Last Updated: Wednesday, 20 August 2014, 14:37 GMT

2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Cambodia

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 29 August 2006
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Cambodia, 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d748e019.html [accessed 21 August 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments
Ratified Convention 138     8/23/1999
Ratified Convention 182 
ILO-IPEC Member
National Plan for Children 
National Child Labor Action Plan
Sector Action Plan (Commercial Sexual Exploitation and Trafficking)

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

An estimated 44.8 percent of children ages 5 to 14 years were counted as working in Cambodia in 2001. Approximately 45 percent of all boys 5 to 14 were working compared to 44.6 percent of girls in the same age group. The majority of working children were found in the agricultural sector (76.5 percent), followed by services (17.7 percent), manufacturing (4.9 percent) and other sectors (0.9 percent).834 Children work in hazardous conditions on commercial rubber plantations, in salt production, in fish processing, portering, brick-making,835 and as garbage pickers.836 Street children engage in scavenging, begging, and shoe polishing.837 Children, primarily girls, also work as domestic servants. Most of these child domestics are girls ages 14 to 17, though it is not uncommon to find them as young as 8 or 9; they typically work 12 to 16 hours a day, 7 days a week.838 Child labor is one of many problems associated with poverty. In 1997, the most recent year for which data are available, 34.1 percent of the population in Cambodia were living on less than USD 1 a day.839

Cambodia is reported to be a country of origin, transit, and destination for trafficking in children for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and various other forms of work, including forced labor and begging. Cambodian children are trafficked to Thailand and Malaysia, and Vietnamese children are trafficked to Cambodia, for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor.840 Children are also exploited in pornography.841

Article 68 of the Constitution guarantees the right to 9 years of free, non-compulsory education to all citizens.842 However, costs such as uniforms, books, fees, and teacher demands for unofficial fees make schools unaffordable for many families.843 In 2002, the gross primary enrollment rate was 124 percent and the net primary enrollment rate was 93 percent.844 Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. In 2001, 69.5 percent of children ages 5-14 years were attending school.845 As of 2001, 61 percent of children who started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.846 Education is often inaccessible to minority groups who do not speak Khmer, as classes are conducted only in that language.847 While girls legally have equal access to schooling, many families with limited income choose to send male children rather than females, and the distance some must travel to school is a deterrent for families who fear for the safety of female children.848

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

The worst forms of child labor may be prosecuted under different statutes in Cambodia. The Labor Law sets the minimum age for employment at 15 years,849 although a later 1999 ministerial decree set the minimum age at 14 years.850 The Labor Law allows children ages 12 to 15 years to perform light work that is not hazardous and does not affect regular school attendance or participation in other training programs.851 Employers who violate the law may be fined 31 to 60 days of the base daily wage.852 Night work is generally prohibited for children.853 The Labor Law prohibits work that is hazardous to the mental and physical development of children under the age of 18854 and prohibits all forced or compulsory labor, including in agriculture and domestic work.855 A Prakas (Ministerial Order) on the Prohibition of Hazardous Child Labor lists 38 types of hazardous work such as tanning, logging, chemical use in textile production, etc., in which children under age 18 are not permitted to work. The Prakas separately identifies domestic work as hazardous, states children under age 12 shall not carry out domestic work, and sets guidelines for children ages 12 to 14 undertaking domestic work. Additionally it states no one under age 18 shall work in underground mines or quarries, or work during the hours of 10:00 pm and 5:00 am.856 Lists of working children must be kept by employers and submitted to labor inspectors, and children who have parents or guardians must have their consent in order to work.857

The Cambodian Constitution prohibits prostitution and the trafficking of human beings.858 The 1996 Law on the Suppression of the Kidnapping, Trafficking and Exploitation of Human Beings penalizes brothel owners, operators, and individuals who prostitute others with prison terms of between 10 to 20 years, depending on the age of the victim.859 The Law outlaws acts of debauchery, though the legal definition of debauchery does not explicitly include pornography. However, the courts have prosecuted several cases of child pornography under this law.860 The minimum age for conscription into military service is 18 years.861

Since 1999, the Government of Cambodia has submitted to the ILO a list or an equivalent document identifying the types of work that it has determined are harmful to the health, safety or morals of children under Convention 182 or Convention 138.862

The Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training (MOLVT) is responsible for enforcing child provisions of the Cambodian Labor Law.863 Since 2000, questions on child labor have been incorporated into routine labor inspections.864 However, the Labor Law only applies to formal employer-employee relationships, not covering many areas of informal sector work, where the most serious child labor problems exist.865 No employer has ever been prosecuted for violating child labor laws.866 Local police are responsible for enforcing laws against child trafficking and prostitution;867 however, the U.S. Department of State reports that counter-trafficking efforts are hampered by corruption, a weak judiciary system, lack of transparency, inadequate resources, and staffing shortages. Some improvement was indicated in prosecution and conviction rates in 2004.868 In September 2005, the President determined that due to Cambodia's continued failure to meet standards established in the U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act, it would be subject to restrictions on certain non-humanitarian and non-trade assistance.869

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

The Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans, and Youth Rehabilitation (MOSAVY) Action Program 2004-2008 places strong emphasis on child welfare and protection. Specific issues include combating child labor and trafficking, development of national plans, and improving enforcement mechanisms for violators of child labor and trafficking laws.870 The Government of Cambodia is undertaking a final assessment of its first 5-year plan against trafficking and sexual exploitation of children in order to finalize and implement its second 5-year plan (2005-2009).871 The 20052009 Plan would expand the scope of the initial plan to include trafficking for both sexual and labor exploitation purposes.872 The 2003-2005 National Poverty Reduction Strategy (NPRS) identifies combating child labor, trafficking and prostitution as a strategic objective and defines measures to address these problems.873

The Government of Cambodia has signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the Government of Thailand on Bilateral Cooperation for Eliminating Trafficking in Children and Women.874 The Government of Cambodia also signed a similar MOU with the Government of Vietnam in October 2005.875 Additionally, Cambodia is signatory to a multilateral MOU pledging cooperation on trafficking. Other signatories to this "Coordinated Mekong Ministerial Initiative against Trafficking (COMMIT)" include Burma, Laos, Peoples Republic of China, Thailand, and Vietnam. The members held their first meeting in March 2005 to draft their Sub-regional Plan of Action.876

The Government of Cambodia is participating in a USD 4.75 million USDOL-funded Timebound Program supported by ILO-IPEC to eliminate child labor in specified worst forms, and to create a platform for eliminating all forms of child labor. The program targets children involved in the brick-making, portering, rubber-making, domestic work, salt production, fish processing, and services.877 Cambodia is also part of a USDOL-funded global project that aims to substantially reduce the engagement of children ages 5 to 17 in the worst forms of child labor.878 USDOL has also launched a USD 3 million project that focuses on providing education opportunities to those children who have been or have the potential to be trafficked.879

There are several governmental agencies that have on-going programs to address the needs of children vulnerable to exploitation in the worst forms of child labor. The Ministry of Women's Affairs (MWA) and the Ministry of Tourism (MOT), in collaboration with NGOs, work to combat sex tourism.880 In September, the MOT teamed with the ILO to promote "Child Safe" tourism policies to prevent trafficking of women and children for labor and sexual exploitation.881 The Ministry of Interior operates an anti-trafficking hotline.882 MOSAVY works with UNICEF and IOM to return trafficked children to their homes. In 2005, 1,082 child victims of trafficking, beggars, porters and other street children were returned to Cambodia and reintegrated into their community.883 MWA and MOLVT, in conjunction with UNICEF's Community-Based Child Protection Network, work to teach children and community members about the hazards of trafficking, and train individuals to identify potential victims and take action to protect them.884 MWA and IOM also collaborate on a public information campaign to raise awareness of trafficking.885 The Cambodian National Council for Children oversees adherence to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and is working with Save the Children to promote a national mechanism for coordinating all organizations working against child sexual exploitation and trafficking.886

Cambodia is included in a regional ILO-IPEC anti-trafficking project with funding from the Government of Japan and the UK.887 In addition to ongoing anti-trafficking funding from the U.S. Embassy in Cambodia, the U.S. Presidential Anti-Trafficking in Persons Initiative allocated USD 5.6 million to support programs to combat trafficking in Cambodia through 2006.888 Cambodia also participates in a project between ASEAN and AUSAID on the elimination of trafficking in women and children in four Southeast Asian countries and China's Yunnan Province.889

The Government of Cambodia is implementing its Education Strategic Plan (ESP) 2004-2008. The plan prioritizes expanding access to quality education, non-formal education skills training for young people, and upper secondary and post-secondary education opportunities.890 The ESP is carried out in conjunction with the Education Sector Support Program (ESSP) 2002-2006. The ESSP is considered a companion to the ESP, and focuses on programs and activities to achieve Education for All by 2015.891 The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MOEYS) is implementing priority action programs through 2006 that operate nationwide and include activities such as HIV/AIDS education, non-formal education expansion, and program monitoring and capacity building.892 The Non-Formal Education Department within MOEYS focuses on improving the reach, quality and impact of non-formal education to meet the needs of people of all ages, including working children.893

The government also works with various donors and NGOs on education issues, focusing on improving the quality of education and access to primary school.894 The ADB is providing support to MOEYS' efforts to implement its ESP 2004-2008, which includes technical assistance for nationwide policy reforms, community-based skills training for out-of-school youth, and an initiative to increase equitable access to education.895 ADB supports two other education projects. The first focuses on educational assistance to girls and indigenous populations through awareness raising and the development of scholarship programs for lower secondary schooling.896 The second aims to improve primary school access in disadvantaged communities through community mobilization, capacity building, and facilities improvements.897 The World Bank launched a Basic Education Project in support of the government's ESSP, addressing access to education issues and targeting the most disadvantaged.898 The World Bank also signed a grant in September 2005, funded through the Japan Social Development Fund, which will support the government's efforts to provide basic education services to girls, disabled children, and other marginalized groups.899 The USAID has an ongoing basic education program focused on improving the quality and proficiency of the education system.900


834 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, October 7, 2005. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the section in the front of the report titled "Data Sources."

835 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Cambodian National Plan of Action on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour: A Time-bound Approach, project document, Geneva, September, 2004, v. See also ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Labor in Hazardous Work in Salt Production, Rubber Plantations, and Fish/Shrimp Processing Centers in Cambodia, project document, Geneva, 2001.

836 Chea Pyden, "Children Working in the Garbage Dumps and as Domestic Child Workers in Cambodia," Child Workers in Asia 16 no. 1 (January-April 2000); available from http://www.cwa.tnet.co.th/Publications/Newsletters/newsletterv16_1.html. See also Antonio Graceffo, The Children of the Garbage Fields of Phnom Penh, Tales of Asia, [online] n.d. [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.talesofasia.com/rs-36-garbage.htm.

837 UNDP and Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, Cambodia Human Development Report 2000, Ministry of Planning, Phnom Penh, October 2000, 33, 39.

838 Ibid., 40-41. See also ILO, Child Domestic Labour in Cambodia: Why it has to Stop and How we can Stop it, Phnom Penh, 2004; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/library/download/pub04-12.pdf.

839 World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 [CD-ROM], Washington, DC, 2005.

840 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report, Washington, DC, June 3, 2005; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/33191.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2004: Cambodia, Washington, DC, February 28, 2004, Section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41638.htm. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database (Cambodia; accessed May 24, 2005).

841 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Cambodia, Section 5.

842 Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 2nd Plenary Session (September 21, 1993); available from http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/cb00000_.html. See also U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 23, 2004.

843 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, November 6, 2003.

844 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=51 (Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios, Primary; accessed December 2005). For an explanation of gross primary enrollment rates that are greater than 100 percent, please see the definition of gross primary enrollment rates in the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

845 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates.

846 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=55 (School life expectancy, % of repeaters, survival rates; accessed October 2005).

847 Asian Development Bank, Health and Education Needs of the Ethnic Minorities in the Greater Mekong Subregion, Manila, 2001, 9; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Studies/Health_Education_GMS/default.asp. See also Jan Noorlander, Khat Samal, Keo Sohout, Highland Children's Education Project (HCEP): Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, 2003; available from http://www.sil.org/asia/ldc/parrallel_papers/noorlander_%20samal_and_%20sohout.pdf.

848 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Cambodia, Section 5.

849 Cambodian Labor Law, (March 13, 1997), Article 177(1); available from http://www.bigpond.com.kh/Council_of_Jurists/Travail/trv001g.htm.

850 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 30, 2005.

851 Cambodian Labor Law, Article 177(4).

852 The base daily wage is defined by the law as "the minimum wage set by a joint Prakas [Ministerial Order] of the Ministry in charge of Labour and the Ministry of Justice." Cambodian Labor Law, Articles 360, 368.

853 Ibid., Articles 175-176.

854 Ibid., Article 177(2). See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Cambodia, Section 6d. U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, November 6, 2003.

855 The law also prohibits hiring people to work to pay debts. Cambodian Labor Law, Articles 15-16.

856 A Prakas is a Ministerial Order. The government issues such orders, decrees, and circulars to clarify regulations that are not explicitly contained in existing relevant legislation. The Labor Advisory Committee has been tasked with defining the criteria for "light" and "hazardous" work in Cambodian legislation, but has not completed this task. See U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 30, 2005. See also Kingdom of Cambodia's Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor, Vocational Training and Youth Rehabilitation (MoSALVY), Prakas on the Prohibition of Hazardous Child Labor, Prakas No. 106, (April 28, 2004). In July 2004, there was a governmental reorganization and MOSALVY was divided into two ministries, including the Ministry of Labor and Vocational Training (MOLVT), which is currently responsible for enforcement of child labor issues, and Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (MOSAVY).

857 Cambodian Labor Law, Articles 179, 181.

858 The Constitution refers to "the commerce of human beings, exploitation by prostitution and obscenity which affect the reputation of women." Constitution, Article 46.

859 The Law also stipulates 10 to 15 years of imprisonment for traffickers and their accomplices. If the victim is under 15 years, violators face penalties of 15 to 20 years of imprisonment. Law on the Suppression of the Kidnapping, Trafficking and Exploitation of Human Beings, Royal Decree No. 0296/01, (1996), Article 3.

860 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 30, 2005.

861 Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004: Cambodia, November 17, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=848.

862 ILO-IPEC official, email communication to USDOL official, November 14 2005.

863 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 23, 2004.

864 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, December 6, 2001.

865 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, November 6, 2003. The Labor Law does not cover family business, begging, scavenging, hauling, day labor, the commercial sex industry, or participation in any illegal activities. See U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Cambodia, Section 6d.

866 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 30, 2005.

867 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 23, 2004.

868 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Cambodia, Section 6d. See also U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report.

869 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons: Country Reassessments, September 22, 2005; available from http://state.gov/g/tip/rls/other/53913.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, reporting, September 1, 2005.

870 Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (MOSAVY) Kingdom of Cambodia's Ministry of Social Affairs, Action Program 2004-2008.

871 ILO, Cambodia Reviews Five Years of Counter Trafficking Efforts – Prepares for New Plan of Action, [online] May 19, 2005 [cited May 19, 2005]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/index.htm. See also World Education, OPTIONS: Combating Child Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation through Education, status report, September 30, 2005, 5. As of the end of 2005, this plan had not been officially passed.

872 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Cambodia National Plan of Action on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor: A Time Bound Approach, technical progress report, Geneva, March, 2005.

873 Kingdom of Cambodia's Council for Social Development, National Poverty Reduction Strategy 2003-2005, December 20, 2002.

874 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, "Joint Cambodian-Thai Cabinet Retreat," Information Bulletin 58 (May 31, 2003); available from http://www.embassy.org/cambodia/press/052003.pdf.

875 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh official, email communication to USDOL official, August 11, 2006.

876 The MOU was signed October 2004. See Human Trafficking.org, COMMIT Senior Officials Meeting 3, [online] September 2005 [cited September 21, 2005]; available from http://www.humantrafficking.org/collaboration/regional/eap/events/2005_03/commit_mtg.html. See also Human Trafficking.org, Six Asian Countries Cooperate in Fight Against Human Trafficking, September 2005 2005 [cited September 21, 2005]; available from http://www.humantrafficking.org/collaboration/regional/eap/news/2005_03/six_countries_cooperate.html.

877 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Cambodian National Plan of Action, project document.

878 Winrock International, The Regional Community-based Innovation to Reduce Child Labor through Education (CIRCLE), [online] September 2005 [cited September 28, 2005]; available from http://www.winrock.org/where/display_country.cfm?CountryID=360.

879 World Education, OPTIONS: Combating Child Trafficking and Commercial Sexual Exploitation through Education in Cambodia, status report, March 2005. The project is scheduled to close August 2007.

880 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Cambodia, Section 5.

881 Ministry of Tourism and ILO, Ministry of Tourism of the Kingdom of Cambodia and ILO Team Up to advocate Promotion of "Child Safe" Tourism Policies to Prevent Trafficking in Children and Women, September 22, 2005; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/downloads/camtourismnews.pdf. See also People's Daily Online, Cambodia Launches Action Plan to Promote "Child-Safe Tourism", [online] September 22, 2005 [cited December 14, 2005]; available from http://english.people.com.cn/200509/22/eng20050922_210183.html.

882 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 30, 2005.

883 Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation, trafficking database statistics provided to US Embassy-Phnom Penh, August 11, 2006.. See also International Organization for Migration, IOM in Cambodia, [online] n.d. [cited May 24, 2005]; available from http://www.iom-seasia.org/index.php?module=pagesetter&func=printpub&tid=6&pid=44.

884 MOSALVY and UNICEF, Child Protection Network: Findings and Recommendations of the External Evaluation, Phnom Penh, January 2004; available from http://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/Cambodia_2004_030_Report_Evaluation_CPN.pdf. Villages in the network also establish "village social funds" that provide vulnerable children with funds to attend school. See UNICEF, Profiting from Abuse: An Investigation into the Sexual Exploitation of Our Children, New York, 2001, 24, 26; available from http://www.unicef.org/publications/pub_profiting_en.pdf.

885 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Cambodia, Section 5.

886 HumanTrafficking.org, Cambodian National Council for Children, [online] May 2005 [cited May 24, 2005]; available from http://www.humantrafficking.org/countries/eap/cambodia/govt/contacts/cncc.html.

887 The project focuses on substantially reducing the trafficking of women and children for labor and sexual exploitation. The second phase extends through April 2008. ILO-IPEC, Mekong Sub-Regional Project to Combat Trafficking in Children and Women: Project Overview, [online] n.d. [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/region/asro/bangkok/child/trafficking/projectoverview-history.htm. See also ILO, "A Global Alliance against Forced Labour: Global Report under the Follow-up to the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work" (paper presented at the International Labor Conference, 93rd Session, Geneva, 2005).

888 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, August 23, 2004.

889 Under this project, special anti-trafficking units have been established with national law enforcement agencies. Additionally the project strengthens regional cooperation and legal policy frameworks. Australian Embassy Bangkok, AUSAID Program in Thailand Overview, [online] May 2005 [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.austembassy.or.th/agency/ausaid/overview_eng.php.

890 Royal Government of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport, Education Strategic Plan 2004-2008, Phnom Penh, September 2004, Foreword.

891 Royal Government of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport, Revised Education Sector Support Program 2002-2006, October 2002, 7-8.

892 Royal Government of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport, ESSP Review 2002: Education Sector Performance Report, Phnom Penh, August 2002, 26; available from http://www.moeys.gov.kh/education_sector_support_program/ESSP%202002/Main%20Review%20Documents/ESSP2002_Mai nReview.htm.

893 Royal Government of Cambodia's Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport, Revised Education Sector Support Program, 49-51.

894 U.S. Embassy – Phnom Penh, reporting, November 6, 2003.

895 The ADB is providing at total of USD 62.9 million to these efforts. The first Education Sector Development is scheduled to end November 2007 and the follow-on Second Education Sector Development is scheduled to end December 2009. ADB, Education Sector Development Program, (LOAN: CAM 33396-01), [online] December 15, 2001 [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/LOAN/333996013.ASP.; ADB, Education Sector Development Project, (LOAN: CAM 33396-02), [online] December 15, 2001 [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/LOAN/33396023.ASP. ADB, Second Education Sector Development Program, (LOAN: CAM 34388-02), [online] January 4, 2005 [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/LOAN/34388013.ASP. ADB, Second Education Sector Development, (LOAN: CAM 34388-02), [online] January 4, 2005 [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/LOAN/34388023.ASP.

896 The ADB provided a grant of USD 3 million from the Japan Fund for Poverty Relief; the project is slated to end in October 2005. ADB, Cambodia: Targeted Assistance for Education of Poor Girls and Indigenous Children, (GRANT: CAM 36152-01), [online] December 11, 2002 [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/GRNT/36152012.ASP.

897 The ADB provided a grant of USD 1.87 million from the Japan Fund for Poverty Relief; the project targets girls and ethnic minorities and is slated to end in December 2007. ADB, Cambodia: Improving Primary School Access in Disadvantaged Communities, (GRANT CAM: 38107-01), [online] March 7, 2005 [cited May 20, 2005]; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/GRNT/38107012.ASP.

898 The project was approved May 12, 2005 and is expected to close December 2010. World Bank, Basic Education Project, [online] n.d. [cited May 23, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=104231&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projecti d=P070668.

899 World Bank, Cambodia: Grant Agreement Signed to Support Basic Education, [online] September 13, 2005 [cited September 13, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/EXTEAPREGTOPEDUCATION/0,co ntentMDK:20644227~menuPK:444335~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:444289,00.html.

900 USAID, Budget, [online] January 14, 2005 [cited May 23, 2005]; available from http://www.usaid.gov/policy/budget/cbj2005/ane/kh.html.

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