World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Australia
|Publisher||Minority Rights Group International|
|Publication Date||June 2008|
|Cite as||Minority Rights Group International, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Australia, June 2008, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4954ce1cc.html [accessed 14 February 2016]|
|Comments||In October 2015, MRG revised its World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples. For the most part, overview texts were not themselves updated, but the previous 'Current state of minorities and indigenous peoples' rubric was replaced throughout with links to the relevant minority-specific reports, and a 'Resources' section was added. Refworld entries have been updated accordingly.|
Last updated: June 2008
The vast continent of Australia is geographically diverse and thinly populated, with most of the population concentrated in five main coastal cities. The population density is less than three per square km and is one of the lowest in the world. Much of the continent is drought-prone.
European colonization began in 1788 and resulted in the expropriation of Aboriginal land, warfare, massacres and disease, and declining population numbers. Though most of the original colonial population was British, the sources of migration became more diverse, especially in the second half of the twentieth century. There was significant Chinese migration in the mid-nineteenth century, but after 1901 the 'White Australia policy' virtually ended Asian migration for half a century.
After the war a migration programme was introduced. This resulted in the extraordinary diversification of Australian society. By the 1980s there were more than a hundred nationalities in Australia; many post-war migrants were from southern Europe and subsequently west and South-East Asia. By 2000, Chinese languages had become the most commonly spoken non-English language. Originally, migrant communities were expected to assimilate with the majority population. However, by the mid-1970s, the policy of assimilation began to give way to a policy of multiculturalism, where all Australians had the right to express their cultural heritage (including language and religion) and to receive social justice in terms of equal treatment and opportunity (without barriers of race, ethnicity, culture, religion, language, gender or birthplace). Two decades later, the approach changed again, with restrictions placed on migration and government policy shifting towards selectivity, based on skills needed for economic development.
Australia's economy was long based on the export of agricultural and mining products, but though these remained of considerable importance, they became less important than manufacturing and the service sector as a source of employment and economic growth in the 1960s and 1970s. This evolution contributed to urbanization and to the urban concentration of almost all migrants.
By contrast, Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders generally remained in the rural areas or small towns. The history of the Aboriginal population of Australia has been painful, dominated for the most part by disease and genocide, displacement and dispossession, resistance, poverty and marginalization. Assimilation, and policies such as the 'stolen children' programme (see Australia/Aborigines) and opposition to Aboriginal languages, denied Aboriginal identity.
Main languages: Aboriginal languages (about 100), English
Main religions: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
Minority groups include Aborigines, Torres Strait Islanders and South Sea Islanders. In the 2001 census, 89.4 per cent of the 460,164 indigenous Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders were reported to be of Aboriginal origin only, 6.4 per cent were reported to be of Torres Strait origin only, and 4.3 per cent were reported to be of both origins. In Queensland, there is also a South Sea Islanders community, generally estimated at 20,000.
Most of the Australian population is of European ancestry, and resident predominantly in coastal areas. Since the Second World War there has been substantial immigration, changing the sociology of urban Australia. After the post-war migration of people from southern Europe (especially Greece, Italy and Yugoslavia), immigration has diversified. In the past two decades a substantial migration from Asia has changed the population composition.
The historic indigenous populations - the Aborigines and the Torres Strait Islanders - are more evenly distributed and, despite being little more than 1.5 per cent of the total population, are dominant in parts of the Northern Territory and Cape York and in several other northern and inland areas.
Australia has a federal parliament of two elected houses and each state and territory has its own parliament. Other than Queensland each state also has two elected houses. Politics is dominated by two parties: the Liberal Party, in coalition with the smaller National (formerly Country) Party, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP). From the mid-1990s, under Prime Minister John Howard, the conservative coalition held federal power, while the states and territories were controlled by the Labor Party. The economy experienced steady growth in the 2000s with unemployment reaching very low levels by the mid-2000s. Growth stemmed from exports of minerals, mainly to Asia, but was constrained by a range of environmental factors especially problems in water allocation.
The election in 1996 of an independent and outspoken member of parliament, Pauline Hanson, openly opposed to Asian migration, and to the funding of Aboriginal programmes, resulted in increased hostility and violence towards Asians in several cities. The collapse of her One Nation party a few years later largely ended these overt problems. But the right-wing government of John Howard has adopted an agenda generally hostile to new immigrants and taken retrogressive steps with regard to recognizing Aboriginal rights.
Under Howard's government, multiculturalism has come under some attack, following the government's abolition of the principal multicultural agencies in the late 1990s, and reduction in funding for Aboriginal and women's programmes, and dismissal of United Nations reports that were critical of such directions. There was new pressure on migrants to conform to Australian social norms, with migrants being increasingly expected to learn English and subscribe to 'Australian values' though the conservative politicians who espoused such directions were unable to be clear what these values were.
At the start of the 2000s the Australian Government launched a powerful attack on refugees - though numbers were never large - heralded by the dispatching of refugees from a sinking Indonesian vessel to specially constructed internment centres on Nauru and on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, in what became ironically known as the 'Pacific solution'.
Some of these asylum-seekers were accepted by New Zealand, while others were slowly processed in Nauru. It was widely perceived that the government had managed to win the 2001 election because of its tough stance on refugees. The government subsequently declared in 2004, through the 1,000 mile wide maritime identification zone, that offshore islands, such as Christmas Island, were outside Australian official migration zone, an illegal declaration which took Australia even further away from United Nations conventions on human rights and refugee issues.
Despite this, in 2006 a group of 43 refugees from West Papua (Indonesia) managed to reach Australia by boat and their recognition by Australian courts brought Australia into conflict with Indonesia which led to further strengthening of national borders against asylum-seekers arriving by boat (ironically, asylum-seekers arriving by plane do not face the same restrictions as so-called 'boat people').
Minority based and advocacy organisations
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner
[Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission]
Tel: +61 2 9284 9600
Tel: +61 2 9217 7600
Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission (HREOC), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice unit
Indigenous Law Centre, University of New South Wales, Faculty of Law
Tel: +61 2 9385 2252
Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR)
[Working in support of justice for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia]
Tel: +61 2 9555 6138
Stolen Wages Campaign
South Sea Islanders
Australian South Sea Islander Research Association
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; email@example.com
Sources and further reading
Jupp, J. (ed.), The Australian People, Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 2001 (Second Edition)
Jupp, J., From White Australia to Woomera: the Story of an Australian Immigration, Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Mares, P., Borderline. Australian Treatment of Refugees and Asylum Seekers, Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 2003.
Attwood, Bain and Markus, Andrew: The struggle for Aboriginal Rights - a documentary history, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1999
Butt, P., Eagleson, R., and Lane, P. (eds.), Mabo. Wik and Native Title, Federation Press, Sydney 2001 (4th ed)
Langton, M., Tehan, M., Palmer, L., Shain, K., and Mazel, O., (eds.), Settling with Indigenous People, Federation Press, Sydney, 2006.
Reynolds, H Nowhere People, Melbourne, Penguin, 2005
Suter, K. and Stearman, K., Aboriginal Australians, London, MRG report, 1988.
Northern Territory Government, "Little Children Are Sacred", Report of the Northern Territory Board Of Inquiry into the Protection of Aboriginal Children from Sexual Abuse (2007)
Torres Strait Islanders
Beckett, J., Torres Strait Islanders: Custom and Colonialism, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Sharp, Nonie, No Ordinary Judgment: Mabo, The Murray Islanders' Land Case, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 1996.
Sharp, Nonie, Stars of Tagai: The Torres Strait Islanders, Aboriginal Studies Press, Canberra, 1993.
Torres Strait Regional Authority: http://www.tsra.gov.au/www/index.cfm
South Sea Islanders
Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, The Call for Recognition: A Report on the Situation of Australian South Sea Islanders, Sydney, Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1992.
HREOC Erace paper on South Sea Islanders (2003): http://www.humanrights.gov.au/racial_discrimination/Erace/south_sea.h tml
Moore, Clive: Kanaka: A History of Melanesian Mackay (Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies and the University of Papua New Guinea, Port Moresby, 1985).
O'Collins, Maev: An Uneasy Relationship: Norfolk Island and the Commonwealth of Australia (University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 2002).
Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet, policy on South Seas Islanders: http://www.premiers.qld.gov.au
Waters, Les: The Union of Christmas Island Workers, Allen and Unwin, Sydney, 1983