2002 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Seychelles
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||18 April 2003|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2002 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Seychelles, 18 April 2003, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d748ac32.html [accessed 2 October 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
On September 28, 1999, Seychelles became the first country to ratify ILO Convention 182 on the elimination of the worst forms of child labor.3207 The Government of the Seychelles implemented major education reform programs in 1990 and 1999, which were aimed in part at improving access to and quality of primary education through enhanced teacher training standards, improved physical facilities, and guaranteed free education for all.3208 The Division of Social Affairs in the Ministry of Social Affairs and Manpower Development works to protect children's rights.3209 The National Commission for Child Protection, established in 1996, is responsible for overall child protection policies, and the National Council for Children is the organization responsible for overall policy-making on child rights.3210
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Statistics on the number of working children under the age of 15 in Seychelles are unavailable, and information is not available on the incidence and nature of child labor. Education is compulsory for 10 years and free through secondary school.3211 In 1999, the gross primary enrollment rate was 100.8 percent and the net primary enrollment rate was 99.9 percent.3212 Attendance rates are not available for Seychelles. While enrollment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children's participation in school.3213
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The Constitution sets the minimum age for employment at 15 years, with exceptions for children employed part time in light work that is not harmful to their health, morals or education. Violations of the minimum age regulation are punishable by a fine of SCR 6,000 (USD 1,119).3214 An amendment to the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act of 1981 specifically prohibits children under 18 from working in hotels, restaurants and shops.3215 Forced or bonded labor is prohibited by law.3216 Article 138(b) of the Penal Code prohibits the procuring of any woman or girl for purposes of prostitution.3217 The Ministry of Employment and Social Services is responsible for enforcing child labor laws and investigating child labor abuses.3218
In 2001, there were no reported cases of child labor requiring investigation by the Ministry of Employment and Social Services, no known cases of forced or bonded labor by children, and no reports of trafficking in persons to, from, or within the country.3219 A Family Tribunal composed of 18 members hears and decides all cases relating to the care and custody of children, save paternity cases.3220 Only 42 cases of child sex abuse were reported in 2001, and there are concerns that the police fails to vigorously investigate charges of child abuse.3221
The Government of Seychelles ratified ILO Convention 138 on March 7, 2000, and ILO Convention 182 on September 28, 1999.3222
3207 ILO, Child Labor Convention Becomes International Law, 2001 [cited October 23, 2002]; available from http://www.us.ilo.org/news/focus/0012/FOCUS-5.html.
3208 UNESCO, Education for All 2000 Assessment: Country Reports – Seychelles, prepared by Education Planning Division of Resource Planning and Project Development, pursuant to UN General Assembly Resolution 52/84, 2000, [cited September 2, 2002]; available from http://www2.unesco.org/wef/countryreports/seychelles/contents.html.
3209 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2001: Seychelles, Washington, D.C., March 4, 2002, 570-71, Section 5 [cited September 1, 2002]; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2001/ af/8401.htm.
3210 Government of Seychelles Ministry of Social Affairs and Manpower Development, "Seychelles- Putting Children First," African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, August 2000, [cited October 3, 2002]; available from http://www.occuphealth.fi/e/info/anl/200/seychelles06.htm. See also ATLAS Seychelles Ltd., The Historical Perspective of NCC, [online] [cited October 3, 2002]; available from http://www.seychelles.net/ncc/about.htm.
3211 Right to Education, Legal Status/Constitutional Guarantees: Seychelles, in Right to Education Project, [database online] 2002 [cited December 5, 2002]; available from http://www.right-to-education.org/content/index_4.html. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2001: Seychelles, 570-71, Section 5.
3212 UNESCO, Education for All: Year 2000 Assessment [CD-ROM], Paris, 2000.
3213 For a more detailed discussion on the relationship between education statistics and work, see the preface to this report.
3214 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2001: Seychelles, 571-72, Section 6d. For currency conversion see FX Converter, [online] [cited October 23, 2002]; available from http://www.carosta.de/frames/convert.htm.
3215 ILO, Seychelles: Children and Young Persons, [cited September 1, 2002]; available from http://natlex.ilo.org/
3216 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2001: Seychelles, 571-72, Section 6c.
3217 Government of Seychelles, Penal Code, [cited September 2, 2002]; available from http://188.8.131.52/ver2/cr/
3218 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2001: Seychelles, 571-72, Section 6d.
3219 Ibid., 571-72, Sections 6c, 6d, 6f.
3220 Ibid., 570-71, Section 5.
3222 ILO, Ratifications by Country, in ILOLEX, [database online] [cited September 1, 2002]; available from http://ilolex.ilo.ch?1567/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?Seychelles.