Last Updated: Friday, 19 December 2014, 13:25 GMT

2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Brazil

Publisher United States Department of Labor
Author Bureau of International Labor Affairs
Publication Date 29 August 2006
Cite as United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Brazil, 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d748de2.html [accessed 20 December 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments
Ratified Convention 138     6/28/2001
Ratified Convention 182     2/2/2000
ILO-IPEC Member
National Plan for Children
National Child Labor Action Plan
Sector Action Plan (Commercial Sexual Exploitation)

Incidence and Nature of Child Labor

An estimated 5.3 percent of children ages 5 to 14 years were counted as working in Brazil in 2003. Approximately 7.1 percent of all boys 5-14 were working compared to 3.4 percent of girls in the same age group. The majority of working children were found in the agricultural sector (59.8 percent), followed by services (30.9 percent), manufacturing (7.3 percent) and other sectors (2.1 percent).624 Child labor is more prevalent in northeastern Brazil than in any other region, and it is more common in rural areas than in urban areas.625 Children work in approximately 100 urban and rural activities,626 including mining, fishing, producing charcoal, and harvesting sugar cane, and other crops. In urban areas, common activities for working children include shining shoes, street peddling, begging, and working in restaurants, construction, and transportation.627 The ILO has estimated that between 400,000 and 500,000 minors are employed as domestic servants in Brazil. This corresponds to more than 8 percent of all working children. It is estimated that roughly a third of domestics begin to work before the age of 12, and over half work more than 40 hours per week. Many children and adolescents are employed as domestic servants in third-party homes,628 and others work as trash pickers,629 drug traffickers,630 and prostitutes.631 Child labor is one of many problems associated with poverty. In 2001, 8.2 percent of the population in Brazil were living on less than USD 1 a day.632

Women and girls are trafficked internally and externally for the purpose of sexual exploitation.633 Common external destinations are neighboring countries within South America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East, Japan and Europe.634

Basic education is free and compulsory for children through the age of 15.635 The Ministry of Education, in conjunction with state and municipal governments, is expanding the scope of basic education to include one year of kindergarten.636 For adolescents between the ages of 15 and 17 who did not attend or complete primary school, basic education is also free, but not compulsory.637 In 2001, the most recent year for which this information is available, 11.9 percent of working children ages 5 to 15 years were not attending school.638 In 2002, the gross primary enrollment rate was 147 percent and the net primary enrollment rate was 97 percent.639 Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. In 2003, 93.6 percent of children ages 5 to 14 were attending school.640 The primary school completion rate in 2003 was 112 percent.641 However, child labor contributes to the widespread "age-to-grade" distortion of children in the Brazilian education system.642

Child Labor Laws and Enforcement

The minimum age for general employment in Brazil is 16 years and the minimum age for apprenticeships is 14 years.643 The 1990 Statute on Children and Adolescents prohibits employees under the age of 18 from working in unhealthy, dangerous, and arduous conditions; for long hours that impede school attendance; at night; or in settings where their physical, moral, or social well-being is adversely affected.644 Adult prostitution is legal in Brazil,645 but the Penal Code provides for imprisonment and fines to anyone caught prostituting another individual or running a prostitution establishment, punishable by prison terms of 2 to 10 years when adolescents less than 18 years of age are involved.646 The Penal Code also provides for fines and prison terms of 3 to 10 years to anyone caught trafficking women or children internally or across national borders for the purposes of prostitution. Penalties are increased when adolescents less than 18 years of age are involved.647 The Penal Code does not address forced labor directly but proscribes imprisonment from two to eight years and a fine for subjecting a person to slave-like conditions and transporting workers by force from one locale to another within the national territory. Punishment is increased by half if the crime is committed against a child or adolescent.648 The minimum age for conscription into the military service is 18 years, or 17 years on a voluntary basis.649 Since 1999, the Government of Brazil has submitted to the ILO a list or an equivalent document identifying the types of work that it has determined are harmful to the health, safety or morals of children under Convention 182 or Convention 138.650

The Ministry of Labor and Employment (MLE) is responsible for inspecting work sites for child labor violations.651 Inspections increasingly target informal employment, in part due to the declining number of children working in the formal sector.652 Employers who violate Brazil's child labor laws are subject to monetary fines, but fines are rarely applied because inspectors typically negotiate agreements to have employers desist from labor law violations before levying fines.653 The MLE's Special Groups to Combat Child Labor and Protect the Adolescent Worker organize child labor inspection efforts, conduct awareness-raising activities, and cooperate closely with other agencies involved in protecting children's rights. Most inspections result from complaints made to labor inspectors by workers, NGOs, teachers, the media, and other sources654 Data from the Special Groups reports is used by the MLE's Secretariat of Labor to update a map of child labor, which is used for planning future child labor eradication programs.655

Labor inspectors from the MLE often work closely with prosecutors from the Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office (Ministério Público do Trabalho – MPT).656 MPT prosecutors may investigate cases of child labor, bring charges against violators, and levy fines.657 In many municipalities, labor inspectors and prosecutors are aided by a network of legally-mandated Guardianship Councils that serve as reference centers for at-risk children and adolescents. The Statute on Children and Adolescents requires all municipalities to establish at least one Guardianship Council (Conselho Tutelar) to refer vulnerable children to the appropriate service providers. Although the Statute has been in effect since 1990, only 3,477 of Brazil's 5,578 municipalities had established such councils by 2003. The lack of greater compliance with the law has been blamed on a lack of resources and political will at the local level.658

Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Brazil's National Commission to Eradicate Child Labor (CONAETI)659 developed the 2004-2007 National Plan to Eradicate Child Labor and proposed a series of legal reforms to help bring national laws into full compliance with the conventions.660

The Government of Brazil implements a number of innovative programs to prevent and eradicate child labor. The principal program to remove children from working in the most hazardous forms of child labor is the Program to Eradicate Child Labor (Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil – PETI), which is administered by the Ministry of Social Development and Combating Hunger (Ministério de Desenvolvimento Social – MDS), in conjunction with state and local authorities.661 Through PETI, families with children working in select hazardous activities (as identified by the Ministry of Labor and Employment)662 receive stipends to remove their children from work and maintain them in school.663 In addition, PETI offers an after school program to prevent children from working during non-school hours, which provides tutoring, nutritional snacks, sports, art and cultural activities.664 As of June 2005, PETI provided services to over 930,000 children. The program has estimated it will reach more than 1 million children and adolescents by the end of 2005.665

While PETI focuses on removing children from hazardous work, the Family Stipend (Bolsa Família) program aims to prevent child labor by supplementing family income and encouraging at-risk children and adolescents to regularly attend school.666 The program provides a monthly monetary stipend ranging from 15 to 95 Brazilian Reals (USD 6 to 40) to impoverished families, who agree to keep their children in school and meet other requirements related to health and nutrition.667 More than one million families were assisted by the program in November 2003.668

The National Plan to Fight Sexual Violence against Children and Adolescents provides the policy framework for the government's programs to combat the commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents.669 These efforts are carried out by a number of government agencies, including the National Human Rights Secretariat (SEDH), and include initiatives to assist victims and raise awareness.670 The primary program to assist child victims of commercial sexual exploitation is the Sentinel Program, which establishes local reference centers to provide victims with psychological, social, and legal services, and raises awareness through informational campaigns, workshops and partnerships.671 A program in collaboration with the Government of Portugal focuses on improving investigation and prosecution methods to combat trafficking in persons and the training of law enforcement officials and includes pilot programs in São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Goiás, and Ceará.672 The SEDH also implements a telephone hotline in every state for reporting sexual violence against children and adolescents, and the Ministry of Tourism has developed a Code of Conduct to prevent the sexual exploitation of children and adolescents in the tourism industry.673 The Federal Police is addressing trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation with their counterparts in Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Canada and Portugal.674

The Government of Brazil, in coordination with ILO-IPEC, is implementing a Timebound Program to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in domestic service, prostitution, hazardous work in agriculture, and other informal sector activities. Another program, implemented by Partners of the Americas in coordination with the Government of Brazil, aims to strengthen basic education in areas of northern and northeastern Brazil with high incidence of hazardous child labor.675 In July 2005, USAID, in cooperation with the National Secretaries for Human Rights and Social Welfare, funded a program that supports the creation of new Sentinel reference centers, which will provide services to children adolescent victims of commercial sexual exploitation, in seven states.676

Other federal social assistance initiatives targeting at-risk youth include the MDS' Youth Agent (Agente Jovem) project, which provides training in personal, social, community development, and job skills for youth between the ages of 15 and 17 years and aims to reintegrate and retain them in school.677 The Ministry of Education, through the National Education Development Fund, offers literacy and basic education programs and a "weekend school" to at-risk youth and other marginalized groups.678 The Ministry of Labor and Employment's First Employment Program (Programa Nacional de Estímulo ao Primeiro Emprego) stimulates access to the labor market by generating work opportunities for Brazilian youth of legal working age.679

In addition, the Ministry of Education provides a school lunch program for young children enrolled in school that seeks to promote children's school attendance.680 The Ministry also implements a school transportation program that facilitates school access and persistence among children in rural regions.681

In January 2004, Brazilian president Luis Inácio Lula Da Silva proposed the Child-Friendly President Action Plan 2004-2007. The plan details nearly 200 activities to benefit children, including efforts to combat child exploitation. The plan's budget is 55.9 billion Brazilian Reals (USD 19.7 billion), but these funds must first be approved by the Brazilian Congress.682 With the support of ILO-IPEC, the Government of Brazil and the other governments of MERCOSUL683 developed the 2002-2004 regional plan to combat child labor. The plan includes an awareness raising campaign, which was officially launched in April 2004.684684

The World Bank supports various programs in Brazil to improve the quality and management of education and reduce poverty, including a USD 572 million loan to assist Brazil in its implementation of the Family Stipend (Bolsa Família) program.685 In June 2003, the Bank approved a USD 60 million loan to the state of Bahia for a second phase of a program to improve access, quality and management of primary and secondary schools in the region.686 In October 2004, the Bank approved a USD 31.5 million loan to support the state of Pernambuco's efforts to improve and modernize its education system.687


624 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates, October 7, 2005. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children and other indicators used in this report, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

625 Zero Hunger, Pesquisa revela: mais crianças deixam trabalho no campo, [online] 2005 [cited June 14, 2005]; available from http://www.fomezero.gov.br/exec/DetalheNoticia.aspx?id_moticia=9347.

626 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2004, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, February 28, 2005, Section 6d; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41751.htm.

627 Ibid., section 6d.

628 See ILO-IPEC, Análise e recomendações para a melhor regulamentação e cumprimento da normativa nacional e internacional sobre o trabalho de crianças e adolescentes no Brasil, Brasília, 2003, 63-64; available from http://www.oit.org.pe/spanish/260ameri/oitreg/activid/proyectos/ipec/doc/estudios/brasil_171.pdf.

629 Ibid., 65.

630 Dr. Jailson de Souza e Silva and Dr. André Urani, Brazil: Situation of Children in Drug Trafficking: A Rapid Assessment, ILO, Geneva, February 2002. See also ILO-IPEC, Análise e recomendações, 63.

631 PESTRAF-BRASIL, Pesquisa sobre Tráfico de Mulheres, Crianças e Adolescentes para Fins de Exploração Sexual Comercial: Relatório Nacional, Brasilia, June 2002, 48, 49, and 51. See also U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report, U.S. Department of State, Washington, DC, June, 2005; available from http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2005/46613.htm.

632 World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 [CD-ROM], Washington, DC, 2005.

633 U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report.

634 Ibid.

635 Resolução CNE/CEB Nº 1, De 5 De Julho De 2000 Estabelece as Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação e Jovens e Adultos., (July 5), Article 7.

636 Ministry of Education Basic Education Secretariat Office of Basic (Fundamental) Education (COEF), Programa Ampliação do Ensino Fundamental para Nove Anos, [online] 2005 [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.mec.gov.br/sef/fundamental/noveanos.shtm.

637 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004, Section 5.

638 Calculated from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios: Trabalho Infantil 2001, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística – IBGE, Rio de Janeiro, 2003, 76.

639 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, http://stats.uis.unesco.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspx?ReportId=51 (Gross and Net Enrolment Ratios, Primary; accessed December 2005). For an explanation of gross primary enrollment rates that are greater than 100 percent, please see the definition of gross primary enrollment rates in the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.

640 UCW analysis of ILO SIMPOC, UNICEF MICS, and World Bank surveys, Child Economic Activity and School Attendance Rates.

641 The Primary completion rate is the number of students that complete the last year of (or graduate from) primary school in a given year, divided by the number of children of official graduation age in the population. The World Bank Group, Brazil Data Profile, [online] April, 2005 [cited June 27, 2005]; available from http://devdata.worldbank.org/external/CPProfile.asp?SelectedCountry=BRA&CCODE=BRA&CNAME=Brazil&PTYPE=CP.

642 This distortion refers to the large number of children in the country who are enrolled and/or attending school at a grade level below that which is considered appropriate for their age group.

643 U.S. Consulate – Sao Paulo, reporting, September 18, 2000. Minors who work as apprentices are required to attend school through the primary grades and to provide proof of parental permission to work. U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004, Section 6d.

644 Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office, Legislação, [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.pgt.mpt.gov.br/trab_inf/legis/index.html.

645 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004, Section 5.

646 Decreto-Lei, 2,848, (December 7), Articles 228-9; available from https://www.presidencia.gov.br/ccivil_03/Decreto-Lei/Del2848.htm.

647 Lei no. 11,106, de 28 de Março de 2005, 11,106, Articles 227 and 231; available from https://www.presidencia.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2005/Lei/L11106.htm.

648 Penal Code, Articles 149 and 207.

649 LEI 4.374 de 17/08/1964-Lei do Serviço Militar, 4,374, (August 17 1964), Articles 3 and 5; available from http://www.defesa.gov.br/enternet/sitios/internet/disemi/lsm.html. See also Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, Global Report 2004-Brazil, County Report, 2004; available from http://www.child-soldiers.org/document_get.php?id=812.

650 ILO-IPEC official, email communication to USDOL official, November 14, 2005.

651 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004, Section 6d.

652 ILO-IPEC, Análise e recomendações, 30.

653 U.S. Consulate – Sao Paulo, reporting, October 23, 2002.

654 Ministry of Labor and Employment, Trabalho Infantil no Brasil. [cited October 13, 2005]; available from http://www.mte.gov.br. See also U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004, section 6d.

655 Ministry of Labor and Employment, Trabalho Infantil no Brasil.

656 The Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office is an independent government agency with the principal responsibility of prosecuting labor infractions. See U.S. Department of State, Country Reports 2004, Section 6d. See also Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office, O Que é o MPT: Atuação, [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.pgt.mpt.gov.br/institucional/mpt/atuacao.html. See also Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office, Coordenadaria, 2004 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.pgt.mpt.gov.br/trab_inf/coord/index.html.

657 Federal Labor Prosecutor's Office, Atuação MPT, 2004 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.pgt.mpt.gov.br/trab_inf/mpt/index.html.

658 United Nations Economic and Social Council, Rights of the Child: Addendum on Mission to Brazil, New York, February 3, 2004, 14. The government is currently undertaking a campaign to increase the number of municipalities with Guardianship Councils and to improve the capacity of established councils. See Public Ministry of Pernambuco, Ministério Público participa do lançamento do Gerando Cidadania, November 18, 2003 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.mp.pe.gov.br/imprensa/noticias/2003_novembro/18_promotor.htm.

659 CONAETI is composed of members from the federal government, workers and employers organizations, and civil society. See Portaria No. 365, de 12 de Setembro de 2002; available from http://www.mte.gov.br/Temas/FiscaTrab/Legislacao/Portarias/conteudo/393.asp. See also Ministry of Labor and Employment, Comissão Nacional de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil, [online] 2005 [cited June 27, 2005]; available from http://www.mte.gov.br/geral/Imprimir.asp.

660 ILO-IPEC, Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Brazil – Support for the Time-Bound Program on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, technical progress report, ILO, Geneva, March 10, 2004. See Ministerio de Trabajo y Empleo, Plan Nacional de Prevención y Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil y Protección al Trabajador Adolescente, National Plan, Brasilia, 2004; available from http://www.mte.gov.br/Empregador/FiscaTrab/CombateTrabalhoInfantil/Publicacao/Conteudo/6362.pdf. See also U.S. Embassy – Brasilia, reporting, August 29 2005.

661 Ministry of Social Development and Combating Hunger, Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil – PETI, [online] 2005 [cited June 14, 2005]; available from http://www.mds.gov.br/programas/programas04.asp.

662 The MLE identified more than 80 types of work that are considered dangerous or unhealthy for minors under the age of 18 years in Brazil. Administrative Ruling N. 20 of 13 September 2001.

663 Children between the ages of 7 and 15 years are eligible to participate. Families receive 40 Brazilian reals (USD 14) per month in urban areas and 25 Brazilian reals (USD 9) in rural areas for every participating child. In addition, families of PETI beneficiaries are required to participate in income generating activities as provided by the local government. See Ministry of Social Development and Combating Hunger, Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil – PETI.

664 Ministry of Social Development and Combating Hunger, Programa de Erradicação do Trabalho Infantil (PETI), [online] 2005 [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.mds.gov.br/programas/programas04.asp. The school day in Brazil lasts approximately 4 hours.

665 Ministry of Social Development and Combating Hunger, PETI – Prestação de contas, [online] 2005 [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.mds.gov.br/programas/programas04_02.asp.

666 ILO-IPEC, Análise das Políticas e Programas Sociais no Brasil, 182, International Labor Organization, Lima, 2004, 50-51.

667 Casa Civil Presidência da República, Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos, LEI N. 10.836, de 9 de Janeiro de 2004, Articulo 3, [online] January 9, 2004 [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.mds.gov.br/bolsafamilia/Lei_Bolsa_Fam%EDlia_10_836_09_01_2004.pdf. See also Zero Hunger, Bolsa Familia-Perguntas e Respostas, Presidência da República, [online] 2005 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.fomezero.gov.br/ContentPage.aspx?filename=pfz_4001.xml. For currency conversion see FX Converter, [online] [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.oanda.com/convert/classic.

668 United Nations Economic and Social Council, Rights of the Child, 19.

669 The National Committee to Fight Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents was created to monitor the implementation of the plan. See Ibid., 18.

670 Ministry of Justice, Histórico: Marcos no Enfrentamento à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes, [online] [cited May 21, 2004]. See National Secretariat for Human Rights, Parcerias marcam Dia Nacional de Combate ao Abuso e à Violência Sexual Infanto-Juvenil, [online] 2004 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.mj.gov.br/sedh/ct/conanda/noticias2.asp?id=161.

666 ILO-IPEC, Análise das Políticas e Programas Sociais no Brasil, 182, International Labor Organization, Lima, 2004, 50-51.

667 Casa Civil Presidência da República, Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos, LEI N. 10.836, de 9 de Janeiro de 2004, Articulo 3, [online] January 9, 2004 [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.mds.gov.br/bolsafamilia/Lei_Bolsa_Fam%EDlia_10_836_09_01_2004.pdf. See also Zero Hunger, Bolsa Familia-Perguntas e Respostas, Presidência da República, [online] 2005 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.fomezero.gov.br/ContentPage.aspx?filename=pfz_4001.xml. For currency conversion see FX Converter, [online] [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.oanda.com/convert/classic.

668 United Nations Economic and Social Council, Rights of the Child, 19.

669 The National Committee to Fight Sexual Violence Against Children and Adolescents was created to monitor the implementation of the plan. See Ibid., 18.

670 Ministry of Justice, Histórico: Marcos no Enfrentamento à Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes, [online] [cited May 21, 2004]. See National Secretariat for Human Rights, Parcerias marcam Dia Nacional de Combate ao Abuso e à Violência Sexual Infanto-Juvenil, [online] 2004 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.mj.gov.br/sedh/ct/conanda/noticias2.asp?id=161.

671 The Sentinel program is being coordinated at the federal level by the MDS. See Ministry of Social Development and Combating Hunger, Programa Enfrentamento ao Abuso e Exploração Sexual de Crianças e Adolescentes, Sentinela, [online] 2005 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.mds.gov.br/programas/programas03_01.asp. See also ILO-IPEC, Análise das Políticas e Programas Sociais no Brasil, 57.

672 The program, which receives technical cooperation from the UN Office of Drugs and Crime, is establishing a database on trafficking in persons, including the trafficking of children and adolescents, and a public awareness campaign. See Ministry of Justice, Ministério da Justiça e ONU intensificam combate ao tráfico de brasileiros, May 19, 2004 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://www.mj.gov.br/noticias/2004/maio/RLS190504-trafico.htm. See also United Nations Office on Drug and Crime, Technical cooperation by geographical region: Latin America: Brazil, [online] 2005 [cited June 27, 2005]; available from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/trafficking_projects.html.

673 Ministry of Justice Subsecretary for the Promotion of the Rights of Children and Adolescents, Setor do turismo debate a exploraçao sexual infanto-juvenil, [online] 2005 [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://www.mj.gov.br/sedh/ct/spdca/noticias2_teste.asp?id=519. In addition, the Sao Paulo State Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons, in collaboration with the travel and hospitality industry, NGOs and the U.S. Consulate, are implementing a public information program to combat sex tourism aimed at the commercial sexual exploitation of minors. The program provides certification and a seal to participating hotels, taxi and truck drivers. See U.S. Consulate – Sao Paulo, reporting, January 24, 2005.

674 The President has declared the fight against human trafficking as a national priority. See U.S. Department of State, Trafficking in Persons Report.

675 ILO-IPEC, Eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labor in Brazil – Support for the Time-Bound Program on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor, Project document, 03-K110-RWBR-4143-SF601-000, September 30, 2003. See also Partners of the Americas, "Projeto EDUCAR," Combating Child Labor Through Education in Brazil, project document, 02-K100-R1AA-SF501, Washington, DC, April 18, 2004.

676 The centers will be developed in Pacaraima, Rio Branco, São Paulo, Campina Grande, Feira de Santana, Foz de Iguaçu and Corumbá. Ministry of Justice Subsecretaria de Promoçao dos Direitos da Criança e do Adolescente, Acordo internacional garante US$1 milhao para combater abuso e exploraçao sexual de crianças e adolescentes, [online] 2005 [cited June 27, 2005]; available from http://www.mj.gov.br/sedh/dca/noticias/acordo_internacional_garante_us.htm.

677 The Youth Agent of Social and Human Development (Projeto Agente Jovem de Desenvolvimento Social e Humano) program is aimed particularly at those adolescents who have "graduated" out of other social programs, including PETI. See Ministry of Social Development and Combating Hunger, Projeto Agente Jovem de Desenvolvimento Social e Humano, 2005 [cited June 22, 2005]; available from http://www.mds.gov.br/programas/programas07.asp.

678 National Fund for Educational Development, Brasil Alfabetizado, Ministry of Education, [online] 2005 [cited June 14, 2005]; available from http://www.fnde.gov.br/home/index.jsp?arquivo=/brasil_alfabetizado/brasil_alfb.html. See also National Fund for Educational Development, Apoio ao Atendimento à Educação de Jovens e Adultos, Ministry of Education, [online] 2005 [cited June 14, 2005]; available from http://www.fnde.gov.br/home/index.jsp?arquivo=/eja_edujovadult/eja.html. See also National Fund for Educational Development, Escola Aberta, Ministry of Education, [online] 2005 [cited June 14, 2005]; available from http://www.fnde.gov.br/home/index.jsp?arquivo=/escola_aberta/escola_aberta.html.

679 Ministry of Labor and Employment, Apresentação-Programa Nacional de Estímulo ao Primerio Emprego, [online] [cited June 27, 2005]; available from http://www.mte.gov.br/FuturoTrabalhador/primeiroemprego/Conteudo/Apresentacao.asp#. See also Ministry of Labor and Employment, PNPE-Objectivo Principal, [online] [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://www.mte.gov.br/FuturoTrabalhador/primeiroemprego/OPrograma/Conteudo/ObjetivoPrincipal.asp#. See also Ministry of labor and Employment, PNPE-Legislação-Decreto No. 5.199, de 30 de Agosto de 2004, [online] [cited June 28, 2005]; available from http://www.mte.gov.br/futurotrabalhador/primeiroemprego/Legislacao/Conteudo/Decreto-5199.asp#.

680 Ministry of Education, Alimentação Escolar, National Fund for Educational Development, [online] 2005 [cited June 14, 2005]; available from http://www.fnde.gov.br/home/index.jsp?arquivo=/alimentacao_escolar/alimentacao_esc.html.

681 ILO-IPEC, Análise das Políticas e Programas Sociais no Brasil, 44.

682 The National Secretariat for Human Rights will coordinate an inter-ministerial commission to oversee implementation of the plan. See Ultimo Segundo, Lula anuncia o Plano Presidente Amigo da Criança, [online] 2004 [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://ultimosegundo.ig.com.br/materias/brasil/1436501-1437000/1436663/1436663_1.xml.

683 MERCOSUL is the Brazilian acronym for MERCOSUR (Mercado Comun del Sur, or "the common market of the south").

684 Ministry of Labor and Employment, Brasil lança campanha conjunta com países do Mercosul de combate ao trabalho infantil, [online] March 9, 2004 [cited June 27, 2005]; available from http://www.mte.gov.br/geral/Imprimir.asp.

685 The World Bank, World Bank To Support Brazil's Social Transfers Program With US$ 572.2 Million, Washington, DC, June 17, 2004; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/LACEXT/BRAZILEXTN/0,contentMDK:20215496~menuPK:32 2347~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:322341,00.html.

686 The World Bank, World Bank Supports Education In Northeast Brazil With US$60 Million, [online] [cited June 23, 2005]; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20117797~menuPK:34463~pagePK:34370~piPK:34426~ theSitePK:4607,00.html.

687 The World Bank, Brazil: World Bank Approves $31.5 Million to Improve Education in Northeast, online, October 14, 2004; available from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,contentMDK:20268194~menuPK:34466~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~ theSitePK:4607,00.html.

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