Last Updated: Tuesday, 01 December 2015, 13:36 GMT

Vietnam: Treatment of ethnic Chinese in the workplace and educational system (1999-2002)

Publisher Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada
Author Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada
Publication Date 26 April 2002
Citation / Document Symbol VNM38818.E
Reference 2
Cite as Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Vietnam: Treatment of ethnic Chinese in the workplace and educational system (1999-2002), 26 April 2002, VNM38818.E, available at: [accessed 1 December 2015]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

The Minorities at Risk Project stated the following in its 15 September 1999 report on the Chinese in Vietnam:

Since the early 1980s, the political, economic, and cultural status of the ethnic Chinese living in Vietnam has progressively improved. Efforts to reform and liberalize the economy have allowed the Hoa to reassert their dominant role in the economic arena. One report indicates that the Chinese in Ho Chi Minh City, the country's economic center, now control up to 50% of local commercial activities. Hanoi has supported the economic efforts of the ethnic Chinese in part to improve the country's economy but also as an avenue to promote foreign investment. The ethnic Chinese appear to be a bridge between the Hanoi government and overseas Chinese investors in China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore.

While the Chinese remain underrepresented in the political arena, all restrictions on their participation were officially lifted in the mid-1990s. The ethnic Chinese are referred to as Vietnamese citizens who possess the same rights and duties guaranteed to all citizens. In the cultural arena, government and private efforts have been undertake[n] to promote the use of Mandarin in schools and the development of a Chinese curriculum.

No further information on the treatment of ethnic Chinese in the workplace or educational system in Vietnam could be found within the time constraints of this Response.

This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.


Minorities at Risk Project. 15 September 1999. Lyubov Mincheva. "Chinese in Vietnam." [Accessed 24 Apr. 2002]

Additional Sources Consulted

IRB Databases

Europa World Year Book 2001


Political Handbook of the World 1999

US Department of State Country Reports on Human Rights Practices


Internet sites including:

Amnesty International



Freedom House

Human Rights Watch

Keesing's Record of World Events

Minority Rights Group International

Pacific Pulse



US Committee for Refugees

US Library of Congress

University of Minnesota Human Rights Library

Vietnam Globe

Copyright notice: This document is published with the permission of the copyright holder and producer Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada (IRB). The original version of this document may be found on the offical website of the IRB at Documents earlier than 2003 may be found only on Refworld.

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