Nigeria/Cameroon: The Bakassi Movement for Self-Determination (BAMOSD), including its president and other high-ranking officials from 2002 to 2003; its mission and methods of action; whether it has ties to violent organizations or whether it is directly involved in violent acts; the main events in which it participated from 2002 to 2008; description of the membership card
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Publication Date||19 May 2010|
|Citation / Document Symbol||ZZZ103494.FE|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Nigeria/Cameroon: The Bakassi Movement for Self-Determination (BAMOSD), including its president and other high-ranking officials from 2002 to 2003; its mission and methods of action; whether it has ties to violent organizations or whether it is directly involved in violent acts; the main events in which it participated from 2002 to 2008; description of the membership card, 19 May 2010, ZZZ103494.FE, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4dd24a0b2.html [accessed 21 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
The Bakassi Movement for Self-Determination (BAMOSD) was founded in 2006 and fights for the independence of Bakassi, a territory located between Nigeria and Cameroon (Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research 2009, 23; see also MRG n.d.). The Lagos newspaper This Day reports that Tony Ene Asuquo was the leader of the BAMOSD in 2006, but he died in a road accident in August 2006 (18 Aug. 2006). Another Lagos newspaper, The Punch, reported in August 2006 that Emmanuel Asuquo was a BAMOSD leader and the president of the National Association of Bakassi Students, a youth faction of the BAMOSD (16 Aug. 2006). Information on other leaders of the BAMOSD could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
With regard to the main events in which the BAMOSD has participated, sources consulted by the Research Directorate indicate that the BAMOSD wrote the declaration of independence of Bakassi, but further details on their activities were not provided (The Post 31 July 2008; BBC 11 Aug. 2006). Citing information published by the Lagos daily Sunday Vanguard, an article published on 31 July 2008 by The Post, a Cameroon daily, reported that the decision to declare the independence of Bakassi was made at a meeting held on 2 July 2006 in Yenagoa, in the Nigerian state of Bayelsa; the city of Akwa Obutong was chosen as the capital of the new republic. An article published by Afrik.com on 8 September 2008 indicates that the leader Tony Ene was supported by many traditional Nigerian chiefs originally from Bakassi when he declared the independence of Bakassi and contested the Greentree Accord before the Federal High Court of Abuja. According to a history researcher cited by Inter Press Service (IPS), the Greentree Accord of 12 June 2006 legitimized the terms of the transfer of authority of the Bakassi peninsula to Cameroon (IPS 28 Oct. 2008; Ngwane 9 Apr. 2010). The accord, which was signed as a result of mediation from the United Nations (UN), was supposed to implement the order of 10 October 2002 of the International Court of Justice (Cour internationale de justice, CIJ), which recognized the sovereignty of Cameroon over Bakassi (IPS 28 Oct. 2008; RNW 13 Aug. 2008; Ngwane 9 Apr. 2010; UN 25 Aug. 2008).
As for the BAMOSD's ties to other movements, sources consulted by the Research Directorate report that, in the fight for the independence of Bakassi, the BAMOSD has entered into alliances with organizations such as the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) (Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research 2009, 29) and the Southern Cameroons Peoples' Organization (SCAPO) (The Post 31 July 2008). According to the Associated Press (AP), MEND activists [translation] "have been committing violent acts since January 2006" (AP 19 Dec. 2009).
Information on BAMOSD membership cards could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Afrik.com. 8 September 2008. Djat Mpayon. "Les Bakassi Boys font règner la terreur."
Associated Press (AP). 19 December 2009. "Nigeria : le MEND revendique une attaque sur un oléaduc." (Cyberpresse)
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). 11 August 2006. "Nigerian Troops Leaving Bakassi."
This Day [Lagos]. 18 August 2006. Gboyega Akinsanmi. "Nigeria: Bakassi Leader Dies in Auto Accident."
Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research, University of Heidelberg. 2009. Conflict Barometer 2009: Crises - Wars - Coups d'État - Negociations - Mediations - Peace Settlements. 18th Annual Conflict Analysis.
Inter Press Service (IPS). 28 October 2008. Raphaël Mvogo. "Cameroun-Nigéria : les attaques sur Bakassi, un obstacle à la normalisation?"
Minority Rights Group International (MRG). N.d. "Cameroon Overview." World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples.
Ngwane, George. 9 April 2010. Peace and Conflit Monitor, University for Peace. "Reflections on Track II Peace Building: Case of Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon."
The Post [Buea, Cameroon]. 31 July 2008. Azore Opio and Francis Tim Mbom. "Rebels Declare Independence' of Bakassi." (Allafrica.com)
The Punch [Lagos]. 16 August 2006. Ibanga Isine, Senan John Murray, Ofonime Umanah and Chukwudi Akasike. "Gendarmes Terrorise Nigerian Fishermen in Bakassi."
Radio Nederland Wereldomroep (RNW). 13 August 2008. Thijs Bouwknegt. "Nigeria to Hand over Bakassi to Cameroon."
United Nations (UN). 25 August 2008. Department of Public Information. "Le Secrétaire général déclare que l'accord de Greentree, conclu par le Cameroun et le Nigéria, représente "un triomphe pour l'État de droit"." (SG/SM/11745AFR/1737)
Additional Sources Consulted
Oral sources: Attempts to contact the United Nations Information Centre (UNIC) in Yaoundé were unsuccessful.
Internet sites, including: Afrol News, Agence France-Presse (AFP), Fédération internationale des ligues des droits de l'homme (FIDH), Le Figaro [Paris], Freedom House, InfoSud Belgique (InfoSud), L'International Magazine, Internationale de l'Éducation (IE), Le Monde [Paris], Organisation internationale de la francophonie (OIF), Organisation mondiale contre la torture (OMCT), Organisation de la presse africaine (African Press Organization, APO), Presse de la nation [Douala], Réseau des médias francophones (MEDIAF), Reuters, United States (US) Department of State, Voice of America (VOA).