzania' a newspaper, is banned by Amour on Zanzibar.Minister Hassy Kitine resigns amid allegations of corruption.


The US launches an air strike against Bin Laden's camp in Afghanistan and an alleged chemical weapons factory in Khartoum, Sudan.

Oct 98

William Shija regains the Sengerema constituency in a by-election.Augustine Mrema returns to parliament.A lobby group is formed from members of religious, women's and human rights groups to make the public more aware of the need for constitutional reform.One of the three newspapers banned in June 1998, Chombeza, had the ban lifted.

Nov 98

The prosecution, in the trial of 18 members of CUF for treason, are given 60 days to complete their investigation.The law Reform Commission recommends the formation of a compensation fund for victims of sexual and domestic violence. police ban a demonstration by NCCR-Mageuzi.

Dec 98

The Government re-imposed the ban on Chombeza after it continued to publish lewd material.

Jan 99

Police arrest the deputy director for defence and security of CUF, Mr Othman Abdallah.The Secretary-General of CUF announces that CUF would not engage in direct confrontation with the CCM.The High Court rejected an appeal by four of the 18 CUF detainees concerning illegal arrest and denial of bail.

Feb 99

On 25 Febraury 1999 the charges were finally read against the 18 CUF detainees almost 41 months after their arrest.On 27 February 1999 the special committee of the National Executive Council of the CCM considering the Commonwealth Secretary-General's proposals said it would soon publish a draft report on its findings.

Mar 99

On 3 March 1999 the trial of the 18 CUF detainees resumed.



Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM - Revolutionary Party of Tanzania) - Chair: Benjamin Mkapa

Sec.General: Philip Mangula.

Civic United Front (CUF) -

Leaders: Seif Sharrif Hamad

Professor Ibrahim Lipumba.

Chama Cha demokrasia na Maendeleo (Chadema - Party for Democracy and Progress) -

Chair: Edwin Mtei

Sec.General: Bob Nyanga Makani

The Justice and Development Party (Cham cha Haki na Usitawi) [Chausta] - May 1998

Chairman - James Mapalala

National Convention for Construction and Reform (NCCR-Maguezi) -Chair: Augustine Lyatonga Mrema

Sec.General: Mahinja Bagenda

After political in-fighting within the party NCCR-Mageuzi has now split into two faction one led by Mrema the other by Mabele Marando.

National League for Democracy (NLD) -

Chair: Emmanuel J.E.Makaidi

Sec.General: Michael E.A.Mhina

National Reconstruction Alliance (NRA) -

Chair: Ulotu Abubakar Ulotu

Sec.General: Salim Matinga.

Popular National Party (PONA) -

Chair: Wilfrem Mwakitwange

Sec.General: Nicolaus Mchaina

Tanzania Democratic Alliance Party (TADEA) -

Pres: Flora Kamoona

Sec.General: John D.Lifa-Chipaka

Tanzanian People's Party (TPP) -

Chair: Alec Che-Mponda

Sec.General: Gravel Limo

United Democratic Party (UDP) -

Leader: John Momose Cheyo.

United People's Democratic Party (UPDP) -

Chair: Khalfani Abdullah

Sec.General: Ahmed Rashid

Union for Multi-Party Democracy of Tanzania (UMD) -

Chair: Chief Abdalla Fundikira

Democratic Party (DP) - (Unregistered)

Leader: Rev.Christopher Mtikila.


Mwalimu Julius Nyerere - President of Tanzania 1962 - 1985

Ali Hassan Mwinyi - President of Tanzania 1985 - 1995

Benjamin William Mkapa - Current President of Tanzania 1995 -

Dr Salmin Amour - Current President of Zanzibar and the Islands.

Seif Sharrif Hamad - Ex-CCM Chief Minister of Zanzibar and leader of Civic United Front.

Augustine Mrema - Ex-CCM Minister and Chairman and Member of Parliament for one faction of NCCR- Maguezi

Rev.Christopher Mtikila - Leader of the unregistered Democratic Party, and outspoken government critic.

Omar Ali Juma - Current Vice President of Tanzania 1995 -

Frederick Sumaye - Current Prime Minister of Tanzania

Mohammed Gharib Bilali - Current Chief Minister of Zanzibar

Pius Msekwa - Speaker of the House of Representatives

P.A.Kilificho - Speaker of the House, Zanzibar

Francis Nyalai - Chief Justice of Tanzania

Hamid Mahmoud Hamid - Chief Justice of Zanzibar

Barnabas Samatta - "Jayi Kiongozi" (Head of the High Court)

Andrew Chenga - Attorney General

Klilwa Massaba - Director of Public Prosecutions

Joseph Warioba - Former Prime Minister under Mwinyi government, now a Judge.

Rashidi Kawawa - Former Premier and Vice-President 1962 -

Sheikh Abeid Karume - First Vice-President of the United Republic 1962 - assassination in 1972

Aboud Jumbe - Vice-President and successor to Karume.

Idris Abdul Wakil - Former President of Zanzibar.

Sheikh Yahya Hussein - Leader of 'Balutka' Islamic Movement

Edward Moringe Sokoine - Ex-Prime Minister, died in an accident 1984.

Moussa Membar - One of the 1982 Hi-jackers and former leader of TYDM detained on return to Tanzania 1990 died shortly after his release in 1991.

George Liundi - Registrar of Political Parties.

Charles Makongoro Nyerere - 5th son of Julius Nyerere.NCCR- Maguezi Member of Parliament for Arusha.

Gertrude Mongela - Sec.General of the 1993 Beijing UN World Women's Conference.

Daniel Yona - CCM Finance Minister.

Horace Kolimba - Former CCM Sec.General, died March 1997

John Malecela - Former Tanzanian Prime Minister

Cleopha Msuya - Former Tanzanian Prime Minister

Mabele Marando - Former leader and now Sec.General of NCCR; Civil rights lawyer.Has since become leader of one faction of NCCR-Mageuzi that has split from Mrema's faction

Salim Salim - Organisation of African Unity (OAU) Sec.General.

Oscar Kambona - Former Foreign Minister and founder of TANU with Julius Nyerere - in exile in the United Kingdom since 1967, but returned to Tanzania in September 1992.Whilst in the United Kingdom formed the Tanzanian Democratic Alliance.

Pius M.Lugangira - Suspected leader of 1984 coup attempt.Escaped from prison.

Pascal Shija - Senior Editor of the Express Newspaper

Edwin Mtei - Leader of Chadema

Ibrahim Lipumba - CUF Presidential Candidate 1995

Fatma Maghimbi - CUF MP Leader of the opposition in the National Assembly.

Abdulrahman Mohammed Babu (1924-1996) - Politician, writer, commentator, activist and Professor of International Relations.One-time prisoner of conscience (1972-1978)

Lt General Imran Kombe - Former Director of Intelligence & Security.Shot dead 30 June 1996 when allegedly mistaken as a notorious car thief by police.

James Mapalala - Former National Chairman of CUF and Chairman of the Justice and Development Party



[1]   Europa Yearbook 1998

[2]   Africa South of the Sahara 1998

[3]   US Department of State report covering 1993

[4]   US Department of State report March 1996 - covering             January - December 1995

[5]   US Department of State report January 1997 - covering           January - December 1996

[6]   US Department of State report January 1998 - covering           January - December 1997  

[7]   Amnesty International Report 1981

[8]   Amnesty International Report 1990 - covering 1989

[9]   Amnesty International Report 1993 - covering 1992

[10]  Amnesty International Report 1995 - covering 1994

[11]  Amnesty International Report 1996 - covering 1995

[12]  Amnesty International Report 1998 - covering 1997

[13]  Amnesty International news release 8 July 1998

[14]  Reuters News Agency report 31/10/95

[15]  Reuters News Agency report 15/11/95

[16]  Reuters News Agency report 17/11/95

[17]  Reuters News Agency report 19/11/95

[18]  Reuters News Agency report 31/03/96

[19]  Reuters News Agency report 16/04/96

[20]  Reuters News Agency report 01/05/96

[21]  Reuters News Agency report 02/05/96

[22]  Reuters News Agency report 28/06/96

[23]  Reuters News Agency report 06/10/96

[24]  Reuters News Agency report 08/10/96

[25]  Reuters News Agency report 04/11/96

[26]  Reuters News Agency report 01/01/97

[27]  Reuters News Agency report 18/06/97

[28]  Reuters News Agency report 30/07/97

[29]  Reuters News Agency report 28/10/97

[30]  Reuters News Agency report 11/11/97

[31]  Reuters News Agency report 29/11/97

[32]  Reuters News Agency report 01/12/97

[33]  Reuters News Agency report 03/12/97

[34]  Reuters News Agency report 07/12/97

[35]  Reuters News Agency report 09/12/97

[36]  Reuters News Agency report 10/12/97

[37]  Reuters News Agency report 07/02/98

[38]  Reuters News Agency report 31/03/98

[39]  Reuters News Agency report 11/06/98

[40]  Reuters News Agency report 03/07/98

[41]  Reuters News Agency report 09/07/98

[42]  Reuters News Agency report 22/07/98

[43]  Reuters News Agency report 13/08/98

[44]  Reuters News Agency report 14/09/98

[45]  Reuters News Agency report 11/11/98

[46]  Radio Tanzania report 18/09/95

[47]  Radio Tanzania report 19/09/95

[48]  Radio Tanzania report 30/10/95

[49]  Radio Tanzania report 16/11/95

[50]  Radio Tanzania report 21/11/95

[51]  Radio Tanzania report 28/06/96

[52]  Radio Tanzania report 01/07/96

[53]  Radio Tanzania report 26/08/96

[54]  Radio Tanzania report 08/10/96

[55]  Radio Tanzania report 20/11/96

[56]  Radio Tanzania report 12/01/97

[57]  Radio Tanzania report 22/01/97

[58]  Radio Tanzania report 03/07/97

[59]  Radio Tanzania report 01/01/98

[60]  The Guardian Newspaper - Tanzania 15/01/99

[61]  Nipashe Website Dar es Salaam 31/01/99

[62]  Radio Tanzania report 03/02/98

[63]  Radio Tanzania report 28/03/98

[64]  Radio Tanzania report 02/04/98

[65]  Radio Tanzania report 25/04/98

[66]  Radio Tanzania report 06/06/98

[67]  Global Information Netwrok 01/02/99

[68]  Radio Tanzania report 24/06/98

[69]  Radio Tanzania report 24/06/98

[70]  Radio Tanzania report 10/07/98

[71]  Radio Tanzania report 17/07/98

[72]  Radio Tanzania report 26/07/98

[73]  Radio Tanzania report 07/08 98

[74]  Radio Tanzania report 09/08/98

[75]  Radio Tanzania report 10/08/98

[76]  Radio Tanzania report 17/08/98

[77]  Voice of Tanzania radio report 04/05/96

[78]  Voice of Tanzania radio report 18/08/96

[79]  Voice of Tanzania radio report 13/08/97

[80]  Voice of Tanzania radio report 22/01/98

[81]  Voice of Tanzania radio report 03/03/98

[82]  Voice of Tanzania radio report 21/05/98

[83]  Voice of Tanzania radio report 09/08/98

[84]  KBC TV report 16/04/96  

[85]  Geographic Magazine - File of Tanzania  May 1996

[86]  Africa Confidential magazine  12/04/96

[87]  Africa Confidential magazine  23/08/96

[88]  Africa Confidential magazine  03/01/97

[89]  Africa Confidential magazine  11/04/97

[90]  West Africa magazine 03-19/11/95

[91]  West Africa magazine 19-25/01/98

[92]  Africa Analysis News Review 05/02/93

[93]  New African magazine June 1994

[94]  New African magazine March 1996

[95]  New African magazine May 1996

[96]  New African magazine February 1997

[97]  New African magazine September 1998

[98]  New African magazine October 1998

[99]  New African magazine October 1998

[100] Foreign & Commonwealth Office advice 23/03/95

[101] British High Commission (BHC) 10/04/96

[102] BHC advice 05/02/97

[103] BHC advice 04/09/97

[104] BHC advice 29/10/97

[105] BHC advice 26/11/97

[106] BHC advice 08/01/98

[107] BHC advice 26/02/98

[108] BHC advice 08/04/98

[109] The Guardian newspaper (Tanzania) 29/03/96

[110] The Guardian newspaper 02/07/98

[111] The Guardian newspaper 30/07/98

[112] The Guardian newspaper 03/08/98

[113] The Guardian newspaper 24/09/98

[114] The Guardian newspaper 29/10/98

[115] The Guardian newspaper 11/11/98

[116] The Guardian newspaper 25/11/98

[117] The Guardian newspaper 27/11/98

[118]  Majira newspaper (Tanzania) 19/08/95

[119]  Majira newspaper 24/08/95

[120]  Majira newspaper 14/11/95

[121]  Pointers

[122]  Tanzania News - Forum of the Democratic Alliance.

[123]  Telegraph newspaper  05/08/92

[124]  Express newspaper (Tanzania)  17-19/11/94   

[125]  The Political Parties Act 1992.

[126]  The Third Pink Book. A Global View of Lesbian and Gay           Liberation and Oppression. - Hendriks et al - 1993

[127]  UN Human Rights International Instrument - Chart of             Ratifications December 1996.

[128]  UN ICCPR Human Rights Committee Third Periodic Report on         Tanzania 1993, Addendum - 7 October 1997.

[129]  Radio Rwanda - 12/11/97

[130]  Foreign & Commonwealth Office Telex - 8/4/97

[131]  Radio Tanzania report 21/01/99

[132]  Radio Tanzania report 29/01/99

[133]  The Guardian Newspaper - Tanzania 27/02/99

[134]  The Guardian Newspaper - Tanzania 04/03/99

[135]  The Guardian Newspaper - Tanzania 27/02/99

[136]  Xinhua News Agency 17/06/98

[137]  Xinhua News Agency 19/06/98

[138]  Xinhua News Agency 10/07/98

[139]  Xinhua News Agency 14/07/98

[140]  Xinhua News Agency 06/10/98

[141]  Xinhua News Agency 27/10/98

[142]  Xinhua News Agency 28/10/98

[143]  Xinhua News Agency 29/10/98

[144]  Xinhua News Agency 17/12/98

[145]  The African newspaper (Tanzania) 29/05/98

[146]  The African newspaper 01/07/98

[147]  The African newspaper 22/07/98

[148]  The African newspaper 19/08/98

[149]  The African newspaper 16/09/98

[150]  The African newspaper 23/09/98

[151]  The African newspaper 29/10/98

[152]  The African newspaper 11/11/98

[153]  ABP News Agency 20/07/98

[154]  The Daily News (Tanzania) 15/05/98

[155]  The Daily News 29/05/98

[156]  The Daily News 16/07/98

[157]  The Daily News 13/11/98

[158]  Foreign & Commonwealth Office advice 28/08/98

[159]  Foreign & Commonwealth Office advice 05/11/98

[160]  Africa News Service  03/09/98

[161]  The Daily Mail (Tanzania) 09/11/98

[162]  Global Info Network  19/11/98

[163]  South African News Agency (SAPA) 07/08/98

[164]  AFP news agency 29/03/98

[165]  The Courier No 173 January - February 1999

[166]  New African Magazine July/August 1997

[167]  ITAR-TASS World Service 09/08/98

[168]  US Department of State Report 26/02/99 covering 1998

[169]  BBC Monitoring - Uganda Radio


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