World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Grenada : Overview
|Publisher||Minority Rights Group International|
|Cite as||Minority Rights Group International, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Grenada : Overview, 2007, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce10c.html [accessed 30 August 2014]|
Grenada is an island nation in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. It includes the southern Grenadines, and is located north of Trinidad and Tobago, and south of Saint Vincent.
Main languages: English, French-based patois
Main religions: Christianity (Roman Catholic)
The majority of the population of Grenada is of African descent (82 per cent, US Dept of State). Some members of the population (3%, CIA: 2000) are also descended from East Indian indentured labourers. There is a small Muslim population mostly originating from Gujarati Indian immigrants and there is also a small community of Rastafarians.
No significant indigenous Kalinago (Carib) and Taino (Arawak) populations survived the colonial era.
Due to the aggressive resistance mounted by the indigenous Carib (Kalinago) population Grenada remained uncolonized by European nations until 1650 when it was claimed by the French. (see also Saint Vincent and Dominica)
While most of the indigenous Kalinago population retreated to the other islands in 1651, the last 30 Carib warriors in Grenada leapt to their death off Sauteurs cliff, rather than surrender to the French. Conflict with indigenous Kalinago in the Caribbean region did not end until 1796, when they were finally overwhelmed by the British in St Vincent.
Throughout the 18th century shiploads of Africans were brought to Grenada and forced to provide labour on the colonial sugar plantations. After the abolition of slavery, plantation owners turned to indentured or contract emigrant labourers from colonial India to fill the gap. Over the years their descendants for the most part became blended into the national socio-cultural mainstream.
Grenada was made a Crown Colony in 1877. Independence was granted in 1974 under the leadership of the first Prime Minister, Sir Eric Gairy, making it the second-smallest independent country in the Western Hemisphere (after St Kitts and Nevis).
In March 1979 dissatisfaction with Gairy's government prompted a coup d'état led by Maurice Bishop, a popular left-wing leader of the New Jewel Movement. Bishop's socialist policies and cooperation with communist Cuba caused concern to some of the country's Caribbean neighbours and especially to the United States. After a putsch within the ruling People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) resulted in the death of Prime Minister Maurice Bishop, Grenada was invaded by the USA in October 1983, and the islands were ruled by an advisory council until new elections could be held in December 1984.
Following the upheavals of the early 1980s Grenada's political processes have been regular and uneventful.
As a member of the Commonwealth, Grenada's head of state is the British monarch, represented by a governor-general. Actual executive power lies with the prime minister, who is usually the leader of the majority group in parliament.
Current state of minorities and indigenous peoples
While largely absorbed into the overall population culturally and otherwise, some East Indian influence can still be noted, especially in the local cuisine.