2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Montenegro
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||27 August 2008|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Montenegro, 27 August 2008, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48caa481c.html [accessed 22 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor2337|
|Working children, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working boys, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working girls, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working children by sector, 5-14 years (%):|
|Minimum age for work:||15|
|Compulsory education age:||15|
|Free public education:||Yes*|
|Gross primary enrollment rate (%):||–|
|Net primary enrollment rate (%):||–|
|School attendance, children 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Survival rate to grade 5 (%):||–|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||No|
|* Must pay for miscellaneous school expenses|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Montenegro is primarily a transit country for girls trafficked to Western Europe. The IOM estimates that trafficking levels remained the same in 2007 as in 2006.2340 Roma children also have been trafficked abroad for forced begging and theft rings.2341
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The minimum age for employment is 15 years.2342 Children under 18 years are not permitted to work in jobs that involve particularly difficult physical work, overtime and night work, underground or underwater work, or in jobs that "bear a high level of risk of damaging the condition and life of the referred employees."2343 The law provides for monetary penalties for violation of these provisions.2344
Forced labor is prohibited.2345 Trafficking in persons is prohibited, and trafficking of a minor is punishable by 3 to 10 years imprisonment.2346 Inciting a minor into prostitution is punishable by 1 to 10 years imprisonment.2347 The minimum age to volunteer for the Montenegrin military is 18 years.2348 The Labor Inspectorate of the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare is responsible for the enforcement of labor laws, including those protecting children from exploitation in the workplace. The Ministry has 40 inspectors covering labor issues, and in 2007, there were numerous labor investigations but no incidents of child labor were discovered.2349 The Government's enforcement efforts were generally effective, according to USDOS.2350
In 2007, the Government initiated two human trafficking investigations and prosecuted three individuals on trafficking charges. All three were convicted and given prison sentences of 5 years. 2351 With assistance from the Italian Government, Montenegro drafted a Manual for Training Judges and Prosecutors. Police, prosecutors, judges, and other officials have been trained specifically on trafficking.2352 There were reports of police and customs officers who unofficially provided security to nightclubs or bars that serve as trafficking outlets, which allowed some traffickers to evade arrest.2353
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Government of Montenegro continued to sponsor public awareness campaigns on trafficking, assuming funding and providing police security for one of three trafficking shelters.2354 It has supported anti-trafficking policies through a website, organized round tables, a hotline for potential trafficking victims, and anti-trafficking educational programs in public schools.2355
2337 For statistical data not cited here, see the Data Sources and Definitions section. For data on ratifications and ILO-IPEC membership, see the Executive Summary. For minimum age for admission to work, age to which education is compulsory, and free public education, see Government of Montenegro, Labour Law, (July 9, 2003), article 10; available from http://www.gom.cg.yu/files/1176469100.doc. See also U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, reporting, November 30, 2006. See also Government of Montenegro, The Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro, (October 19, 2007); available from http://www.legislationline.org/upload/legislations/01/9c/b4b8702679c8b42794267c691488.htm. See also U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, reporting, January 11, 2008.
2338 U.S. Department of State, "Montenegro," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2008, Washington, DC, March 11, 2007, section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100575.htm.
2339 U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, reporting, January 11, 2008. See also Barbara Limanowska, Trafficking in Human Beings in South Eastern Europe 2004 – Focus on Prevention in: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, the UN Administered Province of Kosovo, UNDP, New York, March 2005, 64; available from http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/Trafficking.Report.2005.pdf.
2340 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Montenegro," section 5. See also U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, Email communication to USDOL official, July 22, 2008.
2341 U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, reporting, January 11, 2008.
2342 Government of Montenegro, Labour Law, article 10.
2343 Ibid., articles 75 and 77.
2344 Ibid., article 148, paragraphs 5 and 32.
2345 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Montenegro," section 6c.
2346 Government of Montenegro, Criminal Code of Montenegro, (June 29, 2006), article 444, sections 1-3; available from http://www.legislationline.org/legislation.php?tid=1&lid=6221.
2347 Ibid., article 210.
2348 U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, reporting, January 11, 2008.
2350 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Montenegro," section 6d.
2351 U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, reporting, March 4, 2008. See also U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, Email communication, July 22, 2008.
2352 U.S. Department of State, "Montenegro (Tier 2 Watch List)," in Trafficking in Persons Report-2007, Washington, DC, June 12, 2007; available from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/82902.pdf.
2354 Ibid. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Montenegro," section 5. See also U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, Email communication, July 22, 2008.
2355 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007: Montenegro." See also U.S. Embassy – Podgorica, Email communication, July 22, 2008.