2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Armenia
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||27 August 2008|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Armenia, 27 August 2008, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48caa45cc.html [accessed 23 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor167|
|Working children, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working boys, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working girls, 5-14 years (%):||–|
|Working children by sector, 5-14 years (%):|
|Minimum age for work:||16|
|Compulsory education age:||14|
|Free public education:||Yes|
|Gross primary enrollment rate (%), 2005:||94|
|Net primary enrollment rate (%), 2005:||57%9|
|School attendance, children 5-14 years (%), Year:||–|
|Survival rate to grade 5 (%), Year:||–|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||No|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Children in Armenia work in family-run businesses. Children can be observed selling flowers and drawings on the streets of Yerevan and working in local marketplaces, usually after school.168 There have been reports of increasing numbers of children begging on the streets and dropping out of school to work in the informal sector, especially in agriculture.169 In rural areas, children work in fishing and as shepherds.170 Children work in trade and construction in urban areas. There have also been a few cases of children working in mining.171 Reports indicate that children are trafficked to Russia, Turkey, and the United Arab Emirates for the purposes of sexual and labor exploitation.172
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The minimum age of employment is 16 years, but the law allows children 14 to 16 years to work, with written permission from a parent or guardian. Children under 14 years are prohibited from working.173 Children 14 to 16 years may work up to 24 hours per week, and children 16 to 18 years may work a maximum of 36 hours per week.174 Employers must require proof of a medical examination from any employee under 18 years.175 Children under 18 years are also prohibited from working overtime, at night, or in hazardous conditions and cannot be required to work on holidays.176 Armenian law prohibits engaging children in the production, use or sale of alcoholic drinks, narcotics and psychotropic substances, tobacco products, literature and videos with erotic or horror content, or activities that may compromise children's health, physical or mental development, or interfere with their education.177
The Armenian Constitution prohibits forced and compulsory labor.178 Trafficking in persons is prohibited by law, and penalties for trafficking have recently been strengthened to include child trafficking as an aggravated circumstance, which is punishable by 3 to 15 years imprisonment.179 Legislation implemented in 2006 distinguished the crime of trafficking from that of organized prostitution and pimping.180 Sexual intercourse with a minor under 16 years is punishable by up to 2 years imprisonment, and involving underage children in prostitution or pornography can result in 6 years imprisonment.181 The law gives responsibility to the Government to protect children from criminal activities, prostitution, and begging.182 The minimum age for mandatory military service is 18 years.183
The Armenian State Labor Inspectorate (SLI) is responsible for ensuring compliance with child labor laws.184 However, the SLI reports that it has not received any complaints of child exploitation since its establishment in March 2005, and therefore has not conducted any investigations. The SLI has also not been trained on child exploitation issues.185 Local community councils, unemployment offices, and courts likewise have jurisdiction to enforce the laws on the minimum working age.186
Current Government Efforts to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2007, the Armenian Association of Social Workers, with funding from UNICEF, conducted a survey to gauge underage employment in Armenia.187 The Government is collaborating with international organizations and NGOs on a variety of counter-trafficking efforts, including mass-media public awareness campaigns and victim hotlines.188 With the assistance of the Russian Migration Agency in Armenia, the Armenian Migration Agency conducts awareness campaigns to prevent the illegal migration and labor trafficking of boys to Russia.189 The UNDP is also working with the Government to develop anti-trafficking legislation and strengthen victim assistance efforts.190 The OSCE likewise assists the Government with anti-trafficking legislation.191 With the help of international organizations, the Government published a field manual for its consular offices abroad to use in interviewing and repatriating Armenian trafficking victims.192 UNICEF collaborates with appropriate ministries and NGOs to prevent trafficking in children, and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees assists victims seeking asylum.193
167 For statistical data not cited here, see the Data Sources and Definitions section. For data on ratifications and ILO-IPEC membership, see the Executive Summary. For minimum age for admission to work, age to which education is compulsory, and free public education, see Government of Armenia, Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia, (November 9, 2004), article 17. See also U.S. Department of State, "Armenia," in Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2007, Washington, DC, March 11, 2008, section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100546.htm.
168 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Armenia," section 6d.
169 National Center for Democracy and Human Rights, NGO Report: Supplementary Report to Armenia's Second Periodic Report on the Implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Yerevan, January 30, 2004, 17; available from http://www.crin.org/docs/resources/treaties/crc.35/armenia_ngo_report.pdf. See also UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child: Armenia, Geneva, January 30, 2004, para 60; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/6/crc/doc/co/Armenia%20-%20CO2.pdf.
170 Vostan Ethno-Cultural Research Center official, Interview with USDOL consultant, June 6, 2006.
171 U.S. Embassy – Yerevan, reporting, December 12, 2007.
172 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Armenia," section 5. See also U.S. Department of State, "Armenia (Tier 2 Watch List)," in Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007, Washington, DC, June 23, 2007; available from http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/82902.pdf.
173 Government of Armenia, Labor Code of the Republic of Armenia, article 17.
174 Ibid., article 140.
175 Ibid., article 249.
176 Ibid. articles 144, 148, 257. U.S. Embassy – Yerevan official, E-mail communication to USDOL official, July 21, 2008.
178 Government of Armenia, Constitution of the Republic of Armenia, (July 7, 1995); available from http://www.gov.am/enversion/legal_1/legal_sahman_all.html#09. See also U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Armenia," section 6c.
179 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Armenia," section 5.,
180 U.S. Department of State, "Trafficking in Persons Report – 2007: Armenia."
181 Government of Armenia, Criminal Code, article 141 and 166; available from http://www.legislationline.org/upload/legislations/db/3a/bb9bb21f5c6170dadc5efd70578c.htm. See also UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties Under Article 44 of the Convention: Armenia, July 17, 2003, para 413; available from http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/898586b1dc7b4043c1256a450044f331/693ad0fbe22529cbc1256dc70027de86/$FI LE/G0343131.pdf.
182 U.S. Embassy – Yerevan official, E-mail communication, July 21, 2008. See also UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties: Armenia (2003), para 414.
183 U.S. Embassy – Yerevan official, E-mail communication, July 21, 2008.
184 Government of Armenia, Law on the State Labor Inspectorate of the Republic of Armenia of 2005, article 10.
185 U.S. Embassy – Yerevan, reporting, December 12, 2007.
186 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Armenia," section 5, 6d.
187 U.S. Embassy – Yerevan, reporting, December 12, 2007.
188 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Armenia," section 5.
189 U.S. Embassy – Yerevan, reporting, December 12, 2007.
190 UNDP, UNDP in Armenia: Latest News and Press Releases, [online] 2006 [cited December 10, 2007]; available from http://www.undp.am/?page=LatestNews&id+309.
191 OSCE, Trafficking in Human Beings in the Republic of Armenia: An Assessment of Current Responses, Yerevan, 2007; available from http://www.osce.org/documents/oy/2007/04/24090_en.pdf.
192 U.S. Department of State, "Country Reports – 2007: Armenia," section 5.
193 OSCE, Trafficking in Human Beings in the Republic of Armenia.