2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||29 August 2006|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Indonesia, 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d748f3c.html [accessed 25 April 2014]|
|Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments|
|Ratified Convention 138 6/07/1999||✓|
|Ratified Convention 182 3/28/2000||✓|
|National Plan for Children||✓|
|National Child Labor Action Plan||✓|
|Sector Action Plan (Economic and Commercial Sexual Exploitation)||✓|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Statistics on the number of working children under age 15 in Indonesia are unavailable.2352 Children work in agriculture, construction, manufacturing, food processing, and the small-scale mining sector. Children, primarily females, also work in domestic service.2353 Other children work in the informal sector selling newspapers, shining shoes, street vending scavenging, and working beside their parents in family businesses or cottage industries.2354 The Indonesian government identifies the worst forms of child labor as the physical and economic exploitation of children, including prostitution, mining, pearl diving, construction, off-shore fishing, scavenging, manufacturing of explosives, street children, working in domestic service, working in cottage industries, working on plantations, logging, and working in industries that produce hazardous chemical substances.2355 Child labor is one of many problems associated with poverty. In 2002, 7.0 percent of the population in Indonesia were living on less than USD 1 a day.2356
Indonesia is a source, transit, and destination country for a significant number of people trafficked internationally and internally, including children. Children are trafficked internationally from Indonesia to Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, and Australia, and are trafficked internally mainly from rural to urban areas.2357 Children are also exploited in the production of pornography and in the international sex industry.2358 Children are also known to be involved in the production, trafficking, and/or sale of drugs.2359 Children have been used as combatants in civilian militia groups in the past, but there was no evidence of this occurring in 2005. It remains unclear if children are used in other capacities within such groups. Children were not officially recruited into the Indonesian armed forces but there are allegations of children being used as guards, guides, cooks, informants and errand-runners.2360
The December 26, 2004 tsunami left thousands of children in Indonesia orphaned or separated from their families and without access to schooling, increasing their vulnerability to trafficking and other forms of labor and sexual exploitation. Estimates on the number of orphaned or separated children range from 18,000 (UNICEF) to 35,000 (Ministry of Social Affairs).2361
The National Child Protection Act (Law No. 23 of 2002) requires the government to provide a minimum of 9 years basic education. The Act also stipulates that the government will provide free education or assistance to needy and vulnerable children.2362 In addition, Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education provides for free, compulsory, basic education for children ages 7 to 15 years. As of 2003, the 9 years of compulsory education are not fully funded, although the government does provide some scholarships for poor children.2363 However, there are impediments to children attending school. Many families cannot afford related costs, such as entrance fees, uniforms, supplies, and fees for parent-teacher associations.2364 Other obstacles also exist, such as distance to schools2365 and the destruction of schools in conflict areas.2366 The UN estimates that up to a quarter of all Indonesian children are educated in religious schools.2367
In 2002, the gross primary enrollment rate was 112 percent and the net primary enrollment rate was 92 percent.2368 Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. Primary school attendance statistics are not available for Indonesia.2369 As of 2001, 89 percent of children who started primary school were likely to reach grade 5.2370 There is a higher rate of completion of lower secondary school among youths from urban areas as compared to rural areas.2371
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The worst forms of child labor may be prosecuted under different statutes in Indonesia. The Manpower Development and Protection Act of 2003 prohibits the employment of children, defined as an individual under 18 years old. Additionally, employing and involving children in the worst forms of child labor are prohibited under the act and failure to comply can result in criminal sanctions. The act defines the worst forms of child labor as slavery; use of children in prostitution, pornography and gambling; use of children for alcohol, narcotic, and addictive substance production and trade; and all types of work harmful to the health, safety and morals of the child.2372 The act contains an exception for employing children aged 13 to 15 to perform light work that does not disrupt their physical, mental, and social development. A set of requirements is outlined for employment of children age 13 to 15 years, including a maximum of 3 hours of work, parental permission, and no disruption of schooling. There are no provisions for children age 16-17.
The National Child Protection Act also provides a legal basis for protecting children younger than 18 years from a variety of abuses, and prohibits the employment of children in the worst forms of child labor. Under Article 78 of the act, persons who expose children to such hazardous activities are liable to terms of up to 5 years of imprisonment and/or a possible maximum fine of 100 million Rupiah (USD 10,434). Additional specific legal sanctions are laid out for the offenses of commercial sexual exploitation (which would cover prostitution), child trafficking, involving children in the production or distribution of alcohol or narcotics, and involving children in armed conflict. The act also protects children in emergency situations, including natural disasters.2373 Law No. 39 of 1999 on Human Rights includes 15 articles for the protection of child rights, including separate articles on the right to not be involved in armed conflict, and protection from economic and sexual exploitation.2374 Decree No. 5 of 2001 on the Control of Child Workers calls for general programs to ban and abolish worst forms of child labor and improve family income, as well as specific programs for non-formal education and returning children to school by providing scholarships.2375
The Penal Code makes it illegal for anyone exercising legal custody of a child under 12 years of age to provide that child to another person, knowing that the child is going to be used for the purposes of begging, harmful work, or work that affects the child's health. The Code imposes a maximum sentence of 4 years of imprisonment for violations of this kind.2376 The Penal Code also prohibits sexual intercourse with a female outside of marriage recognized to be less than 15 years old, engaging in an obscene act with a person below 15 years of age, and forcing or allowing sexual abuse of a child, with maximum penalties ranging from 7 to 12 years of imprisonment. The Penal Code also prohibits trafficking of women and boys, with a maximum penalty of 6 years of imprisonment for violations.2377 Law No. 2/1988 on the Indonesian Armed Forces sets the minimum age for recruitment or enlistment into the armed forces at 18 years.2378 The Ministry of Manpower and Transmigration issued two decrees to complement the existing legal child labor and trafficking framework, and to assist in ensuring the implementation and enforcement of the laws.2379 Since 1999, the Government of Indonesia has submitted to the ILO a list or an equivalent document identifying the types of work that it has determined are harmful to the health, safety or morals of children under Convention 182 or Convention 138.2380
Ministry of Manpower authorities at the provincial and district levels have the responsibility for enforcing child labor laws.2381 The government reports a 10 percent increase in national funding, and a 20 percent increase in provincial funding between March 2004 and March 2005 to combat trafficking. However, according to the U.S. State Department, overall government funding remains inadequate to effectively address the issue.2382 The national police's anti-trafficking unit and other law enforcement bodies have increased efforts to combat trafficking of children. In 2004, the government reported 141 trafficking-related investigations, 51 prosecutions, and 45 convictions.2383 Despite these efforts, the U.S. State Department reports that the Indonesian government does not enforce child labor laws in an effective or thorough manner, due to a lack of resources and corruption. Additionally, the number of labor inspectors has reportedly decreased in recent years due to the government's decentralization process.2384
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The 20-year National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor is currently in its first 5 year phase (2002-2006). The first phase focuses on mapping child labor problems, raising awareness, and eliminating five priority worst forms of child labor: off-shore fishing and diving; trafficking for purposes of prostitution; mining; footwear production; and drug trafficking.2385 The National Plan of Action of Human Rights in Indonesia (2004-2009) contains a specific objective on protecting the rights of the child, with a series of activities aimed at combating trafficking, and protecting against sexual exploitation, pornography, and worst forms of child labor.2386 The Government of Indonesia is currently implementing its National Program for Children 2015, which addresses issues such as child protection and ensuring 9-year basic education, amongst others.2387
The National Plan of Action to Combat the Trafficking of Women and Children and the National Plan of Action to Combat Commercial Sexual Exploitation are in place to assist with reducing trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation.2388 In support of these plans, the government has several initiatives and activities ongoing. The government has a national campaign against commercial sexual exploitation of children, focusing on the link to tourism.2389 Local governments of Batam and Bali have followed up with funding for the program, including establishing two new shelters for trafficking victims in Batam.2390 Other shelters have also been established in Dumai and Riau Province. The Foreign Affairs Ministry operates shelters at its embassies and consulates in several countries including Kuwait, Malaysia, and Saudi Arabia.2391 In March 2005, the Indonesian National Police signed a Memorandum of Understanding to establish the first ever medical recovery center for victims of trafficking in Jakarta.2392 The People's Welfare Coordinating Ministry and the Women's Empowerment Ministry lead the National Anti-trafficking Task Force, with responsibility to monitor anti-trafficking efforts and produce annual trafficking reports.2393 The government maintains the Commission for the Protection of Indonesian Children, which is responsible for collecting data and undertaking studies on specified child-related topics, receiving complaints, and advising the government on issues of public education.2394
The National Medium Term Development Plan (2004-2009) recognizes the problem of child labor and supports the implementation of the National Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor.2395 The Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategy (2005-2009) includes objectives of preventing exploitation and the worst forms of child labor, increasing protection for street children and child workers, and preventing child trafficking. In the proposed monitoring and evaluation system, it also has a 2009 target to decrease the number of child trafficking cases.2396 The 25th General Assembly of the ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Organization (AIPO), of which Indonesia is a member, adopted the Resolution on the Prevention and Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. The resolution commits members to taking comprehensive action to remove children from hazardous and sexually exploitative work, and to raise awareness of the dangers associated with such work.2397
The Government of Indonesia is participating in a USD 4.1 million USDOL-supported ILO-IPEC Timebound Program to progressively eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The program is being implemented from 2004-2007 and is initially focusing on the 5 priority sectors of the National Plan of Action.2398 In support of the Timebound Program, USDOL also launched a USD 6 million Education Initiative project to combat child trafficking in Indonesia.2399 The Government of Indonesia is also participating in two regional USDOL-funded projects dealing with anti-trafficking2400 and awareness-raising to eliminate the worst forms of child labor.2401 USAID, working through the Ministry for Women's Empowerment, supports a program aimed to address the problem of trafficking in women and children.2402 The U.S. State Department supports a project that provides technical assistance and policy advocacy training to help local governments establish and implement policies to reduce vulnerability to trafficking.2403 President Bush has also included Indonesia in his USD 50 million anti-trafficking-in-persons initiative.2404
After the December 2004 tsunami, Indonesian government officials took immediate action to protect children in Aceh from potential trafficking and exploitation. The government implemented a measure disallowing children under the age of 16 to travel outside the province or country if unaccompanied by direct relatives. The National Police issued child trafficking alert bulletins, and posted female officers at key gateways to interview women and children leaving Aceh. A child registration system was established, as well as temporary shelters for the children.2405 The U.S. State Department approved an allocation of their funds to be used by IOM in Aceh to reduce the vulnerability and incidences of trafficking of women and orphaned children in the tsunami-stricken areas.2406 USDOL funded a USD 1.5 million addendum to the ILO-IPEC Timebound Program, and a USD 2.5 million addendum to the Education Initiative project to focus on addressing the vulnerability of children to worst forms of child labor in the tsunami-stricken areas.2407
The U.S. Government, international financial institutions, and international development agencies continue to assist the Government of Indonesia in its efforts to improve the quality of and access to education. In addition to the USDOL Education Initiative project and in response to the Government of Indonesia's priorities, President Bush announced large-scale U.S. funding for an education program in Indonesia for the years 2004-2009. The total amount of U.S. funding pledged over the five-year period is USD 157 million.2408 In support of this, USAID launched a 6-year basic education program for the same time period that aims to increase basic education completion rates; improve student performance; improve quality of education; provide formal and non-formal education opportunities; and strengthen education management and governance.2409 Under the "Indonesian-Australian Partnership in Basic Education" program, the Australian Agency for International Development supports Indonesia in its efforts to build capacity to manage and deliver quality basic education services.2410 The World Bank is providing funding for two education projects that aim to maintain primary and junior secondary enrollment rates for the poor, initiate district institutional educational reform, and improve the overall quality of education.2411 The ADB supports a project which aims to improve poor children's enrollment, completion and learning outcomes for basic education, as well as supports decentralization of basic education management.2412 UNICEF also works to support schools in parts of West Timor and the Malukus to address the effects of the civil conflict.2413
In response to the destruction of schools caused by the tsunami, international agencies are supporting the government's effort to rebuild education facilities. UNICEF, in collaboration with IOM, have set up 200 temporary schools in Aceh, and have begun construction on 300 primary schools and repairs on an additional 200 schools.2414
2352 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
2353 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2004: Indonesia, Washington, DC, February 28, 2005, Section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41643.htm. See also U.S. Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 2, 2005. See also End Child Labor, http://www.endchildlabor.org/db_infoBank.cfm?Action=View (Indonesia Child Labor by Industry or Occupation; accessed June 6, 2005). See also Ruth Rosenberg, ed., Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia, Jakarta, 2003, 16; available from http://www.icmc.net/files/traffreport.en.pdf.
2354 Republic of Indonesia, The National Plan of Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, August 13, 2002, 5.
2355 The definition was formalized under Act No. 1/2000, as reported in Ibid., 10.
2356 World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 [CD-ROM], Washington, DC, 2005.
2357 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report, Washington, DC, June 2005; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/46614.htm. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Indonesia, Section 5. See also Rosenberg, Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia, 16.
2358 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Indonesia, Section 5. See also ECPAT International CSEC Database, http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/monitoring/online_database/countries.asp?arrCountryID=77&CountryProfile =facts,affiliation,humanrights&CSEC=Overview,Prostitution,Pronography,trafficking&Implement=&Nationalplans=&orgWorkC SEC=&DisplayBy=optDisplayCountry (Indonesia; accessed June 6, 2005). See also Rosenberg, Trafficking of Women and Children in Indonesia, 19.
2359 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Indonesia, Section 6d. See also ILO-IPEC, Assessing the Situation of Children in the Production, Sales, and Trafficking of Drugs in Indonesia, the Philippines and Thailand, project document, RAS/02/P52/USA, Geneva, September 2001, 8.
2360 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, official, email communication to USDOL official, August 8, 2006. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldier Use 2003: A Briefing for the 4th UN Security Council Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict, [online] 2004 [cited June 6, 2005]; available from http://hrw.org/reports/2004/childsoldiers0104/childsoldiers.pdf. See also The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004: Indonesia, 2004; available from http://www.childsoldiers.org/document_get.php?id=852. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, September 8, 2004.2361 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, January 20, 2005. See also VAO News, Indonesia Moves to Protect Children in Aceh, January 2005 [cited June 9, 2005]; available from http://www.voanews.com/english/2005-01-12-voa62.cfm?renderforprint=1.2362 Republic of Indonesia, National Child Protection Act, Law No. 23, (2002), Articles 48, 53; available from http://www.ri.go.id/produk_uu/uu-2002.htm.2363 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, August 19, 2003. See Katarina Tomasevski, The Right to Education: Report submitted by Katarina Tomasevski, Special Rapporteur, in accordance with Commission resolution 2002/23: Addendum, Mission to Indonesia, 1-7 July 2002, UN Document E/CN.4/2003/9/Add.1, 59th Session, Item 10 of the Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, October 18, 2002, para. 17.
2364 Peter Stalker, Beyond Krismon: The Social Legacy of Indonesia's Financial Crisis, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 2000, 19.
2365 Tomasevski, The Right to Education: Report submitted by Katarina Tomasevski, para. 23.
2366 Many children in the conflict zones cannot attend school because the schools were destroyed and their teachers fled. In the first four days of resumed conflict in May 2003, more than 280 schools were destroyed, affecting about 60,000 children. See Commission on Human Rights, Rights of the Child: Annual Report of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Armed Conflict, Olara Otunnu, Geneva, January 28, 2004, para. 28.
2367 See Katarina Tomasevski, The Right to Education: Report submitted by Katarina Tomasevski, Special Rapporteur, in accordance with Commission resolution 2002/23: Addendum, Mission to Indonesia, 1-7 July 2002, UN Document E/CN.4/2003/9/Add.1, 59th Session, Item 10 of the Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, October 18, 2002, para. 17.
2368 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=51 (Gross and Net Enrollment Ratios, Primary; accessed December 2005). For an explanation of gross primary enrollment rates that are greater than 100 percent, please see the definition of gross primary enrollment rates in the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
2369 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used.
2370 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=55 (School life expectancy, % of repeaters, survival rates; accessed December 2005).
2371 Sulistinah Achmad and Peter Xenos, "Notes on Youth and Education in Indonesia," East-West Center Working Papers: Population Series No. 108-18 (November 2001), 8-9.
2372 Penalties for those employing children in the worst forms of child labor is imprisonment from 2 to 5 years. See Republic of Indonesia, Manpower Development and Protection Act (no. 13), (March 25, 2003), Articles 26, 68, 69, 74, 183.
2373 National Child Protection Act, Articles 59-60, 78-89. For currency conversion see FXConverter, [online] [cited June 9, 2005]; available from http://www.carosta.de/frames/convert.htm.
2374 Law No. 39 as cited in ECPAT International, Report on Laws and Legal Procedures Concerning the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in Indonesia, December 2004, 17; available from http://www.ecpat.net/eng/Ecpat_inter/projects/promoting_law/indonesia_report/Indonesia%20eng%20version.doc. See also Anis Hamim and Ruth Rosenberg, Review of Existing Counter Trafficking Legislation in Indonesia, September 2002, 3; available from http://www.icmc.net/files/ctreviewe.en.pdf.
2375 The Ministry of Home Affairs and Regional Autonomy is tasked with oversight. Republic of Indonesia, Decree of the Minister of Home Affairs and Regional Autonomy on the Control of Child Workers, Law No. 5, (January 8, 2001). Article 5.
2376 Republic of Indonesia, Criminal Code (KUHP). Article 301, as cited in Anis Hamim and Ruth Rosenberg, Review of Existing Counter Trafficking Legislation, 7.
2377 Criminal Code (KUHP). Articles 287-291, 297, as cited in Anis Hamim and Ruth Rosenberg, Review of Existing Counter Trafficking Legislation, 3-6. See also ECPAT International, Report on Laws and Legal Procedures, 24-29.
2378 The Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Child Soldiers Global Report 2004.
2379 The decrees were issued in 2003 and 2004, and continue to be in effect. The 2003 decree (Kep-235/Men/2003) regulates forms of labor that pose a risk to the health, safety, and morals of the children. The 2004 decree (Kep-115/Men/VII/2004) provides protection for working children to develop their talents and interests. See Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia's Activities on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor: 2003-2004, Washington, DC, August 19, 2004, 1. See also Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Information Series on Indonesian Effort in Combating Trafficking in Persons: August 2003, Washington, DC, August 25, 2003, 1.
2380 ILO-IPEC official, email communication to USDOL official, November 14, 2005.
2381 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, September 8, 2004.
2382 U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 2, 2005.
2383 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report.
2384 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, August 19, 2003. See also U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report.
2385 Presidential Decree No. 59 established the Action Plan on August 13, 2002. Republic of Indonesia, The National Plan of Action WFCL, 15-16.
2386 Republic of Indonesia, Decree No. 40 on the National Plan of Action of Human Rights in Indonesia for 2004-2009, 2004; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/natlex_browse.details?p_lang=en&p_country=IDN&p_classification=01.05&p_origin=COUNT RY&p_sortby=SORTBY_COUNTRY.
2387 Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia Country Report on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Washington, March 2005, 3.
2388 Ibid., 7-8.
2389 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, August 19, 2003.
2390 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, September 8, 2004. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, March 2, 2005.
2391 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, March 2, 2005.
2392 IOM, Indonesia: Providing Assistance to Victims of Trafficking, [online] March 2004 [cited June 20, 2005]; available from http://www.iom.int/en/news/pbn040305.shtml.
2393 U.S Embassy Jakarta, reporting, March 2, 2005.
2394 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, September 8, 2004. Article 74 of the Child Protection Act legally required the establishment of the Commission. See also National Child Protection Act. Articles 74, 76.
2395 The Plan was formalized through Presidential Regulation No 7-2005 in February 2005. See ILO-IPEC, Support to the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the Time Bound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, technical progress report, Geneva, March 2005, 2. See also Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Country Report on the Elimination of the WFCL, 4.
2396 ILO-IPEC, Support to the Time Bound Programme, technical progress report March 2005.
2397 The resolution was adopted in September 2004. See AIPO, Resolution on the Prevention and Eradication of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, September 2004; available from http://www.national-assembly.gov.kh/aipo_social_matters.htm.
2398 Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia, Information Series on Indonesian Effort in Combating Trafficking in Persons: May 2004, Washington, May 2004, 1. See also ILO-IPEC, Support to the Time Bound Programme, technical progress report March 2005, 1.
2399 The project period is September 2004 – March 2009. The focus of the project is children who are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation and domestic service and is being implemented by Save the Children Federation and International Organization for Migration. See U.S. Department of Labor, Enable Program: Enabling Communities to Combat Child Trafficking through Education, [ILAB Technical Cooperation Project Summary] 2004.
2400 The anti-trafficking project began in September 2002 and covers Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Indonesia and Thailand. See ILO-IPEC, Combating Child Trafficking for Labor and Sexual Exploitation (TICSA Phase II), technical progress report, Geneva, March 2005, 1. See also ILO-IPEC, IPEC Action against Child Labour: Highlights 2004, October 2004, 22; available from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/ipec/publ/download/implementation_2004_en.pdf.
2401 This awareness raising project began in 2001 and covers Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. See ILO-IPEC, APEC Awareness Raising Campaign: Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour and Providing Educational Opportunities, technical progress report, Geneva, March 2005, 1. See also ILO-IPEC, IPEC Action against Child Labour, 22.
2402 The program aims to counter trafficking through prevention programs, providing services, and improving counter-trafficking policies, legislation and law enforcement. International Catholic Migration Commission, Overview of ICMC Counter-Trafficking Programming: Indonesia, [online] n.d. 2005 [cited June 7, 2005]; available from http://www.icmc.net/docs/en/programs/cotraff#4. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, February 25, 2002.
2403 U.S. State Department, U.S. Spearheads Women's Programs in East Asia, Pacific, [online] February 2005 [cited June 7, 2005]; available from http://usinfo.state.gov/dhr/Archive/2005/Feb/23-799318.html.
2404 The President's initiative will extend assistance to prosecutors as well as police to help enforce anti-trafficking laws in Indonesia. See U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, May 21, 2004.
2405 U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, reporting, January 20, 2005. See also VAO News, Indonesia Moves to Protect Children. See also CNN.com, Traffickers Threaten Aceh Orphans, [online] 2005 [cited February 1, 2005]; available from http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/asiapcf/01/04/indonesia.children/index.html.
2406 IOM, Tsunami Affected Countries – Counter Trafficking Activities, [online] January 2005 [cited June 2, 2005]; available from www.iom.int/en/news/pbn140105.shtml.
2407 ILO-IPEC, Addendum to Support the Indonesian National Plan of Action and the Development of the TimeBound Programme for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, project document, Geneva, February 2005, cover page. Federal Register, Combating Exploitive Child Labor through Education in Indonesia and Nepal, August 17, 2005; available from Federal Register, Combating Exploitative Child Labor through Education in Indonesia and Nepal, August 17, 2005; available from http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/01jan20051800/edocket.access.gpo.gov/2005/pdf/05-16273.pdf.
2408 USAID, Indonesia Education Program Overview, May 4, 2005 [cited June 7, 2005]; available from http://www.usaid.gov/id/about/edu.html. See also U.S. Embassy – Jakarta, U.S. Education Initiative Program Summary – Indonesia, [online] n.d. [cited July 12, 2005]; available from http://www.usembassyjakarta.org/press_rel/summaryeducation.html.
2409 USAID, Data Sheet: Indonesia Basic Education, 2005; available from http://www.usaid.gov/policy/budget/cbj2005/ane/pdf/497-zzz.pdf. See also USAID, Managing Basic Education project website, [online] n.d. [cited June 7, 2005]; available from http://mbeproject.net/indexe.html.
2410 The project is a 3-year, AUD 7.9 million (USD 5.9 million) project. See AUSAID, Indonesia-Australian Partnership in Basic Education, [online] December 2004 [cited June 9, 2005]; available from http://www.kangguru.org/ausaidprojects/december2004.htm. For currency conversion see FXConverter, FXConverter December 6, 2005.
2411 One of the components of each project is financing scholarships. The projects are very similar in design but focus on different areas of the country: Sulawesi and Eastern Islands, and Sumatera; both are scheduled to end in April 2006. See World Bank, Sulawesi and Eastern Islands Basic Education Project, [online] n.d. [cited June 6, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=104231&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projecti d=P041895. See also World Bank, Samatera Basic Education Project, [online] n.d. [cited June 6, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=104231&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projecti d=P040196.
2412 ADB, Decentralized Basic Education, (LOAN: INO 31137-01), [online] [cited June 9, 2005]; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Profiles/LOAN/31137013.ASP.
2413 Relief Web, UNICEF Humanitarian Action: Indonesia Summary for 2005, [online] January 31, 2005 [cited December 7, 2005]; available from http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/HMYT-6CKQ6K?OpenDocument. See also UNICEF, UNICEF Humanitarian Action Donor Update – Indonesia, May 29, 2002; available from http://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/Emergencies_Indonesia_Donor_Update_290502.pdf.
2414 UNICEF, Tsunami Disaster: Countries in Crisis, [online] May 2005 [cited June 6, 2005]; available from www.unicef.org/infobycountry/24615_27208.html. See also Relief Web, Indonesia: Short and Long Term Tsunami Recovery, [online] December 1, 2005 [cited December 7, 2005]; available from http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/HMYT6JMMH8?OpenDocument.