United States Department of State, U.S. Department of State Country Reports on Terrorism 2005 - Turkmenistan, 28 April 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4681083023.html [accessed 20 May 2013]
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Turkmenistan's strategic location bordering Iran, Russia, Afghanistan, and the Caspian Sea makes it a possible route for narcotics smuggling and money laundering. Despite a lack of formal cooperation on counterterrorism activities, three government officials participated in the U.S.-OSCE sponsored Conference on Combating Terrorist Financing held in Vienna in November. Since late 2001, Turkmenistan has granted blanket overflight rights for U.S. aircraft supporting Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). CENTCOM is contributing $5 million to build two border crossing stations on Turkmenistan's borders with Afghanistan and Iran.