Country Reports on Terrorism 2010 - Russia
|Publisher||United States Department of State|
|Publication Date||18 August 2011|
|Cite as||United States Department of State, Country Reports on Terrorism 2010 - Russia, 18 August 2011, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e5248182c.html [accessed 23 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Overview: Russia continued to endure terrorist attacks linked to instability in the North Caucasus. The most visible and largest attacks occurred in two Moscow Metro stations in March. Radical militants calling for a Caliphate within the Caucasus continued to constitute the main terrorist threat. Russia adopted amendments to the Criminal Code on Terrorist Activities to strengthen anti-money laundering efforts and enacted a law on Combating the Finance of Terrorism.
2010 Terrorist Incidents: Terrorist attacks in Russia continued to emanate from the ongoing unrest in the North Caucasus. Officials in mid-December cited 529 terrorist attacks over the course of the year in which 218 victims were killed and 536 injured. Suicide bombings at two Moscow Metro stations on March 29 by two women from Dagestan killed 40 and injured about 100 civilians. Other terrorist attacks occurred in the North Caucasus Federal District, particularly in the republics of Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia, Chechnya, and Kabardino-Balkaria.
The continuing high level of violence is a chronic problem in the North Caucasus region. The most serious terrorist attacks in the North Caucasus were a March 31 suicide bombing in Kizlyar, Dagestan, which killed 12 and injured 37; a September 9 car bombing at a market in Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia, which killed 18 and injured 140; and a May bombing in Stavropol, which killed seven and injured over 40. While these attacks were designed to cause mass civilian casualties, far more numerous were attacks targeting security forces and government facilities in the region, including an October 19 attack on the Chechen Parliament building in Grozniy, which left three dead and 17 injured. Authorities blamed a splinter group of the Caucasus Emirate for the October 19 Grozniy attack and an August 31 attacks in Tsentoroiy, which killed 11 and wounded 25.
Legislation and Law Enforcement: The 1998 federal law "On Fighting Terrorism" and the 2006 federal law "On Countering Terrorism" remained the principal counterterrorism legal authorities. At year's end, the Federal Assembly was finalizing a controversial new law, "On Police," that would expand police powers to preemptively detain suspected militants. In addition, on December 9, President Medvedev signed the Federal Law "On Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation," which increases punishment for perpetrating a terrorist attack, promoting terrorist activities, or inciting the public to terrorist acts. President Medvedev in a mid-November statement cited 60 occasions in which security forces prevented terrorist attacks. Elsewhere, Russian authorities claimed to have conducted 30 counterterrorism operations and killed over 300 militants.
Countering Terrorist Finance: Russia is a member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF). It is also a leading member, chair, and primary funding source of a similar body known as the Eurasian Group (EAG) on combating money laundering and terrorist financing. Through the EAG, Russia provided technical assistance and funding towards improving legislative and regulatory frameworks and operational capabilities on money laundering and terrorist financing. Russian banks must report suspicious transactions to the Federal Financial Monitoring Service (Rosfinmonitoring), a financial intelligence unit, which reports directly to the Prime Minister and is a member of the FATF and three FATF-style regional bodies: the Egmont Group, Committee of Experts on the Evaluation of Anti-Money Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism (MONEYVAL), and the EAG. The Central Bank and the markets regulator (the Financial Markets Federal Service) can access these transaction reports after requesting them from Rosfinmonitoring.
On July 23, Russia adopted a federal law that made changes to the existing laws "On Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (AML/CTF) and the Code of Administrative Infringements." These amendments are based on FATF recommendations and focus on three main areas: expanding AML/CTF jurisdiction, clarifying legal definitions, and improving the administrative oversight for enforcement of AML/CTF legislation. The government expanded AML/CTF jurisdiction. Subsidiaries, representative offices, and affiliates of Russian financial institutions that are located outside the Russian Federation must now comply with Russian AML/CTF regulations. Furthermore, microfinance and short-term loans, which have grown significantly in Russia, are now subject to AML/CTF laws.
Regional and International Cooperation: Russia continued its counterterrorism cooperation within the EU, the G8 Counterterrorism Action Group, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the OSCE; and was an active member of the NATO-Russia Council Counterterrorism Working Group.
In April, Russian President Medvedev attended the Nuclear Security Summit designed to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. In May, the U.S.-Russia Counterterrorism Working Group (CTWG) was convened; transportation security, countering violent extremism, terrorist finance, and information sharing issues were discussed. In November, the group met again and continued discussions on transportation security, countering violent extremism, coordination on nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and public private partnerships outreach.
The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation and Central Intelligence Agency and Russian Federal Security Service and Foreign Intelligence Service continued to cooperate in yearly Intelligence and Law Enforcement CTWG meetings. The most recent discussions were held in October in Washington, DC. In addition, operational and intelligence information related to terrorism-related threats continues to be shared among these four agencies on a regular basis.
Countering Radicalization and Violent Extremism: In December, Prime Minister Putin announced the creation of a Commission for the Socio-Economic Development of the North Caucasus under his chairmanship. As outlined, the program aims to improve economic opportunity in the region, and the central government will back loans of approximately US$ 1.5 billion for projects.