Syria: National Alliance for the Liberation of Syria (1980-1999)
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||1 June 1999|
|Citation / Document Symbol||SYR32163.E|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Syria: National Alliance for the Liberation of Syria (1980-1999), 1 June 1999, SYR32163.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6aabcb0.html [accessed 18 June 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
According to the Website of the Minorities at Risk Project of Maryland University's Center for International Development and Conflict Management., the National Alliance for the Liberation of Syria "was announced in Paris under the leadership of Hammoud elShufi" on 3 April 1982 (13 Nov. 1995). However, according to Revolutionary and Dissident Movements the alliance "was proclaimed in 1982 in New York by Hammud al-Shufi" (1991, 331). According to Political Handbook of the World, 1998 the Alliance was established on 11 March 1982 (1998, 897). The Charter of the Alliance, reportedly issued in Damascus on 11 March 1982, was announced on the Baghdad "Voice of Arab Syria" on 22 March 1982. The principal points of the Charter are well summarized in Revolutionary and Dissident Movements (1991, 331) available in regional Documentation Centres.
According to the Website of the "Minorities at Risk Project" at the University of Maryland, Revolutionary and Dissident Movements and Political Handbook of the World, 1998, the Alliance consisted of approximately 20 groups opposed to the Assad government, proposing the institution of a constitutional multi-party democracy under Shari'a law (ibid.). According to the latter two sources member organizations included the Muslim Brotherhood and the Islamic Front in Syria (ibid.). For information concerning the Muslim Brotherhood, please consult SYR31471.E of 17 March 1999.
According to Revolutionary and Dissident Movements, Hammud al-Shufi was a "Druze and doctrinaire Marxist" who was Syria's delegate to the United Nations (ibid., 330). The same source also makes reference to a 1989 Iraqi News Agency report in which a Muhammad Umar Burhan is named as a member of the general secretariat of the Alliance (ibid., 331).
The Iraqi News Agency broadcast statements attributed to the organization in 1982 and 1983 (21 July 1982; Feb. 1983).
According to Political Handbook of the World, 1998 the Alliance was reportedly headquartered in Cairo as of 1986 (897). According to the same source:
An announcement from Paris in February 1990 suggested that the National Alliance had been succeeded by an "all-Syrian" Patriotic Front for National Salvation based at Baghdad, Iraq (ibid.).
However, according to a 6 December 1990 report in the BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Republic of Iraq Radio was broadcasting a program called "Voice of the National Alliance for the Liberation of Syria". There was also an earlier 1987 reference to the program (ibid., 17 Nov. 1987). However, on 27 June 1997 the BBC Summary of World Broadcasts reported that the National Alliance for the Liberation of Syria program broadcast from Iraq had not been heard for over a year and that the frequency on which it had been carried was no longer observed.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim to refugee status or asylum.
BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. 27 June 1997. "Observations on Opposition Media." (NEXIS)
_____. 6 December 1990. "Syria." (NEXIS)
_____. 17 November 1987. "Less Iraqi-Syrian Mutual Criticsim in Broadcasts." (NEXIS)
Iraqi News Agency. 11 February 1983. "Statement by Anti-Syrian Alliance." (BBC Summary 15 Feb. 1983/NEXIS)
_____. 21 July 1982. "Anti-Assad Organization in Syria." (BBC Summary 23 July 1982/NEXIS)
Minorities At Risk Project, University of Maryland at College Park, Maryland. 13 November 1995. Jonathan Fox.. "Alawis in Syria." [Internet]
Political Handbook of the World, 1998. 1998. Edited by Arthur S. Banks. Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications.
Revolutionary and Dissident Movements: An International Guide. 1991. 3rd ed. London: Longman Group UK.
Voice of Arab Syria, Baghdad. 22 March 1982. "Syrian Opposition Charter." (BBC Summary 26 Mar. 1982/NEXIS)