2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Sri Lanka
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||29 August 2006|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Sri Lanka, 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d7490c2.html [accessed 4 May 2015]|
|Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments|
|Ratified Convention 138 2/11/00||✓|
|Ratified Convention 182 3/1/01||✓|
|National Plan for Children||✓|
|National Child Labor Action Plan||✓|
|Sector Action Plans (Trafficking, War-Affected Children)||✓|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Statistics on the number of working children under age 15 in Sri Lanka are not available.4356 According to the Government of Sri Lanka's 1999 Child Labor Survey in Sri Lanka, the majority of working children are in the agricultural sector.4357 Children also work in the informal sector and in family enterprises, in small restaurants, stores, repair shops, and hotels; in small-scale manufacturing and crafts; as street peddlers;4358 and as domestic servants.4359 Some children from rural areas are reportedly victimized in debt bondage as domestic servants in urban households.4360 Child labor is one of many problems associated with poverty. In 2000, 7.6 percent of the population in Sri Lanka were living on less than USD 1 a day.4361
The government estimates that more than 2,000 children are engaged in prostitution. Some local groups estimate the number of child prostitutes as closer to 6,000, however. The majority of children engaged in prostitution are exploited by local citizens, though there are reports of sex tourism as well.4362 Children are reportedly trafficked internally and to the Middle East, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea for sexual exploitation and other forms of exploitative labor.4363 Some internally-trafficked children, mostly boys, are lured from the conflict-ridden northern and eastern provinces to southern beach and mountain resorts to work in the sex industry, sometimes at their parents' request.4364
The use of children in armed conflict remains a pressing concern.4365 Reports indicate that the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) continue to heavily recruit thousands of children as soldiers, often forcibly. The LTTE recruit and abduct children as young as 13 to serve in combat and in various battlefield support functions. There are no indications that the government is using child soldiers.4366 Many of those recruited by the LTTE are girls.4367 Reports indicate that at the beginning of 2005 there were over 5,000 children in the ranks of the LTTE, and more were abducted from religious gatherings in the east during the year.4368
The Indian Ocean tsunami that hit Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004 killed over 31,000 people in Sri Lanka and displaced over 519,000.4369 Thousands of children were orphaned or separated from their families, increasing their vulnerability to trafficking and other worst forms of child labor.4370 There were reports of traffickers exploiting the post-disaster situation to abduct and sell orphans and other vulnerable children,4371 and of the LTTE recruiting child soldiers from camps set up for tsunami survivors.4372
Sri Lanka's Constitution guarantees the right to universal and equal access to education.4373 Primary education is compulsory for children ages 5 to 14 years,4374 and the government provides free education through the university level.4375 In 2003, the gross primary enrollment rate was 111 percent.4376 Gross enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect school attendance. Primary school attendance statistics are not available for Sri Lanka.4377 Sri Lanka's education facilities were negatively affected by the tsunami and ongoing armed conflict, and many children remained out of school, particularly in the northeast.4378 After the tsunami, an estimated 72,000 children were left without access to schools,4379 and the Ministry of Education (MOE) delayed the start of the 2005 school year.4380
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
Under the Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act of 1956, the minimum age for employment in most occupations in Sri Lanka is 14 years.4381 Under the Act, children may be employed in family-run agricultural enterprises or as part of technical training activities, but not during school hours; for more than 2 hours on a school day or Sunday; between the hours 8 p.m. and 6 a.m.; or in any activities that jeopardize health or education. The Act limits the work hours of young people age 16 years and below to 9 per day, and the work hours of young people ages 17 to 18 years to 10 per day.4382 The Act prohibits young people under 18 from working in industrial facilities after 11 p.m., except in certain training or apprenticeship situations.4383 Amendments to the Act in 2003 increased penalties for child labor violations to Rs. 10,000 (approximately USD 98) and 12 months of imprisonment.4384 The Factories Ordinance requires medical certification of children under 16 years prior to employment, and prohibits children below 18 years from engaging in hazardous employment.4385
The worst forms of child labor may be prosecuted under different statutes in Sri Lanka. Forced labor by persons of any age is prohibited under the Abolition of Slavery Ordinance of 1844, and Article 360 of the Penal Code prohibits buying, selling or bartering any person for money or any other consideration.4386 The Penal Code also contains provisions prohibiting sexual violations against children, defined as a person under 18 years, particularly with regard to child pornography, child prostitution, and the trafficking of children.4387 Trafficking for sexual exploitation is punishable by imprisonment of 2 to 20 years and fines of USD 100 to 500; trafficking for labor exploitation is punishable by 5 months' to 5 years of imprisonment and fines of USD 500 to 2,000.4388 The Sri Lankan parliament passed a law in 2005 to prevent and combat trafficking in women and children for prostitution, but the law will not take effect until implementing regulations are written.4389 The minimum age for recruitment into the armed forces is 18 years.4390 Following the tsunami, the government passed a new law to protect children affected by the disaster.4391
In 2004, the National Labor Advisory Council chaired by the Minister of Labor formally adopted a list of occupations considered to be the worst forms of child labor in Sri Lanka, but no progress was made in 2005 to codify the list in laws and regulations.4392 Since 1999, the Government of Sri Lanka has submitted to the ILO a list or an equivalent document identifying the types of work that it has determined are harmful to the health, safety or morals of children under Convention 182 or Convention 138.4393
The Women and Children's Affairs Division (WCAF) of the Department of Labor is the focal point in the Sri Lankan government for child labor issues.4394 The Department of Labor and the Department of Probation and Child Care Services enforce child labor laws, often in collaboration with the police.4395 In the first half of the year, the Department of Labor received 63 complaints of child labor violations, of which 20 were prosecuted.4396 Most child labor offenses are prosecuted by the police, under the Penal Code.4397 The National Child Protection Authority (NCPA) is the primary oversight agency for the protection of children, and its anti-trafficking unit coordinates governmental anti-trafficking activities.4398 The NCPA's Cyber Watch unit monitors the internet for advertisements soliciting children for child pornography and pedophilia in Sri Lanka.4399
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2005 the government integrated its Policy and Plan of Action to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor into the National Plan of Action for Children 2004-2008. The Ministry of Labor Relations has committed a budget to implement the child labor components of the plan, which include strengthening child labor laws and enforcement; improving the availability of child labor data; increasing vocational training programs for out-of-school youth; sensitizing the public to child labor issues; and reducing domestic child labor by 30 percent each year.4400 However, progress toward these goals is unclear due to the impact of the tsunami. The NCPA conducts public awareness-raising activities through the media, and provides training on child protection issues, including child labor, for government and social welfare officials, medical professionals, and the police. The Department of Labor trains labor inspectors, probation officers and police officers on child labor issues.4401
The government continues to participate in several ILO-IPEC projects to combat child labor in Sri Lanka. These include a project funded by USDOL to combat child trafficking in Asia;4402 a project funded by the U.S., Norwegian and Australian governments to provide vocational training for former child soldiers; and a project funded by the Netherlands government to combat child domestic labor.4403 In addition, with USDOL funding, the ILO-IPEC and the Sri Lankan government initiated a USD 562,000 project after the tsunami that will continue through 2008. The project aims to strengthen the capacity of government, media, and international organizations to integrate child labor issues into post-tsunami reconstruction policies; monitor the child labor situation in the post-tsunami environment; and provide educational and psychosocial services to tsunami-affected families in Galle and Trincomalee.4404
In July 2003, the government and the LTTE agreed to a Joint Plan for Children Affected by War to end child recruitment and to demobilize and rehabilitate ex-child soldiers.4405 However, there are reports that the Action Plan is stalled due to continued child recruitment and lack of cooperation by the LTTE, particularly after the tsunami. The government is implementing a National Plan of Action to combat trafficking of children for sexual and labor exploitation, under the purview of the NPCA.4406 The NPCA and other government agencies, with support from ILO-IPEC and UNICEF, have various mechanisms in place to care for child trafficking victims. These include rehabilitation camps and other shelters that provide medical care, counseling services, and supplementary food rations. The government has also increased funding for its anti-Human Smuggling and Investigation Bureau to combat trafficking. The government assists Sri Lankan trafficking victims abroad through its diplomatic missions, and assists foreign victims in Sri Lanka through its Foreign Employment Bureau.
According to the U.S. Department of State, the government took strong measures immediately following the tsunami to address the increased risk of child trafficking.4407 Among these measures was a large-scale awareness-raising campaign on the increased dangers of trafficking, supported by USAID and the American Center for International Labor.4408 USAID's other post-tsunami efforts include supporting the government to leverage funds from private sector sources, and providing direct assistance to vulnerable youth and children, including a project to construct 85 playgrounds in tsunami-affected communities.4409 USAID has provided over USD 134 million in funding for tsunami relief and reconstruction projects.4410 The Asia Foundation is supporting the government's effort to provide protection and psycho-social services for children.4411
The Government of Sri Lanka has demonstrated commitment to education, providing free school books and uniforms to all children in primary and secondary schools, and school feeding programs in over 3,000 schools in disadvantaged areas. The MOE initiated a program to improve education for the children of plantation workers, who are considered especially vulnerable to child labor. The program has strengthened formal schools in plantation areas; recruited teachers to work on plantations; provided special education classes to children with learning disabilities; and provided vocational training to dropouts.4412 With support from the World Bank, the Ministry of Education is implementing a program to increase school attendance. The World Bank is funding a second phase of the General Education Project to improve the quality, access, and management of schools, as well as a project to improve the quality, cost-effectiveness and coverage of education.4413
In the post-disaster environment, CHF International, Oxfam and other NGOs are assisting the government in repairing schools.4414 UNICEF is providing school furniture, supplies, and materials for school uniforms, and has helped to clean and repair hundreds of schools. In collaboration with the government, UNICEF has developed a post-tsunami 3-year plan which focuses on returning children to school; providing essential school supplies and psychosocial services; and improving quality of education.4415
4356 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
4357 Approximately 64 percent of working children ages 5 to 17 years were found in the agricultural sector. See Department of Census and Statistics and Ministry of Finance and Planning, Child Labor Survey in Sri Lanka, Government of Sri Lanka, 1999, Table 3.16; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/srilanka/report/srilanka99.pdf.
4358 Department of Census and Statistics, Summary of Findings of Child Labor Survey in Sri Lanka, Government of Sri Lanka, [online] 1999 [cited July 6, 2005]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/srilanka/report/srilan99/indexpr.htm. See also U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2004: Sri Lanka, Washington, D.C., February 28, 2005, Section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41744.htm.
4359 The situation of domestic service is not regulated or well documented, although the numbers of children employed in domestic service are reported to be in the thousands. See Nayomi Kannangara, Harendra de Silva, and Nilaksi Parndigamage, Sri Lanka Child Domestic Labour: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, September 2003, 12; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/srilanka/ra/domestic.pdf. See also Bharati Pflug, An overview of child domestic workers in Asia, 2003, 5, 13; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/publ/childdomestic/overview_child.pdf.
4360 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Section 6c and 6d.
4361 World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 [CD-ROM], Washington, DC, 2005.
4362 See Ibid., Section 5. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, Sri Lanka; accessed June 28, 2005; available from http://www.ecpat.net.
4363 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report-2005: Sri Lanka, Washington, D.C., June 3, 2005; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/46616.htm..
4364 Organized crime networks are also implicated in the internal trafficking of children. U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Section 5. See also Sarath W. Amarasinghe, Sri Lanka: The Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children: A Rapid Assessment, ILO-IPEC, Geneva, February 2002, 16; available from http://www-ilomirror.cornell.edu/public/english/standards/ipec/simpoc/srilanka/ra/cse.pdf.
4365 U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005. From 1983 to 2001, the Government of Sri Lanka fought the LTTE, an armed terrorist group fighting for a separate ethnic Tamil state in the North and East of the island. The parties signed a peace accord in 2002, but both parties continue to violate this agreement. See U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Introduction.
4366 Human Rights Watch, World Report 2005, New York, January, 2005, 322; available from http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/13/slanka9854.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Section 5. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004, London, November 17, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=878.
4367 A 2004 UNICEF study estimated that up to 43 percent of children involved in the Sri Lanka conflict are girls. See Save the Children-UK, Girls and Conflict – Forgotten Casualties of War, London, April 27, 2005, I; available from http://www.rb.se/NR/rdonlyres/C0A44378-E6CE-4C74-9EF5-535E673B8FD1/0/GirlsandConflictForgottencasualtiesofwar.pdf.
4368 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Section 5. There were reports of the LTTE abducting 15- and 16-year olds from Hindu temple festivals in Batticaloa district in May and June. See Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Sri Lanka: Coalition of rights groups urges Tamil Tigers to stop recruiting children at Hindu temple festivals, press release, London, June 13, 2005; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=1020.
4369 Figures as of May 2005. See USAID, Indian Ocean – Earthquakes and Tsunamis, Fact Sheet #38, FY2005, May 6, 2005; available from http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/tsunami/pdf/Indian_Ocean_EQ_and_TS_FS38-05.06.05.pdf.
4370 ILO-IPEC, Emergency response to child labour in selected Tsunami affected areas in Sri Lanka, project document, Geneva, February 25, 2005, 5, 6, 36. As of March 2005 it was estimated that 1,100 children had been orphaned, and 3,600 had lost one parent. See UNICEF, "Caring for children growing up alone after the tsunami", UNICEF, [online], March 1, 2005 [cited July 7, 2005]; available from http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/24615_25298.html.
4371 UNICEF Press Center, How to protect children in the tsunami zone, press release, London, January 8, 2005; available from http://www.unicef.org/media/media_24771.html. See also Juliette Terzieff, "From Tragedy to Slavery", AlterNet.org, [online], January 24, 2005 [cited December 13, 2005]; available from http://www.alternet.org/module/printversion/21030.
4372 Human Rights Watch, Sri Lanka: Child Tsunami Victims Recruited by Tamil Tigers, Child Tsunami Victims Recruited, press release, New York, January 14, 2005; available from http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/14/slanka10016.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Sri Lanka.
4373 Right to Education Project, Constitutional Guarantees: Sri Lanka, Right-to-Education.org, [database online] n.d. [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://www.right-to-education.org/content/consguarant/sri.html.
4374 Government of Sri Lanka, Compulsory Attendance of Children at Schools, Regulation No. 1 of 1997, (November 18, 1997). This regulation is the implementing legislation of the Education Ordinance of 1940. See also ILO, National Legislation and Policies Against Child Labour in Sri Lanka, [online] March 21, 2005 [cited July 5, 2005]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/newdelhi/ipec/responses/srilanka/national.htm.
4375 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Section 5. Despite ongoing educational reforms since 1999, education authorities and parents in rural and conflict-affected areas are not fully informed that education is to be free and compulsory. See UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Sri Lanka, Geneva, July 2, 2003, para. 42.
4376 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=51 (Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios, Primary; accessed December 2005). For an explanation of gross primary enrollment rates that are greater than 100 percent, please see the definition of gross primary enrollment rates in the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
4377 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used.
4378 During 2004, thousands of war-affected children were re-enrolled in school or accelerated learning programs, and hundreds of war-damaged schools in the northeast were repaired, but many children still lacked access to educational facilities, and there remained a need for trained teachers and social workers. See UNICEF Press Center, Stalled peace negotiations in Sri Lanka harm children, press release, Colombo, September 9, 2004; available from http://www.unicef.org/media/media_23433.html.
4379 Steve Nettleton, "UNICEF Executive Director Ann M. Veneman visits tsunami-affected areas in Sri Lanka", UNICEF, [online], June 17, 2005 [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://www.unicef.org/emerg/disasterinasia/24615_27438.html.
4380 ILO-IPEC, Tsunami affected areas in Sri Lanka, project document, 6.
4381 Government of Sri Lanka, Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act, No. 47 of 1956 and No. 43 of 1964, (November 7, 1956), Part III, Articles 13 and 34 (1). Some sector-specific laws also specify 14 years as the minimum age for employment. See Government of Sri Lanka, Shop and Office Employees Act No. 19 of 1954, Article 10 (1). The minimum age for employment at sea is 15 years. See U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, August 18, 2003.
4382 Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act Nos. 47 of 1956 and 43 of 1964, (November 7), Article 13. See also U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, August 18, 2003.
4383 Employment of Women, Young Persons, and Children Act of 1956, Articles 2(1), 3(4-6), and 34.
4384 Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Employment and Labour, Performance Report – 2003, Government of Sri Lanka, [online] n.d. [cited July 7, 2005]; available from http://www.labour.lk/labour_foreign_relation_report.html#Employment%20of%20Women,%20Young%20persons%20and%20C hildren%20(Amendment)%20%20Act.%20No.%208%20of%202003. For currency conversion, see FXConverter, [online] [cited December 16, 2005]; available from http://www.oanda.com/convert/classic.
4385 U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, August 18, 2003.
4386 Government of Sri Lanka, Report of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka on Efforts by GSP Beneficiary Countries to Eliminate Worst Forms of Child Labour, submitted in response to U.S. Department of Labor Federal Register Notice (July 25, 2005) "Request for Information on Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor", Colombo, August 19, 2005, 1.
4387 Government of Sri Lanka, Penal Code (Amendment), 1995, Act No. 22, Articles 286A (1) and (2), 360A, and 360B. See also Government of Sri Lanka, Penal Code (Amendment), 1998, Act no. 29, Articles 288A(1) and (2), and 360A (1) and (2).
4388 U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, March 2, 2005.
4389 Ibid., September 8, 2005.
4390 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Global Report 2004.
4391 ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Trafficking for Labor and Sexual Exploitation (TICSA Phase II), technical progress report, Geneva, March 14, 2005, 3. See also ILO-IPEC, Tsunami affected areas in Sri Lanka, project document, 2.
4392 The number of occupations included in the list is unclear; varying sources state that the list contains 25, 49, or 50 occupations. ILO Committee of Experts, Direct Request, Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182), Sri Lanka (ratification: 2001), [online] 2004 [cited December 16, 2005]; available from http://webfusion.ilo.org/public/db/standards/normes/appl/index.cfm?lang=EN. See also U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, August 23, 2004, August 23, 2004. The list will have legal effect under the Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, but the Act does not contain a general prohibition on children under age 18 engaging in hazardous work, and lacks enabling provisions to make regulations to prohibit hazardous labor. U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005. In the meantime, a legal review has been conducted and a Cabinet Paper prepared to enable the Minister of Labor to amend existing regulations. See ILO-IPEC, TICSA Phase II, technical progress report, technical progress report, 3.
4393 ILO-IPEC official, email communication to USDOL official, November 14, 2005.
4394 ILO-IPEC, Tsunami affected areas in Sri Lanka, project document, 11.
4395 Government of Sri Lanka, Report of Sri Lanka on Efforts to Eliminate Worst Forms of Child Labour, 6.
4396 U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005.
4397 Government of Sri Lanka, Report of Sri Lanka on Efforts to Eliminate Worst Forms of Child Labour, 6. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Section 6d.
4398 Government of Sri Lanka, National Child Protection Authority Act No. 50 of 1998. See also ILO, National Legislation and Policies. NCPA works with 450 social welfare officers at the community level and has also established 11 district child protection committees to further raise awareness of child abuse issues, including child labor. See U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, August 23, 2004.
4399 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Sri Lanka.
4400 Director General B. Abeygunawardana, National Planning Department, National Plan of Action for the Children of Sri Lanka, 20042008, Government of Sri Lanka Ministry of Finance and Planning, Colombo, 2004, 122-123; available from http://www.humanitarianinfo.org/srilanka/docs/National_Plan.pdf. See also ILO-IPEC, TICSA Phase II, technical progress report, technical progress report, 3.
4401 U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005. Training includes trauma and psychosocial counseling, surveillance, legal awareness, as well as training of trainers on these issues. See U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, August 23, 2004.
4402 ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Trafficking for Labor and Sexual Exploitation (TICSA Phase II), project document, Geneva, September 30, 2002, 1.
4403 ILO-IPEC, Tsunami affected areas in Sri Lanka, project document, 13.
4404 Ibid., 15, 36.
4405 U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, August 23, 2004. The NGOs and IGOs involved include UNICEF, ILO-IPEC, Save the Children, the Ministry of Social Welfare, Tamil Rehabilitation Organization, UNDP, and UNCHR. See UNICEF Press Center, Call to increased action for Sri Lanka's war affected children, press release, Colombo, January 22, 2004; available from http://www.unicef.org/media/media_19036.html.
4406 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Sri Lanka, Section 5.
4407 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report – 2005: Sri Lanka.
4408 USAID, Indian Ocean – Earthquakes and Tsunamis, Fact Sheet #38, FY2005.
4409 USAID, USAID Rebuilds Lives After the Tsunami – Weekly Update: Sri Lanka, USAID, [online] June 22, 2005 2005 [cited June 29, 2005]; available from http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/tsunami/. See also USAID, Tsunami Reconstruction Update, Washington, DC, December 2, 2005; available from http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/tsunami/pdf/tsunami_update_120205.pdf. See also U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005.
4410 See also USAID, Tsunami Reconstruction Update, Washington, DC, December 2, 2005; available from http://www.usaid.gov/locations/asia_near_east/tsunami/pdf/tsunami_update_120205.pdf. See also U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005.
4411 USAID, Indian Ocean – Earthquakes and Tsunamis, Fact Sheet #38, FY2005.
4412 U.S. Embassy – Colombo, reporting, September 8, 2005. See also ILO-IPEC, Tsunami affected areas in Sri Lanka, project document, 2.
4413 The USD 83 million project began in 1997 and is scheduled to end in March 2007. See World Bank, General Education Project (02), June 28, 2005 [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?print=Y&pagePK=104231&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424 &Projectid=P010525. The USD 79 million Teacher Education and Teacher Deployment project began in 1996 and will end in March 2007. See World Bank, Teacher Education and Teacher Deployment, June 28, 2005 [cited June 28, 2005].
4414 USAID, Indian Ocean – Earthquakes and Tsunamis, Fact Sheet #38, FY2005. See also OneWorld South Asia, OXFAM begins reconstruction of tsunami-affected schools in Sri Lanka, [online] n.d. [cited December 16, 2005]; available from http://southasia.oneworld.net/article/view/121597/1?PrintableVersion=enabled.
4415 UNICEF, Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami Unicef Response at Six Month Update, June 16, 2005, 14, 16; available from http://www.unicef.org/emerg/disasterinasia/files/Tsunamiat6report16june.pdf.