UK Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate Country Assessment - Cyprus
|Publisher||United Kingdom: Home Office|
|Author||Country Information and Policy Unit, Asylum and Appeals Policy Directorate, Immigration and Nationality Directorate|
|Publication Date||1 March 1999|
|Cite as||United Kingdom: Home Office, UK Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate Country Assessment - Cyprus, 1 March 1999, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6a68ec.html [accessed 1 March 2015]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
1.10 This assessment has been produced by the Country Information & Policy Unit, Immigration & Nationality Directorate, Home Office, from information obtained from a variety of sources.
1.11 The assessment has been prepared for background purposes for those involved in the asylum determination process.The information it contains is not exhaustive, nor is it intended to catalogue all human rights violations.It concentrates on the issues most commonly raised in asylum claims made in the United Kingdom.It represents the current assessment by the Immigration & Nationality Directorate of the general socio-political and human rights situation in the country.
1.12 The assessment is sourced throughout.It is intended to be used by caseworkers as a signpost to the source material, which has been made available to them.The vast majority of the source material is readily available in the public domain.
1.13 It is intended to revise the assessment on a 6-monthly basis while the country remains within the top 35 asylum producing countries in the United Kingdom.
1.14 The assessment will be placed on the Internet.An electronic copy of the assessment has been made available to the following organisations:
Amnesty International UK
Immigration Advisory Service
Immigration Appellate Authority
Immigration Law Practitioners' Association
Joint Council for the Welfare of Immigrants
Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture
Refugee Legal Centre
UN High Commissioner for Refugees
2.10 The Republic of Cyprus is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, about 100km south of Turkey.It covers an area of 9,251 square kilometres.The capital of the Republic is Nicosia.
2.11 The population of the area under the control of the Government of Cyprus, which is approximately two thirds of the island, is estimated at 638,300.Nicosia has a population of 186,400.
2.12 In the remaining third of the island, which is administered by the Turkish Cypriot authorities, the population is estimated at 198,215.Many Turks settled in northern Cyprus in the years following 1974.A census conducted in 1996 suggested that there were 55,000 residents of Turkish origin (though many of them would have been students and temporary workers not normally resident in northern Cyprus).The High Commission in Nicosia has been informed that of the 120,000 Turkish Cypriot adults on the electoral roll, 17,000 are of Turkish origin.The population of northern Nicosia, known as Lefkosa to the Turkish Cypriots, is 39,973.1 16(g)
3.10 Cyprus was formerly a British colony.It gained independence on 16 August 1960, although the United Kingdom retained two sovereign military bases.The constitution of the Republic was the result of a compromise agreement between the Greek and Turkish communities, Greece, Turkey and the United Kingdom.Archbishop Makarios, head of the Greek Orthodox Church in Cyprus, was elected as the country's first President in December 1959.1
3.11 Following a constitutional dispute, the Turks withdrew from the central Government in December 1963 and serious intercommunal fighting occurred.In March 1964 the UN Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) was established to prevent a recurrence of fighting between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities.The Turkish community, which was effectively excluded from political power, created its own administrative, judicial and legislative organs.Discussions to resolve the constitutional dispute took place intermittently between 1968 and 1974, without achieving any agreement.The Turks favoured some form of federation, while the Greeks advocated a unitary state.Each community received military aid from its mother country, and the Greek Cypriot National Guard was controlled by officers of the Greek Army.1
3.12 The National Organisation of Cypriot Combatants (Ethniki Organosis Kipriakou Agonos - EOKA), which had earlier conducted a guerrilla war against British rule in Cyprus, began a terrorist campaign against the Makarios Government in support of unification (Enosis) with Greece.In June 1974, following the death of EOKA's military leader, General Grivas, in January 1974, Makarios ordered a purge of EOKA sympathisers from the police, National Guard and civil service.Makarios was subsequently deposed by a military coup on 15 July, inspired by Athens, and led by Greek officers of the National Guard.Nikos Sampson, an extremist Greek Cypriot politician and former EOKA terrorist, was appointed as President.In response to a request from the Turkish Cypriot leader, Rauf Denktash, the Turkish army landed troops in Cyprus on 20 July to protect the Turkish community and to prevent Greece from using its control of the National Guard to take over Cyprus.The Turkish forces rapidly occupied the northern third of Cyprus, dividing the island along a line which runs from Morphou through Nicosia to Famagusta.1
3.13 President Sampson resigned on 23 July, and Glafcos Clerides, the President of the House of Representatives, became acting Head of State.The military regime in Greece collapsed the same day.Makarios returned to Cyprus from his temporary exile in the United Kingdom in December 1974, and resumed his presidency.Meanwhile, the Turkish Cypriots' effective control of northern Cyprus enabled them to establish a de facto government, and in February 1975 to declare the establishment of the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus" (TFSC), with Denktash as its self-styled President 1
3.14 In September 1980 the intermittent UN-sponsored intercommunal peace talks were resumed.The constitution provided the main discussion area.The Turkish Cypriots demanded equal status for the two communities, with equal representation in government and strong links with their mother country, while the Greek Cypriots, although accepting the principle of an alternating presidency, continued to favour a strong central government, and objected to any disproportionate representation for the Turkish Cypriot community, who formed less than 20% of the population.The discussions ceased in February 1982, when the Greek Prime Minister, Andreas Papandreou, proposed the withdrawal of all Greek and Turkish troops and the convening of an international conference, rather than the continuation of intercommunal talks.1
3.15 The UN General Assembly voted in favour of the withdrawal of Turkish troops from Cyprus in May 1983.Denktash responded by threatening to boycott any further intercommunal talks and to seek recognition for the "TFSC" as a sovereign state; this coincided with the announcement that the Turkish lira was to replace the Cyprus pound as legal tender in the "TFSC".1
3.16 On 15 November 1983 the "TFSC" made a unilateral declaration of independence as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" ("TRNC"), with Denktash continuing as President.Like the "TFSC", the "TRNC" was recognised only by Turkey, and the declaration of independence was condemned by the UN Security Council.1 , 2(a)
3.17 Denktash was returned to office on 9 June 1985 after receiving 70% of the vote in the Presidential elections.1
3.18 Further UN sponsored talks during 1986 and 1987 failed to produce a solution to the division of the island.1
3.19 In August 1988 the first meeting between Greek and Turkish leaders since January 1985 took place.A target date of 1 June 1989 was agreed for the conclusion of a comprehensive political settlement.However, the talks achieved no real progress.Negotiations between Denktash and the Greek Cypriot President, Georghios Vassiliou, resumed in February 1990, but were abandoned the next month after Denktash demanded recognition of the right to self-determination for Turkish Cypriots.1
3.20 The Government of Cyprus formally applied to join the EC in July 1990.Denktash condemned the application, on the grounds that the Turkish Cypriots had not been consulted, and stated that the action would prevent the resumption of intercommunal talks.The eligibility of Cyprus for EC membership was subsequently approved by the European Commission in June 1993, but this was linked to progress in UN sponsored talks concerning the island.The admission of Cyprus into the EC was to be reviewed in January 1995, if no progress had been made in the UN negotiations.1
3.21 During 1992, three rounds of talks brokered by UN Secretary General, Dr Boutros-Ghali, failed to produce any agreement between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot leaders.1
3.22 Glafcos Clerides defeated the incumbent President, Geoghios Vassiliou, in the second round of voting on 14 February 1993.1 , 2(a)
3.23 In November 1993, Clerides and the newly-appointed Prime Minister of Greece, Andreas Papandreou, agreed that their countries would take joint decisions in negotiations for the settlement of the Cyprus problem.It was also agreed that Greece was to provide Cyprus with a guarantee of air, land and naval protection.1
3.24 Following a general election held in the "TRNC" in mid-December 1993, a coalition government was formed between the Demokrat Parti (DP)(Democrat Party) and the left-wing Cumhuriyetci Turk Partisi (CTP)(Republican Turkish Party).The leader of the DP, Hakki Atun, was appointed as Prime Minister of the new administration.1
3.25 Five informal "face-to-face" meetings between Clerides and Denktash held on the initiative of the UN Secretary-General during October 1994, failed to achieve any progress towards an agreement on issues of the peace settlement.1
3.26 The issue of Cyprus's bid to accede to the EU had greatly unsettled the progress of peace negotiations.In June 1994, EU heads of government confirmed that Cyprus would be included in the next round of expansion of the Union.Denktash remained adamant that any approach by the Greek Cypriots to the EU would prompt the "TRNC" to seek further integration with Turkey.Negotiations again reached a deadlock in 1995.Denktash insisted that "TRNC" would oppose Cyprus's EU membership application until a settlement for the island had been reached, and the Greek Cypriots demanded "TRNC" acceptance of the application as a pre-condition to pursuing the talks.In March 1996, the Council of Ministers of the EU agreed to consider Cyprus's membership application without discrimination based on the progress of settlement talks.1
3.27 In April 1995, Denktash was returned as President of the "TRNC" after receiving 62.5% of the second round vote.1,2(a)
3.28 Elections for the Greek Cypriot House of Representatives took place in May 1996.There was little change in the composition of the legislature, with DISY (Democratic Rally/Liberal Party) retaining its 20 seats and AKEL (former Communist Party) increasing its representation to 19 in the 56 seat chamber.1
3.29 During 1996, efforts towards international mediation by the UK, US, EU and UN were diminished by a sharp escalation in intercommunal hostilities.In June an unarmed Greek Cypriot soldier was killed by Turkish Cypriot forces.The situation deteriorated in August when a Greek Cypriot died and an estimated 50 others were injured during violence that erupted at a mass demonstration which violated the "buffer" zone.UN forces judged both sides responsible for the violence.Shortly afterwards a Greek Cypriot protester, attending the victim's funeral, was shot dead following a further breach of the buffer zone.In early September a Turkish Cypriot guard was killed, and another seriously wounded, at the demarcation line near Famagusta.The Greek Cypriot Government denied any involvement of its soldiers in the incident.Clerides appealed to both communities to work towards an end to the civil unrest, a sentiment endorsed by Denktash.In October there was renewed animosity following the fatal shooting of a Greek Cypriot civilian by Turkish Cypriot soldiers.1, 3
3.30 In December 1996, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Turkey was in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights by, as a result of its presence in the north, denying a Greek Cypriot woman access to her property.The court found in this case that "it was obvious from the large number of troops engaged in active duties in northern Cyprus that the Turkish army exercised effective overall control there.In the circumstances of the case, this entailed Turkey's responsibility for the policies and actions of the "TRNC"".1,2(a) The policies and actions under consideration in the case, were the denial of property rights to a Greek Cypriot who had not been resident in northern Cyprus since 1972.The court found that the interference with the applicant's property rights was a direct consequence of the actions of the Turkish troops controlling the buffer-zone and refusing to allow the applicant to exercise her property rights.It did not determine whether Turkey actually exercises detailed control of the policies and actions of the "TRNC" authorities, such as the freedom of speech or political association in the "TRNC".10
3.31 The purchase of an advanced Russian-built anti-aircraft missile system by the Greek Cypriot authorities in January 1997, became the focus of political hostilities between the two sides and the cause of considerable international concern.Other European countries and the USA criticized the purchase, and the "TRNC" condemned it as an "act of aggression".The Turkish Government has stated its willingness to "take all necessary steps", which could include the use of military force, to prevent deployment of the system.On 20 January 1997, Turkey and "TRNC" made a joint declaration that any attack on the "TRNC" would be considered as an attack on Turkey.1, 21 The missiles were originally due to arrive in Summer 1998, but this was postponed twice.On 29 December 1998 Clerides announced that the missiles would not be located on Cyprus.Following the announcement the United Democratic Union of Cyprus (EDEK) withdrew from the Republic of Cyprus's coalition government, with the EDEK Defence and Education Ministers resigning.4(b) 29(a)(b) Denktash welcomed the decision not to site the missiles on Cyprus, but stated that the Republic of Cyprus could not use the decision as a lever to extract a reciprocal reduction in the number of Turkish forces in the "TRNC".30(a)Negotiations are continuing between Cyprus, Greece and the Russians on the possible siting of the missiles on Crete, although Turkey has warned against this.31 24(b)
3.32 Two rounds of direct talks between Clerides and Denktash, the first in 3 years, in July and August 1997 failed to reach any agreement.21 Denktash has refused to participate in inter-communal talks since then, objecting to moves by Clerides' administration to gain Cypriot membership to the European Union.4(a) Cyprus and the European Union begin substantive accession negotiations in November 1998.4(b) On 16 October 1998, the United Nations Secretary General Deputy Special Representative, Dame Ann Hercus, started a process of shuttle talks with the 2 leaders.The talks are without an agenda or a deadline and are under a media blackout.4(a),17
3.33 Elections to the Republican Assembly' of the "TRNC" were held on 6 December 1998.The right-of-centre National Unity Party (UBP) won 24 out of the 50 seats and entered into a coalition government' with the Communal Liberation Party (TKP), with the incumbent "TRNC" Prime Minister' and leader of the UBP, Dervis Eroglu remaining as Prime Minister'.20(c), 32 33(a) (b)
3.34 In 1996, GNP per capita income in the south was estimated at US$13,580.2(a),23 The 1997 annual rate of inflation was 2.9% and the average level of unemployment was below 4% 6(a)
3.35 The GNP per capita income in the north was estimated at US$3,450 in 1996.In the same year inflation was estimated at 87%.Official figures put the level of unemployment at 0.7% in 1995.However, figures for unemployment supplied by the Turkish Cypriot authorities are calculated on those out of work and claiming benefits.As the benefits available to those out of work are short lived and do not comprise a living wage, few bother to apply.The Turkish Cypriot press estimates unemployment to be around 16-20%.The economy of the "TRNC", although substantially less prosperous and affected by diplomatic isolation, has achieved significant growth since the 1980s, with considerable assistance from Turkey.The principal growth areas in the economy are tourism and tertiary education.However, the close linkage with the Turkish economy, including the use of the Turkish lira as currency in the "TRNC", has resulted in persistently high levels of inflation.1,2(a),16(g)
IV. INSTRUMENTS OF THE STATE / ADMINISTRATIVE BODIES IN THE "TRNC"
4.10 The 1960 Constitution provided for a system of government in which power would be shared by the Greek and Turkish communities in proportion to their numbers.This Constitution officially remains in force, but since the ending of Turkish Cypriot participation in the Government in 1963, and particularly since the creation of a separate Turkish area in northern Cyprus in 1974, the Turkish Cypriots have administered their own affairs.The northern area is under the de facto control of the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" (for which a new constitution was approved by a referendum in May 1995).The Republic of Cyprus (Greek Cypriot) administration claims to be the Government of all Cyprus, and is the only internationally recognised authority on the island.The administration of the so called "TRNC" provides for a "President", "Council of Ministers", legislature and judicial system.
4.11 Under the terms of the 1960 Constitution executive power in the Republic of Cyprus is vested in the President and the Vice-President, who should be members of the Greek and Turkish Cypriot Communities respectively, and should be elected by their respective communities to hold office for five years.Following the withdrawal of Turkish Cypriot participation in the Government in 1963, President Makarios announced in 1968 that he considered the office of Vice-President in abeyance until Turkish participation in the Government was resumed.However, the Turkish community elected Rauf Denktash Vice-President in February 1973.1,2(a)
4.12 The legislative power of the Republic of Cyprus is exercised by the House of Representatives.Out of the 80 members of the House, 70% should be elected by the Greek Community and 30% by the Turkish Community.The term of the House of Representatives is five years.
4.13 In January 1964 the Turkish Cypriot members withdrew from the House of Representatives and set up the "Turkish Legislative Assembly of the Turkish Cypriot Administration".1,2(a) The Turkish Cypriot community approved a Constitution for the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus" in a referendum vote on 8 June 1975.Legislative power is vested in a Legislative Assembly and the "President" is "Head of State".Following the 1983 unilateral declaration of independence of the so called "TRNC", a new Constitution was approved by the Turkish Cypriot electorate on 5 May 1985.It is very similar to the old one, but the number of deputies in the Legislative Assembly was increased to 50 from 40.2(a)
4.14 Multiparty political systems exist throughout Cyprus.2(a)
4.15 Under the Republic's Constitution, political parties compete for popular support actively and without restriction.Suffrage is universal, and elections are held by secret ballot.The small Maronite, Armenian and Latin communities elect non-voting representatives from their representative communities, in addition to voting in elections for voting members.Since the breakdown of bi-communal governing arrangements in 1963, Turkish Cypriots living in the government-controlled area are barred from voting there, although they may travel to the north to vote in elections.2(a)
4.16 In 1995 Turkish Cypriot voters elected Rauf Denktash as President in elections deemed by observers to be free and fair.Greek Cypriots and Maronites living in the north are barred by law from participating in Turkish Cypriot elections.They are eligible to vote in Greek Cypriot elections but must travel to the south to exercise that right.2(a)
4.17 The results of the last elections to the Republic of Cyprus House of Representatives and the "TRNC" Legislative Assembly are located at Annex C.The next election for the Republic's House of Representatives is due in 2001, with the Presidential elections in 2003.1 Elections for the "TRNC's" Legislative Assembly were held on 6 December 1998, and the Presidential elections are due to be held in 2000.1, 4(c) 32
4.18 Local elections were held in the "TRNC" in June 1998.The National Unity Party UBP won the mayor's seat in 18 of the 28 municipalities.The Republican Turkish Party CTP won four, the Democratic Party DP three, the Communal Liberation Party TKP two and one independent candidate became a mayor.The CTP had previously held seven municipalities, the DP five and the TKP two.20
4.19 The judiciary is legally independent of the executive or military influence in both communities.Cyprus inherited many elements of its legal system from the United Kingdom, including the presumption of innocence, the right to due process, and the right of appeal.2(a)
4.20 Throughout Cyprus a fair public trial is provided for in law and accorded in practice.Defendants have the right to be present at their trials, to be represented by counsel (at government expense for those who cannot afford one), to question witnesses and to present evidence in their own defence.There are no special courts to try security or political offences.2(a)
4.21 The Supreme Court is the final appellate court in the Republic.It deals with appeals from Assize Courts and District Courts.Six of each of these courts were established by the 1960 Constitution.1
4.22 The highest court in the "TRNC" is the Supreme Court.The Supreme Court also functions as the Constitutional Court, the Court of Appeal and the High Administrative Court.Sitting as the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction to adjudicate finally on all matters prescribed by the Constitution.As the Court of Appeal it is the highest appellate court in the "TRNC", and as the High Administrative Court it has exclusive jurisdiction on matters relating to administrative law.Judicial power other than that exercised by the Supreme Court is exercised by the Assize Courts, District Courts and Family Courts.1
4.23 On 1 August 1996 the Greek Cypriot National Guard comprised an army of 10,000 regulars, mainly consisting of Cypriot conscripts but with an additional 1,300 seconded Greek Army officers and NCOs.There are also some 88,000 reserves.A further 950 Greek Army personnel were stationed in Cyprus at that time.There is also a Greek Cypriot paramilitary police force of 3,700.1
4.24 The "TRNC" had an army of about 4,000 regulars and 26,000 reserves on 1 August 1996.The "TRNC" forces are supported by an estimated 30,000 Turkish troops.1, 4(d)
4.25 The UN Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP) consisted of 1,197 military and police personnel at 31 December 1996.There are British military bases (with military personnel numbering 3,900 in August 1996) at Akrotiri, Episkopi and Dhekelia.1
4.26 In the Republic of Cyprus all males between 18 and 50 years of age are liable to 26 months' conscription.There is currently a bill before the House of Representatives proposing an unarmed alternative to military service, but it is not yet on the statute book.At the moment all cases of conscientious objectors are on hold pending the adoption of the law.Even when adopted exceptions will only be made for those whose religion prevents them from taking up arms (Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormons, etc).It will almost certainly not be available to Greek Orthodox - 95% of the population in the south - conscientious objectors.Those who are permitted to follow the unarmed service are likely to be able to choose either 36 months working in a military camp without a weapon or a uniform, or 42 months in civil defence or social services.1,2(a),5(b) (c)16(g)
4.27 All males between 18 and 50 years of age in the "TRNC" are liable to 24 months' conscription.Turkish Cypriot conscientious objectors have no alternative to military service and face imprisonment if they refuse to serve.The first case of imprisonment of a conscientious objector in the north was reported by Amnesty International in 1993.1,2(e
4.28 The police of the so-called "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" are not accountable to the "TRNC Minister of the Interior" or other elected body in northern Cyprus.They come under the command of the Turkish Cypriot Security Forces Commander, a Turkish mainland Brigadier who reports directly to the commander of the resident Turkish mainland forces.He in turn reports directly to the Chiefs of Staff in Ankara.On the whole the police are well respected and corruption is rarely suggested.But the community is small and and effective enforcement of minor offences is difficult and often overlooked.16(g)
V.HUMAN RIGHTS: GENERAL ASSESSMENT
5.10 The Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Cypriot authorities generally respect human rights norms and practices.Both the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus and the basic law governing the Turkish Cypriot community specifically prohibit torture.The law in both communities provides for freedom from cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.Respect is generally accorded to these prohibitions throughout the island.2(a)
5.11 However, some instances of police abuse of power have been reported by human rights organisations.A series of allegations of Cypriot police brutality against suspects in detention have been made, mostly involving non-Cypriots.Turkish Cypriots allege that two Turkish Cypriots, arrested near the buffer zone by Greek Cypriot police in October 1997 on smuggling charges, were tortured.However, UN officials who examined the two men found no evidence that supported their claims.The men were scheduled for trial in January 1998; they have had access to attorneys.Three high-ranking Greek Cypriot police officials were fired in 1996 after an independent commission concluded that torture was used systematically at a Limassol police station.The three regained their positions in December 1997, when the Supreme Court ruled that their firings were unconstitutional, although they were not exonerated.Official action is still pending against the Cypriot police involved in a 1995 case of torture of a suspected Turkish Cypriot drug smuggler, Erkan Egmez.Egmez was released in December 1995, having been held since October, and has returned to the north.2(a),5(a (b), 8
5.12 The issue of police misconduct in the government-controlled area was dealt with extensively by the "second periodic report of Cyprus", conducted by the UN Committee Against Torture on 13 November 1997, which stated that, "Specific disciplinary action, including criminal prosecution and dismissal, was a clear indication of the Government's commitment." 8 Nevertheless, allegations of bad treatment have continued.4(j)
5.13 There is no evidence of police brutality in the Turkish Cypriot community.2(a),9
5.14 In both the Government-controlled area and the "TRNC" there are laws providing for freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention.Judicially issued arrest warrants are required.It is prohibited to hold a detainee for more than a day without referral of the case to the courts for extension of the period of detention.Most periods of investigative detention do not exceed 8 to 10 days before formal charges are filed.Attorneys generally have access to detainees, and bail is permitted.2(a)
5.15 Abuses of power by the Turkish Cypriot police have been reported, generally at the time of arrest.Suspects are often not permitted to have their lawyers present when testimony is being given, a right guaranteed under the Turkish Cypriot basic law.Suspects demanding the presence of a lawyer are routinely threatened with stiffer charges or even physically intimidated.There are also credible reports that police routinely abuse their right to hold persons up to 24 hours before having to go before a judge.Police officers use this tactic against persons believed to have behaved in a manner deemed insulting to the officer.The suspects are then released within 24 hours without charges.2(a)
5.16 Prison conditions are generally adequate in both communities.2(a)
5.17 There have been no reports of politically motivated disappearances in either the Government-controlled area or "TRNC" from 1994-1998.2(a(b) (c) (d) (f) 5(a)(b)
5.18 No political or other extrajudicial killings were reported in 1994, 1995 or 1998.2(a)(b)(c)(d)(f) In 1996 a prominent leftist Turkish Cypriot journalist, Kutlu Adali, was murdered.The Turkish Cypriot authorities have not conducted a credible investigation into his death.2(a)(b)(f) He had reportedly received death threats after criticizing the presence of Turkish troops in the north and the policy of encouraging large numbers of Turkish workers into the north.2(a),5(d) Reports suggested that the Turkish Revenge Brigade was responsible for the killing.5(d)
5.19 There was no entry for Cyprus in the 1998 Amnesty International Report.5(e)
VI. HUMAN RIGHTS: SPECIFIC GROUPS
Gypsies living in the "TRNC"
6.10 Gypsies are well integrated into the community in northern Cyprus.They are not, and have never been subject to economic or social discrimination.Gypsies hold senior posts in a number of civil service Departments.16(a)
Kurds living in the "TRNC"
6.11 Kurds are not discriminated against in the "TRNC".They enjoy the same political and religious rights as all others living in the north, including the practice of free speech.Kurds are not politically active in the "TRNC" and do not distribute literature.However, they would be free to do so if they so chose as it would not be an offence under the "TRNC" criminal code.16(b) (c) There have not been any reports of systematic harassment of Kurds by the local police.16(c)
6.12 There is no reference to the mistreatment of Kurds in northern Cyprus in Amnesty International's Reports in 1994, 1995, 1996 or 1997.5(a)(b)(c)(d) There was no entry for Cyprus in the 1998 Amnesty International Report.5(e)
Greek Cypriots and Maronites living in the "TRNC" / Turkish Cypriots living in the Government-controlled area
6.13 The basic agreement covering treatment of Greek Cypriots and Maronites in the north and Turkish Cypriots living in the south remains the Vienna III agreement signed in 1975.This document provides for voluntary transfer of populations, free and unhindered access by the UNFICYP to Greek Cypriots and Maronites living in the north and Turkish Cypriots living in the south, and facilities for education, medical care and religious worship.2(a),15
6.14 In practice, restrictions are placed on the movement of UNFICYP to and within areas populated by Greek Cypriots in the north by the Turkish Cypriot authorities.Greek Cypriots living in the north are not permitted by the authorities there to bequeath immovable property to relatives, including the next of kin, unless they also live in the northern part of the island.Furthermore, there are no secondary school facilities for Greek Cypriots or Maronites in the northern part of the island.The Turkish Cypriot authorities have declined to give permission for the establishment of such facilities.Greek Cypriot children from the north who complete their education in the south, are not permitted to reside permanently in the north once they reach the age of 16 in the case of males and 18 in the case of females.There are also restrictions on the movement of Greek Cypriots and Maronites in the north (see paragraphs 7.21-7.22).2(a)(f),15
6.15 Under the law of the Republic of Cyprus, Turkish Cypriots enjoy the same rights as other citizens, including freedom of movement and the right to acquire property and to dispose of it.However, there have been reports of discrimination and harassment against Turkish Cypriots in the south by members of the Cypriot police.2(a),15
6.16 Legislation in both communities provides for protection against discrimination based on sex.Each community generally respects these laws.In both communities women face no legal obstacles to their participation in the political process.While clearly underrepresented in government, they hold some cabinet level, judicial, and other senior positions.In the House of Representatives, women hold 3 of 56 seats; in the newly elected "National Assembly" in the north, women hold 4 of 50 seats.
6.17 Spousal abuse in the Greek Cypriot community is receiving increasing attention and the problem is believed to be significant.In a 1994 a law was passed in the south which aimed at making spousal abuse easier to report and prosecute but had little effect because key provisions remain unfunded and unimplemented.Many suspected cases of domestic violence do not reach the courts, largely because of family pressure and the wife's economic dependence on her husband.An organisation formed to address the domestic abuse problem reported 689 cases through November 1998, compared with 922 cases in 1997, with 86% of the reported victims women.A shelter for battered women opened in late 1998.Very few cases tried in the courts result in convictions.2(f)
6.18 There is little public discussion of domestic violence in the Turkish Cypriot community, although a report issued by the Women's Research Centre described such violence as common.A women's shelter opened in 1994.Domestic violence cases are rare in the Turkish Cypriot legal system, since they are often considered a "family matter".2(f)
6.19 In legislation passed in December 1998, Greek Cypriot women married to foreign husbands were for the first time given the right to transmit citizenship to their children automatically.Previously they were required to apply for Cypriot citizenship for their children, while Greek Cypriot men could transmit citizenship to their children automatically.2(f)
6.20 In July a new Turkish Cypriot law on marriage and divorce went into effect, which provided for more equal treatment of husbands and wives.Under the new law, the man no longer is considered legally the head of the family and does not have the exclusive right to decide the family's place of residence.The wife may retain her surname but also must add the husband's surname.Turkish Cypriot women may now marry non-Moslem men.In cases of divorce, the court decides on a fair distribution of the family's assets, with each partner assured a minimum of 30 percent of the assets.In dividing assets, the judge must take into account which partner is receiving custody of the children and provide sufficient means to support them.2(f)
6.21 Legal provisions in both communities requiring equal pay for men and women performing the same job are enforced effectivley at the white collar level, but Turkish Cypriot women employed in the agricultural and textile sectors routinely are paid less than their male counterparts.2(f)
6.22 Both the Government and the Turkish Cypriot authorities demonstrate a strong commitment to children's welfare.There is no difference in the health care and educational opportunities available to boys and girls.Free education through age 15 is compulsory in both communities.There is no societal pattern of abuse of children.Of the 689 cases of domestic abuse reported through November 1998 in the Greek Cypriot community, 11% of the reported victims were children.2(f)
6.23 There are no Greek-language educational facilities for Greek Cypriot or Maronite children in the north beyond the elementary level, forcing parents in many instances to choose between keeping their children with them or sending them to the south for further education (in which case they may no longer return permanently to the north).2(f)
6.24 In both the Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities, the minimum age for the employment of children in an "industrial undertaking" is 16 years of age.Turkish Cypriots may be employed in apprentice positions at the age of 15.In family run shops it is common to see younger children working after school, and according to press reports, children as young as 11 or 12 years of age work in factories or orchards during their school holidays in the Turkish Cypriot community.Laws prohibit forced and bonded child labour, and these laws are enforced effectively in both communities.2(f)
VII. HUMAN RIGHTS: OTHER ISSUES
Freedom of Political Association
7.10 Multiparty political systems exist in both parts of Cyprus, and there is a generally strong regard for democratic principles (see paragraphs 4.10-4.18).1,2(a)
7.11 All workers, except for members of the police and military forces, have the legal right to form and join trade unions of their own choosing without prior authorization.More than 82% of the Greek Cypriot work force belongs to independent trade unions.Approximately 50 to 60% of Turkish Cypriot private sector workers and all public sector workers belong to labour unions.2(a)
7.12 In both communities trade unions freely and regularly take stands on public policy issues affecting workers and maintain their independence from the authorities.Unions in both parts of Cyprus are able to affiliate with international trade union organisations.2(a)
Freedom of Assembly
7.13 The freedom to organize and hold meetings is protected by law and respected in practice in both communities.2(a)
Freedom of Speech and of the Press
7.14 Freedom of speech and the press are provided for by law and respected in practice throughout the island.A proliferation of party and independent newspapers exercise an open exchange of ideas and arguments in both communities.Opposition papers frequently criticise the authorities.2(a) Rauf Denktash has severe public critics within the "TRNC".7(a)
7.15 Several private television and radio stations in the Greek Cypriot community compete effectively with the government-controlled stations.The Turkish Cypriot authorities' monopoly over local radio and television in the north ended with the passage of new legislation in 1997.A number of new private radio stations have started operating and two private television stations are broadcasting, with a third planned.International broadcasts are available without interference throughout the island, including telecasts from Turkey and Greece.2(a)
7.16 Academic freedom is accorded wide respect throughout the island.2(a)
Freedom of the Individual
7.17 Both the Republic of Cyprus Constitution and the basic law governing the Turkish Cypriot community include provisions protecting the individual against arbitrary interference by the authorities.A judicial warrant is required for police to enter a private residence.Throughout Cyprus these laws are respected by the police.2(a)
Freedom of Religion
7.18 Freedom of religion is generally respected in Cyprus.Turkish Cypriots residing in the southern part of the island and non-Muslims in the north are allowed to practice their religion.Some police harrassment of non-orthodox sects has been reported in the south.Mormon missionaries in the Greek Cypriot community experienced increased harassment during the year.Several anti-Mormon programs were aired on the Orthodox Church-owned television station.In April four missionaries in the major cities of Nicosia, Limassol and Larnaca were called to police offices and interrogated extensively about their religious beliefs and church membership.They were not alleged to have committed any crimes but were told that the Orthodox Church opposed their presence in Cyprus.When informed of these events, senior Cypriot police authorities expressed their concern and promised to investigate; they later said that the events had been "freelance" work of individual police and that they would not happen again.No further incidents have been reported.In December two Jehovah's Witnesses were imprisoned for 16 and 18 months respectively for refusing to perform required military service.2(a)
Freedom from Racial Discrimination
7.19 Legislation in both communities provides for protection against discrimination based on sex, religion, or national, racial, or ethnic origin.While such laws are generally respected by each community, Greek Cypriots and Maronites living in the north face restrictions which curtail the exercise of many basic freedoms, and Turkish Cypriots living in the south are reported to experience discrimination and harassment from the Cypriot police (see paragraphs 6.13-6.15).2(a),15
Freedom of Movement
7.20 Turkish Cypriots and Greek Cypriots enjoy freedom of movement within their respective areas.2(a)
7.21 Turkish Cypriots are required to apply to the "TRNC" authorities for permission to visit the south.The "TRNC" authorities refuse many of these applications, and many applications to visit the north by Greek Cypriots living in the south.However, the Turkish Cypriot authorities permit close family relatives of Greek Cypriots resident in the north to visit twice per month.In 1997, 700 grown children and grandchildren of Greek Cypriots living in the north visited the north and stayed overnight during the Christmas and New Year holidays.During the 1998-99 Christmas and New Year holiday, approximately 315 Greek Cypriots visited the north, but others cancelled due to the imposition of crossing fees by the Turkish Cypriots.The new crossing fee scheme was instituted in February 1998 at the main Nicosia checkpoint and requires substantially higher crossing fees.Most of the applications to visit the government-controlled area from Greek Cypriots resident in the north, are granted by the Turkish Cypriot authorities.In 1998 the limit on visits to the south was extended from 15 days per month to a total of 6 months.Although the same restrictions exist for Maronite travel between the two areas, they are applied more leniently than on the Greek Cypriots, and Maronite travel is relatively free.2(a)(f)
7.22 According to new regulations announced in October 1998, the Turkish Cypriot authorities no longer require Greek Cypriots or Maronites resident in the north to obtain police permits for internal travel in the north.They may use private vehicles registered and insured in the north.Formerly, members of the Maronite community living in the north need permits to travel in the north, but these are obtained without difficulty.The Turkish Cypriot authorities had previously relaxed permit requirements for Greek Cypriots in 1995.It was unclear at years end whether the new policy was being implemented consistently.2(a)(f), 15
7.23 The Greek Cypriot authorities placed significantly tighter controls on the travel of Turkish Cypriots to the south in 1994, following the murder of the director of a Greek Cypriot association supporting Kurds in Turkey.Institutions and individuals sponsoring visits of Turkish Cypriots to the government-controlled areas must notify the police in advance and provide them with an exact itinerary.2(a)
7.24 In both areas the authorities respect the right to travel abroad and to emigrate.Turkish Cypriots have difficulty travelling to most countries because travel documents issued by the "TRNC" authorities are only recognised by Turkey.Other countries missions in the so called "TRNC" (UK, US, France, Germany) do accept them as proof of identity.16(f)Most Turkish Cypriots resort to using Turkish travel documents instead.2(a)
7.25 Turkish Cypriots travelling to Turkey from the "TRNC" and Turks travelling to the "TRNC" are subject to routine immigration controls.When travelling between the 2 areas for visits of up to 3 months, Turkish Cypriots and Turks do not have to use their passports, but must show either their "TRNC" or Turkish identity card 11(a) 12, 16(d) 18
7.26 On arrival in northern Cyprus, a Turkish national may be issued with permission to stay as a visitor for a period not exceeding three months.The duration is at the discretion of the immigration police at the port of entry.An application to extend the stay for up to one year may be made to the Immigration Department of the "TRNC Ministry of the Interior".The duration is at the discretion of the Immigration Department.On completion of a twelve month extension further annual extensions may be applied for.16(e)
Buffer Zone/"Green Line"
7.27 The Green Line through Nicosia was originally drawn by a British army officer in 1964, in an attempt to prevent ethnic fighting between the Greek and Turkish Cypriots.7(b) After the events of 1974, the line became embedded in the 180-km (112-mile) long buffer zone which runs from Morphou through Nicosia to Famagusta.4(e ,7(b),24
7.28 The buffer zone between the militarised lines of the Turkish and Turkish Cypriot forces and the Greek Cypriot National Guard, is supervised by the 1,180 troops of the UN Peacekeeping Forces in Cyprus (UNFICYP).4(e),24 The Greek Cypriot National Guard has an army of 10,000 regulars.The "TRNC" has an army of 4,000 regulars which is supported by an estimated 30,000 Turkish troops.1
7.29 Several Turkish nationals have been arrested, detained and charged in the Republic of Cyprus for illegal entry during 1998.They are reported to have entered Cyprus through the Turkish-occupied north and crossed into the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus government.The sentences of those who have been tried have ranged from 20 days to one month imprisonment.4(g) (h ,25 26 In the same period, a number of Greek Cypriots have been arrested by the Turkish Cypriot police, after crossing the "green line" into the "TRNC".In one case, a sentence of one month imprisonment was reported, although an immediate release would be granted on payment of a $716 fine.4(i) 4(j ,20(b)
7.30 Article 4(1) of the "TRNC Citizenship Act" states;
Those who are born from a Turkish Cypriot father or a Turkish Cypriot mother are citizens of "TRNC" ("Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"), whether they are born within the borders of "TRNC" or outside of it.27
7.31 Article 4(2) states;
Those who gained "TRNC" citizenship under article 67 of the "TRNC Constitution" and were settled in "TRNC" on 15 November 1983 are "TRNC" citizens.27
7.32 According to the "TRNC Citizenship Act" a person may apply for "TRNC citizenship" if they reside in the "TRNC" for a minimum of 5 years, or marry a "TRNC citizen".11(b)
7.34 A person may be exempt from the 5 year residence rule under one of the following categories;
(A) Adult children of those who lost their "TRNC citizenship" for any reason, i.e.children who are born after the loss of citizenship,
(B) Those who made investments in industry, trade, tourism, social or economic field in the "TRNC"; or those who provided an extraordinary service for science, technology, politics or cultural life of the "TRNC"; or those who are considered to do the above services,
(C) Those whose citizenship is considered compulsory by the "Council of Ministers",
(D) Those who participated in the "1974 Peace Operation", their spouses and children; and the parents, children and widow/ers of those who were killed during the Operation.27
7.35 An individual has an automatic right to citizenship of the Republic of Cyprus if their father or grandfather is Cypriot.16(d) 28 Under new legislation passed in December 1998 Greek Cypriot women married to foreign husbands now have the right to transmit citizenship to their children automatically.Previously, when only the person's mother was a Cypriot, they had to apply for citizenship but there was no guarantee that the applicant would be successful.A person that does not have parents or a spouse who are Cypriots, but wishes to become a citizen, must reside in the country for several years before applying for naturalization.2(f), 28
ANNEX A: BIBLIOGRAPHY
 EUROPA WORLD YEARBOOK, VOLUME I, 1997
 US DEPARTMENT OF STATE REPORT
(c) March 1996
 "FATAL SHOT", THE TIMES MAGAZINE, 30/11/1996
 REUTERS NEWS SERVICE
(a) UN Envoy Starts Peace Shuttle on Divided Cyprus 16/10/1998
(b) Cyprus Delays Missile Deployment Again - Sources 2/10/1998
(c) Turk Cypriot Parliament Votes for December Polls 13/10/1998
(d) Focus - Cyprus Goes to Polls in Presidential Runoff 15/2/1998
(e) Turkish Troops Fire on Greek Cypriot Protestors 11/8/1996
(f) One Dead, 53 Injured in Anti-Turk Cyprus Rally 11/8/1996
(g) Cyprus Court Jails Turk For Illegal Entry 30/4/1998
(h) Cyprus Court Jails Turk For Illegal Entry 20/10/1998
(i) Greek Cypriot Jailed For Crossing "Green Line" 16/10/1998
(j) Turkish Cypriots Hold Two Greeks Who Entered North 22/7/1998
 AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL
(a) 1995 REPORT
(b) 1996 REPORT
(c) A Summary of Amnesty International's Human Rights Concerns June 1994
(d) 1997 REPORT
(e) 1998 REPORT
 THE MIDDLE EAST
(a) A Change of Pace? August 1998
 THE DAILY TELEGRAPH
(a) The Island Ruler Who Defies The World 2/4/1998
(b) Madness and Sadness Lie at the Heart of Nicosia 31/3/1998
 UNITED NATIONS, COMMITTEE AGAINST TORTURE, NINETEENTH SESSION, SECOND PERIODIC REPORT OF CYPRUS 13/11/1997
 REFUGEE LEGAL CENTRE
Cyprus: a) any evidence of police brutality in northern Cyprus, particularly sexual abuse of women b) any evidence of PKK activity there and of their crossing into Greek Cyprus c) any evidence of links between "TRNC" police and mainland Turkey police. 25/4/1995
 EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Case of Loizidou v. Turkey
Judgment, Strasbourg, 18/12/1996
 OFFICE OF THE LONDON REPRESENTATIVE "TURKISH REPUBLIC OF NORTHERN CYPRUS"
(a) Letter dated 16 October 1996
(b) Letter dated 17 January 1997
 BRITISH CONSULATE-GENERAL, ISTANBUL
Facsimile dated 24 August 1998
 HUMAN RIGHTS, INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS, CHART OF RATIFICATIONS AS AT 31 DECEMBER 1996, UNITED NATIONS, 1997
 UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, FIFTIETH SESSION, "QUESTION OF THE VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS IN ANY PART OF THE WORLD, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO COLONIAL AND OTHER DEPENDENT COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES - QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN CYPRUS", 17/2/1994
 UNITED NATIONS, COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS, FIFTY-SECOND SESSION, "QUESTION OF THE VIOLATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS IN ANY PART OF THE WORLD, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO COLONIAL AND OTHER DEPENDENT COUNTRIES AND TERRITORIES - QUESTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN CYPRUS", 6/2/1996
 FOREIGN & COMMONWEALTH OFFICE, BRITISH HIGH COMMISSION, NICOSIA
(a) "GYPSIES IN NORTHERN CYPRUS" 4/10/1995
(b) "TURKISH CYPRIOT ASYLUM CASES: KURDS IN THE "TRNC"" 2/8/1990
(c) "ASYLUM AND KURDS" 27/5/1998
(d) "IND ENQUIRIES ON TURKISH CYPRIOTS" 24/8/1998
(e) "IMMIGRATION ENQUIRY" 28/10/1998
(f) "OTHER MISSIONS VISA OPERATIONS IN THE NORTH" 13/11/1998
(g) "IND COUNTRY ASSESSMENT" 14/12/1998
 ATHENS NEWS
UN Sets New Initiative in Search of Cyprus Peace. Separate Meetings Planned with Leaders of War-Divided Island 4/10/1998
 CONSULATE GENERAL FOR THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY
Letter dated 14/10/1996
 DAILY TELEGRAPH
EU faces crisis on Turkish issue 11/3/1998
 RADIO BAYRAK, NICOSIA
(a) National Unity Party Wins Local Elections 29/6/1998
(b) Greek Cypriot Arrested For Attempting to Cross Into Northern Turkey 22/6/1998
(c) Leaders Hold Talks on Forming New Government 19/12/1998
 TURKISH DAILY NEWS
(a) 1997 - The Last Stop of the Intercommunal Talks 11/1/1998
(b) Denktas Asks Eroglu to Form the Government 20/12/1998
 XINHUA NEWS AGENCY
Roundup - Cypriot President-Elect Calls for National Unity 16/2/1998
 CYPRUS FINANCIAL MIRROR
Elections Eclipse Budget Debate 9/1/1998
 THE GUARDIAN
(a) An Island Divided by Hate 2/4/1998
(b) Turkey Tells Greeks Not to Put Missiles on Crete 31/12/1998
 CNA NEWS AGENCY, NICOSIA
Two Turks Jailed For Illegal Entry 13/8/1998
 MIGRATION NEWS SHEET
Iraqi Kurd Narrowly Missed Being Returned to Home Country June 1998
 "TRNC CITIZENSHIP ACT" NUMBER: 25/1993
 THE DOCUMENTATION, INFORMATION AND RESEARCH BRANCH,
IMMIGRATION AND REFUGEE BOARD, OTTAWA
Cyprus: Information on whether a citizen of the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" has any right to citizenship in the Republic of Cyprus, and if so, on what procedures must be taken 12 July 1996
 CYBC TV, NICOSIA
(a) President Announces Missiles Will Not be Deployed on the Island 29/12/1998
(b) Defence, Education Ministers Resign as Party Withdraws from Government 4/1/1999
 BAYRAK TV, NICOSIA
(a) Turkish Cypriot Leader Says Missile Decision "Forestalled Major Crisis" 31/12/1998
 CYBC RADIO, NICOSIA
Government Spokesman Defends Athens-Nicosia Decision on S-300 Missiles 30/12/1998
 KEESING'S RECORD OF WORLD EVENTS
"TRNC" Elections December 1998
 ANATOLIA NEWS AGENCY
(a) New Coalition Government Announced 30/12/1998
(b) Turkish Cypriot "Government" Receives Vote of Confidence 12/1/1999
ANNEX B: PRINCIPAL POLITICAL ORGANISATIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS
Anorthotiko Komma Ergazomenou Laou (AKEL) (Progressive Party of the Working People): Marxist-Leninist; supports demilitarised, non-aligned and independent Cyprus.Secretary-General: Demetris Christofias.
Dimokratiko Komma (DIKO) (Democrat Party): supports settlement of the Cyprus problem based on UN resolutions.President; Spyros Kyprianou.Secretary-General; Stathis Kittis.
Dimokratikos Synagermos (DISY) (Democratic Rally): advocates entry of Cyprus into the European Union and greater active involvement by the EU in the settlement of the Cyprus problem.President; Yiannakis Matsis.General-Secretary; Demetris Syllouris.
Enomeni Demokrates (EDI) (United Democrats): created in December 1996 by merger of Ananeotiko Dimokratiko Socialistiko Kinema (ADISOK, Democratic Socialist Reform Movement) and Kinema ton Eleftheron Dimokration (KED, Movement of Free Democrats).President; Georghios Vassiliou.
Socialistiko Komma Kyprou EDEK (EDEK Socialist Party of Cyprus): supports independent, non-aligned, unitary, demilitarised Cyprus; advocates the establishment of a socialist structure.President; Dr Vassos Lyssarides.
PRINCIPAL POLITICAL ORGANISATIONS IN THE "TRNC"
Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi (CTP) (Republican Turkish Party): socialist principles with anti-imperialist stand.Leader; Mehmet Ali Talat.
Demokrat Parti (DP) (Democrat Party): formed in 1992 by disaffected UBP representatives.Leader; Serdar Denktash.
Toplumcu Kurtulus Partisi (TKP) (Communal Liberation Party): democratic left party; wants a solution of Cyprus problem as an independent, non-aligned, bi-zonal and bi-communal federal state.Leader; Mustafa Akinci.
Ulasal Birlik Partisi (UBP) (National Unity Party): right of centre; based on Atatürk's reforms, social justice, political equality and peaceful co-existence in an independent, b-zonal, bi-communal, federal state of Cyprus.Leader; Dr Dervis Eroglu.
ANNEX C: POLITICAL PARTIES REPRESENTED IN REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
General Election held on 26 May 1996
Democratic Rally/Liberal Party
AKEL (Communist Party)
DIKO (Democratic Party)
EDEK (Socialist Party)
EDE (Enomeni Demokrates)
POLITICAL PARTIES REPRESENTED IN "TRNC" LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
General Election held on 12 December 1993
Ulusal Birlik Partisi (National Unity Party)
Demokrat Parti (Democrat Party)
Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi (Republican Turkish Party)
Toplumcu Kurtulus Partisi (Communal Liberation Party)
General Election held on 6 December 1998
Ulusal Birlik Partisi (National Unity Party)
Demokrat Parti (Democrat Party)
Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi (Republican Turkish Party)
Toplumcu Kurtulus Partisi (Communal Liberation Party)
ANNEX D: GLOSSARY
- Ethniki Organosis Kipriakou Agonos (National Organisation of Cypriot Combatants)
- Unification of Cyprus with Greece
- European Union
- "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus"
- "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"
- United Nations (peace-keeping) Force in Cyprus
ANNEX E: CHRONOLOGY
Archbishop Makarios was elected as the first President of Cyprus.
16 August 1960
Cyprus became independent.
Turkish Cypriots withdrew from the central Government and serious inter-communal fighting occurred.
UN Peace-keeping Force in Cyprus was established to prevent a recurrence of fighting between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities.
EOKA began a terrorist campaign for Enosis, directed against the Makarios Government and apparently supported by the military regime in Greece.
15 July 1974
President Makarios was deposed by a military coup, led by Greek officers of the National Guard, who appointed Nikos Sampson, an extremist Cypriot politician and former EOKA terrorist as President.
20 July 1974
At the invitation of Rauf Denktash, the Turkish Cypriot leader, the Turkish army intervened to protect the Turkish community, and to prevent Greece from using its control of the National Guard to take over Cyprus.
23 July 1974
President Sampson resigned and Glafcos Clerides, the President of the House of Representatives, became acting Head of State.
Makarios returned to Cyprus and resumed the Presidency.
The Turkish Cypriots declared the establishment of the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus" (TFSC), with Denktash as President.
Spyros Kyprianou became President following the death of Makarios.
Kyprianou was re-elected as President.
15 November 1983
The "TFSC" made a unilateral declaration of independence as the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus"("TRNC"), with Denktash continuing as President.The declaration of independence was condemned by the UN Security Council.
A referendum in the "TRNC" approved a new constitution which had been drafted by members of the Legislative Assembly.
9 June 1985
At the "TRNC" Presidential election Denktash was returned to office with over 70% of the vote.
Georghios Vassiliou won the Presidential election in the Greek Cypriot zone.
Denktash was the successful candidate in an early Presidential election in the "TRNC".
The Government of Cyprus formally applied to join the EC.
14 February 1993
Glafcos Clerides won the Presidential election in the Greek Cypriot zone.
The European Commission approved the eligibility of Cyprus for EC membership, but insisted that the application be linked to progress in UN-sponsored talks concerning the reunification of the island.
The Government of Cyprus agreed on a common defence doctrine with the Greek Government, whereby Greece was to provide Cyprus with a guarantee of air, land and naval protection.
A coalition Government between the Demokrat Parti (DP)(Democrat Party) and the left-wing Cumhuriyetçi Türk Partisi (CTP)(Republican Turkish Party) was formed following an early general election in the "TRNC".
Five informal "face-to-face" meetings between Clerides and Denktash, held on the initiative of the UN Secretary-General, failed to achieve any progress towards an agreement on issues of the peace settlement.
Denktash was re-elected as President of the "TRNC".
Results of elections for the Greek Cypriot House of Representatives produced little change in the composition of the legislature.DISY retained its 20 seats, while AKEL increased its representation to 19 seats, a gain of 1 (see Annex C).
An unarmed Greek Cypriot soldier was killed by Turkish Cypriot forces.
A Greek Cypriot died and an estimated 50 others were injured during violence that erupted at a mass demonstration which violated the "buffer" zone.UN forces judged both sides responsible for the violence.A protestor at the victim's funeral, following a further breach of the border area, was shot dead by Turkish Cypriot officials.
Following a split between the partners in the coalition Government in the "TRNC" in July, a new coalition was formed between the DP and UBP.
A Turkish Cypriot guard was killed, and another seriously wounded, at the demarcation line near Famagusta.
The fatal shooting of a Greek Cypriot civilian by Turkish Cypriot police caused further animosity.
The European Court of Human Rights ruled that Turkey was in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights by denying a Greek Cypriot woman access to her property, as a result of its occupation in the north.The court found that in the circumstances of the case the Turkish army exercised effective overall control in the "TRNC".
The purchase of an advanced anti-aircraft missile system by the Greek Cypriot authorities became the focus of political hostilities between the two sides and the cause of considerable international concern.On 20 January 1997, Turkey and the "TRNC" made a joint declaration that any attack on the "TRNC" would be considered as an attack on Turkey.
Two rounds of direct talks between Clerides and Denktash failed to reach any agreement on a solution to the Cyprus problem.
12/13 December 1997
At a summit meeting in Luxembourg the EU decided to open accession talks with the Greek Cypriot administration.These are due to start on 31 March 1998.
15 February 1998
Clerides was re-elected as President of the Republic.
16 October 1998
United Nations envoy started a series of separate meetings with Clerides and Denktash.
Cyprus and the EU are due to begin substantive accession negotiations.
6 December 1998
Elections to the "Republican Assembly" of the "TRNC" are held and won by the National Unity Party (UBP).A coalition "government" of the UBP and the Communal Liberation Party (TKP) is formed with incumbent "Prime Minister" Eroglu retaining his position.
29 December 1998
President Clerides announces that the S300 missiles will not be sited on Cyprus.Negotiations will continue for locating them on Crete.
Europa World Yearbook 1997
Reuters News Service
US Department of State Reports 1994-1998
Amnesty International Reports 1994-1997