Last Updated: Wednesday, 16 April 2014, 09:57 GMT

Burma [Myanmar]: Chronology of Burmese major opposition groups

Publisher United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services
Author Resource Information Center
Publication Date 17 August 2000
Citation / Document Symbol MMR00002.bkk
Cite as United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services, Burma [Myanmar]: Chronology of Burmese major opposition groups, 17 August 2000, MMR00002.bkk, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3dedfdc24.html [accessed 16 April 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.

Query:

Please provide a chronology of Burmese major opposition groups.

Response:

The following research was completed in response to the request for a chronology of Burmese major opposition groups.

Burma's Fight for Independence from Britain

1906

The Young Men's Buddhist Association (YMBA) was founded as the first organization to fight for Burma's independence and anti-British colonialism.

1936

The All Burma Students' Union (ABSU) was formed by and of Burmese student unions through the university level. The ABSU was led by Ba Hein and Aung San, also known as Bo Te Za (Bo, meaning, "Commander, Leader of a Force or Military Officer"). In 1941, Aung San was the General leading the Burma Independence Army (BIA)'s military unit under Japanese invasion. After Burma's independence in 1948, the ABSU remained a prominent student organization and was a founding member of The Freedom Bloc.

1939

The Communist Party of Burma (CPB), also known as The Burma Communist Party (BCP), was founded primarily as an underground insurgent organization, even though the CPB was later registered as a legal political party. The initial founders were Thakin Soe (Thakin meaning "Master"), Thakin Than Tun, A.N. Goshal, Thakin Hla Pe and Dr. Naag.

1939

The Freedom Bloc meaning "The Association of the Way Out" was founded in October 1939, to make Britain aware of Burma's rights to freedom. The organization was led by Dr. Ba Maw and merged the following organizations: Do Bama Asi Ayon, The Sinyetha Party and The All Burma Students' Union (ABSU).

1941

The Burma Independence Army (BIA) was formed and trained by the Japanese and had a core national group named Thirty Comrades, also known as Thirty Heroes. Aung San headed Thirty Comrades and the Comrade-in-Arms was Brigadier Ne Win.

1944

The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) was founded as the military arm of the Burma Independence Army (BIA), and the first independent Burmese army. U Nu served as President and Vice President of The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League.

1945

The Patriotic Burmese Forces (PBF) was the new name given on May 30, 1945, to The Burma Independence Army (BIA), after Burmese forces led a Japanese uprising. The PBF disbanded when a new Burmese army was formed as part of The 5 Batalions of the Burma Rifles.

Burma's Fight for Ethnic and Religious Freedom

There are 7 States associated with ethnic groups in Burma: Shan, Kayins (Karen), Rakhines (Arakenese), Mons, Chins, KaChins and Kayahs.

1947

The Kayin (Karen) National Union (KNU) was founded in April 1947, and is the oldest ethnic insurgent group. The military arm of the KNU was The Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA). It's leader was General Bo Mya. Currently, the KNU leader is Saw Ba Thin. Historically, the Karens and Burmese were major rivals. In 1950, the KNU was pushed into the border areas of Thailand, eliminating Muslim insurgency groups, and reducing communist groups to opposition organizations. In the 1970's, the KNU was sometimes joined by The Mon National Defense Organization (MNDO) where many of its members, like KNU members, lived in Thailand.

1947

The Mon National Defense Organization (MNDO) was formed as the military arm to the Mon Freedom League, later known as The Mon United Front, and led by Nai Shwe Kyin and Nai Hla Maung (Maung meaning "younger brother"). The organization's aim was to establish an independent Mon-Karen State.

1947

General Aung San was assassinated with the help of his political rival, U Saw on July 19, 1947.

1948

On January 4, 1948, Burma gained independence from Britain and a multi party system was established. U Nu was elected Burma's Prime Minister through 1962.

1957

The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), an ethnic rebel organization, was founded by Saw Maw Reh. In the 1960's, the organization controlled most of the Kayah State. The organization has many factions.

1960

The Arakan National Liberation Party (ANLP) was founded as a Rakhine rebel organization. The party has many factions.

1960

The Burmese Communist Party (BCP) White Flag faction located in Pegu Yoma and the BCP associated with The Red Flag faction in the Rakhine state (formerly Arakan State) were Communist underground groups assimilated by the government.

1961

The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) or Kachin Independence Army (KIA) was founded to promote Buddhism, and remained for some time, the largest and best organized armed ethnic opposition group in Burma.

Burma's Switch to a Single Party System: The Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP)

1962

The Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP) or Lanzin, as the party is called in Burmese language, was formed as a result of a military coup on July 4, 1962, by General U Ne Win. From 1962 to 1988, the BSPP was the one legal party until the transfer of power to a multi party system.

1964

The Shan State Army (SSA) was the result of a merger between The Shan National United Front with The Shan State Independence Army (SSIA). The SSA was led by the Kokang Resistance Force. In 1972, a political arm of SSA was formed, namely, The Shan State Progress Party (SSPP). In the 1980's, the 2 organizations became riffed based on loyalties to The Communist Party of Burma.

1970

The Karenni National Progress Party (KNPP), the largest Karenni (Kayah) group in the jungle, was a noncommunist group predicated on the 1875 treaty between Burmese kings and Britain. The military arm of the KNPP is The Karenni Liberation Army, which has clashed with The Burmese Communist Party (BCP); The Kayah New Land Revolutionary Council and The Karenni People's United Liberation Front. The KNU cooperated with The Karenni (Kayah) groups in the jungle.

1970

The Rohingya Patriotic Front was developed by the Muslims, who had supported Britain, which heightened Burmese suspicions of treason. Arakan was the underground home to many opposition parties, mainly the Burmese Communist Party (BCP). Factions to the Rohingya Patriotic Front were The Rohingya Solidarity Organization and its rival, The Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF), headquartered in Bangladesh. In 1978, the government mounted a campaign against the Rohingya factions entitled, Ye The Ha and used the "Four Cuts" strategy to cut off rebel necessities. The campaign escalated from "King Dragon" to murder and rape of the Arkanese, destruction of mosques, and Muslims fleeing to Bangladesh.

1970

The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) or Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and The Burmese Communist Party (BCP) cooperated in order to threaten government power. The cooperation effort stopped in 1980-1981 to fulfill regional KIO/KIA goals.

1970

The Shan State Army (SSA) and the Burmese Communist Party (BCP) cooperated to threaten the Burmese government. The SSA was involved in disagreements over narcotic trading and drugs, which caused the 1976 split from the BCP. A breakaway BCP faction was established and later returned to the SSA. Some cooperation still occurred through the early 1980's.

1973

The Wa National Army (WNA) which was headed by former Wa Chieftain Mahasang, who encouraged the Wa militants to fight leadership of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB).

A New Constitution and Change from Burma to The Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma

1974

A new Constitution was adopted, and Burma became The Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma.

1975

The National Democratic Front (NDF) was founded. The following major ethnic groups were a part of the NDF in the 1970's and 1980's: The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) or Kachin Independence Army (KIA); The Chin National Front (CNF); The Shan State Army (SSA); The Lahu State Army; The Karen National Union (KNU); The Kayan New Land Party (KNLP); The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP); Lahu National Organization (LNO); The New Mon State Party (NMSP); The Arakan Liberation Party (ALP); Palaung State Liberation Party; The Wa National Army (WNA) and the Pa-O National Organization. The party's President was Saw Maw Reh.

1980

Some insurgent groups that operated in the Kachin and Shan states in North and Northeast Burma were: The Burmese Communist Party (BCP); The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO); The Shan State Army (SSA); The Shan United Revolutionary Army (SURA); The Shan United Army; The Third Chinese Irregular Forces; The Fifth Chinese Irregular Forces; The Shan State Volunteer; The Wa National Army (WNA) - Ma (Ma meaning "younger sister") Ha San Faction; The Wa National Army; The Ai Hsiao-shih Group; The A Bi Group; The Lahu State Army; The United Pa-O Organization; The Tai National Army; The Palaung State Liberation Organization; The Yang Hwe-Kang Group and The Karen National Union (KNU).

1980

The Arakan Liberation Organization (ALO) was organized by U Kyaw Hla, who in 1977 was accused of conspiracy against The Union of Burma and the military dictatorship. To avoid imprisonment, he escaped to Wankha, a Karen liberated area. In 1982, the armed wing of The ALO was established. In 1987, The ALO was reformed as The Muslim Liberation Organization of Burma (MLOB) to represent oppressed Muslims. The MLOB is the founder of The Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB) and a member of The National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB).

1980

The People's Army was the military arm of The Burmese Communist Party (BCP). The group floundered because of it's short supply ammunition.

1980

The Shan United Revolutionary Army (SURA) was formed as a separatist organization heavily involved in the narcotics trade. Formerly, The Tangyan KKY, it was Shan State Army's (SSA's) rival in the Shan State. The leader of SURA was Mo Heng.

Burma's Switch to a Multi-Party System: The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) Military Government

1988

The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), currently, The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC), was a group of Generals who came into power on September 18, 1988 as a result of a coup. Until April 23, 1992, the SLORC was headed by Senior General Saw Maung, who was replaced by Brigadier General Than Shwe. Another SLORC leader was Brigadier General Khin Nyunt.

1988

The National Democratic League (NLD), was legally registered and formed by Aung Gyi, U Tin Oo and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (Daw meaning "Superior"). The NLD remains the main opposition party to the military controlled government. Aung San Suu Kyi, the daughter of Burma's independence leader and retired Army General, Aung San, was elected Secretary General of the NLD on September 24, 1988. Aung San Suu Kyi and U Tin Oo were placed under house arrest on July 20 1989. On December 1989, U Tin Oo was sentenced to 3 years hard labor after a trial by a military tribunal. Aung San Suu Kyi was released from house arrest on July 15, 1995.

1988

The Burma Socialist Programme Party (BSPP), a government ruling body, ended due to the call for mass demonstrations, "The Massacre of 8-8-88" and the resignation of General Ne Win. Demonstrators demanded democratic practices such as free and fair elections, freedom of expression, and a multi party system on September 26, 1988. The BSPP became The National Unity Party (NUP), a legally registered political party. U Sein Lwin replaced General Ne Win during additional turbulence, and when killings of protestors started, Dr. Maung Maung (Bo Nyana) replaced U Sein Lwin.

1988

The People's Democracy Party (PDP) was legally registered on October 4, 1988. The PDP was founded by Aung Than, the older brother of Aung San Suu Kyi's father. A week later, the PDP affiliated itself with The National Democratic League (NLD).

1988

The Graduates and Old Students' Democratic Association (GOSDA) was legally registered on October 10, 1988. It's objectives included fostering democratic and human rights.

1988

The Burma United Democratic Party (BUDP) was legally registered on October 11, 1988 and aimed to develop a government based on human rights and democracy.

1988

The Democratic Party for a New Society (DPNS) was legally registered on October 13, 1988 and declared to develop a new constitution advocating democracy as an offshoot of The All Burma Federation of Students Union (ABFSU). The party was founded by ABFSU leaders Moe Thi Zun and Moe Hein, who became DPNS' General Secretary. The DPNS formed the League for Democratic Alliance (LDA) composed of 12 legal political parties. The DPNS also established The Democratic Front of the Union of Burma (DFUB) including 41 registered political parties. The DPNS became a major alliance with The National Democratic League (NLD) with branches in more than 250 townships and 1500 organizers. After an unsuccessful attempt to join SLORC, The DPNS went underground. SLORC imprisoned more than 300 DPNS members and Moe Hein was arrested on July 17, 1989.

1988

The People's Volunteer Organization (PVO) was legally registered on October 14, 1988 and aimed to develop a state with full democratic rights in a "disciplined and united manner."

1988

The Union of Burma Main Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (UBMAFPFL) was legally registered on October 18, 1988 and aimed to "foster among the people an eternal spirit that ...opposes fascism and dictatorship." The name of the UBMAFPFL was taken from The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL). The UBMAFPFL's General Secretary, Cho Cho Kyaw Nyein, is the daughter of Than Tun, the General Secretary of The AFPFL. She was interrogated after being detained on June 16, 1989.

1988

The People's Student's Democratic Party (PSDP) was legally registered on October 21, 1988 and advocated coordination with political organizations to bring about democratic elections and human rights "regardless of race, religion or class."

1988

The Youth and Student's Union Association (YSUA) was legally registered on October 26, 1988 and advocated defending human rights and advancing a democratic system.

1988

The Student's Revolutionary Party for Democracy (SRPD) was legally registered on October 31, 1988 included in its democratic goals to "avoid negative attitudes in politics, such as blaming and censuring others, and to encourage positive criticism, positive speech, and positive writing and publication."

1988

The Patriotic League for Peace (PLP) was legally registered on November 1, 1988, and included educating people concerning democracy verbally and in writing.

1988

The Evergreen Young Men's Association (EGYMA) was legally registered on November 7, 1988 and it's goals encompassed democratic aims of free and fair elections, support for the UN Declaration on Human Rights and prevention of dictatorship. In order to achieve those goals, the EGYMA wanted to work with all political parties instead of building a solitary power base.

1988

The People's Progressive Party (PPP) was legally registered on November 9, 1988 and aimed to establish a multi-party democratic system with the same rights and freedoms in the UN Charter and to protect students' rights by promoting the formation of student unions.

1988

The National Politics Front (NPF) was legally registered on November 14, 1988 and aimed to be aligned with democratic rights declared in the UN Charter and The Universal Declaration of Human Rights by primarily developing a state constitution.

1988

The Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB), a rebel organization, was founded on November 18, 1988, in Klerday at the Thai border. The DAB included The National Democratic Front; The All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF); The Committee for Restoration of Democracy in Burma, a US based Burmese exile organization; The All Burma Young Monks' Union (ABYMU); The Chin National Front (CNF) and many other groups. There are more than 300,000 Buddhist Monks in Burma, and the ABYMU formed an important part of The National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB) and The National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB). The aim of DAB included the overthrow The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC).

1988

The Chin National Front (CNF) was founded as a Chin rebel organization, with a military arm known as The Chin National Army. The Chin National Army was the first armed force in the Chin State, and a part of a 23 member alliance with the Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB). In 1991, the 2 parties of the Chin minority group, The Zomi (Chin) National League for Democracy (CNLD) won 2 seats in the 485 seat national parliament.

1988

The All Burma Youth League Headquarters (ABYLH) was legally registered on November 21, 1988 and advocated working for democratic freedoms.

1988

The League for Democracy and Peace (LDP) was legally registered on November 21, 1988 by U Nu, the Prime Minister elected in 1962, and declared to "safeguard the fundamental rights of mankind."

1988

The League of New Generation (LNG) was legally registered on November 28, 1988 and advocated free and fair elections and ensuring democratic rights.

1988

The All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF) was an umbrella insurgent student organization, which promoted peaceful opposition to the military government, and went underground after the coup. The ABSDF, the largest organization advocating armed student struggle, was formed in November 1988 at The Karen National Union's base. The organization was chaired by U Tun Aung Gyaw.

1988

The All Burma Federation of Students Union (ABFSU) was an organization formed between August and November of 1988, by students with democratic goals. It was one of the few groups at that time with no legal registration. At its founding rally, Paw U Tun (U meaning "men of superior age or social status") called for democracy, a government supporting fair and free elections and peaceful demonstrations. Paw U Tun was arrested on March 24 1989. The organization was also led by Min Ko Naing (Ko meaning "elder brother") and boasted membership of 50,000 students.

1988

The State Restoration Law and Order Council (SLORC) restricted democratic freedoms; enacted laws to ban liberties and arrested opposition group members defying legislation. The Chief of the Directorate of Defense Services Intelligence (DDSI) published literature describing infiltration by opposition groups, such as: The Communist Party of Burma (CPB); The National Democratic League (NLD); The Democratic Party for a New Society (DPNS); The League for Democracy and Peace (LDP); The People's Progressive Party (PPP); and The National Politics Front (NPF). Ethnic diversity emerged as a result of the conflict and opposition. The main ethnic insurgent groups included Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) or Kachin Independence Army (KIA) and the Kayin (Karen) National Union (KNU).

1989

The People's Defense Force (PDF) was founded on December 26, 1989, as a new democratic force with the Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB) and The National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB) as members. Ex-Colonel Sein Mya, who died in 1993, was the original leader of PDF. The current Chairman is Kyaw Htet, who was released from prison in Thailand on June 18, 1996. The PDF has been a major National Democratic League (NLD) ally by helping NLD members to escape from Burma. The PDF has been a force in Moulmein, Ye, Mergui, Tavoy, Tha-Hton and the Pegu, Ragoon and Irawaddy districts.

1989

The Shan State Army (SSA) majority initiated peace with The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). The balance of the SSA was aligned with The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) or Kachin Independence Army (KIA).

1989

The National League for Democracy Justice (NLDJ) was legally registered on January 6, 1989, and promoted a democractic system.

1989

The League of Democratic Alliance (LDA) was legally registered on February 27, 1989, and aimed to "bring an end in...Burma [to] fascism, all forms of dictatorship and foreign-influenced administrative system," in addition to advocating democratic rights. Parties, officers and patrons were from The People's Democratic Party (PDP), the People's Volunteers Organization, the Democratic Party for a New Society (DPNS), the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), the Society for International Friendship, the League of New Generation, the People's Solidarity and Action Party, and The Democratic Republic Front.

Country Name Change from Burma to Myanmar

1989

On June 18, 1989, the name of the country, Burma, was changed to Myanmar by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). The word, Myanmar, sometimes spelled, Myanma, is a Bamar word meaning self-reliance. Because the military junta changed the name to Myanmar, many, including opposition groups, still only recognize the name Burma.

1989-1990

Burmese military forces captured all military bases set up by the following opposition groups: The Kayin (Karen) National Union (KNU); The New Mon State Party (NMSP); and The Kachin Independence Organization (KIO) or Kachin Independence Army (KIA).

The Main Opposition to SLORC: The National Democratic League (NLD)

1990

An election was held on May 27, 1990, in which The National Democratic League (NLD) won 81% (392 out of 485) of the Assembly seats and 60% of the valid popular votes over the State Law and Order and Restoration Council (SLORC). 73% of the eligible population voted in the election. However, the military refused to honor NLD's victory and did not transfer power from the government to the NLD. Many NLD members were arrested and activists fled to the Thailand border.

1990

As a result of the elections, on December 18, 1990, NLD parliamentarians who were not arrested fled to Thailand and formed an exile government, The National Coalition Government for the Union of Burma (NCGUB). The NCGUB Prime Minister was Dr. Sein Wein. Since 1993, the NCGUB is based in Washington, D.C. and does government and lobbying work on behalf of the Burmese. In the 1990's, the Karen National Union (KNU), the Anti-Military Dictatorship National Solidarity Committee (ADNSC), the All-Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF), and the National Democratic League (NLD) were headquartered at Manerplaw, an insurgent Burmese-Thai base. In April 1991, the NLD leaders in Yangon were forced by the military to drop U Tin Oo and Aung San Suu Kyi from their membership. The KNU embraced militancy and armed revolt. Revolt groups were common in areas such as Kayin (Karen), Kachin, Shan and the Mon States, where torture and execution happened.

1991

"The Anti-Fascist Peoples' Freedom League (AFPFL) was deregistered on January 31, 1991 because its General Secretary Daw Cho Cho Kyaw Nyein and some members of its Central Executive Committee had allegedly establish[ed] links with the armed rebels with the intent to revolt against the state' and therefore turned the AFPFL into 'an overt organization of the rebels.'"

1991

The League for Democracy and Peace "(LDP) was deregistered on February 4, 1991. According to an Election Commission announcement the party had split after the SLORC 'dismissed' U Nu and other party patrons and members of its Central Executive Committee for refusing to dissolve the 'parallel government' they set up shortly before the military coup on September 18, 1988. The Commission ruled that because of the split, the LDP was 'nullified by itself.'"

1991

The Palaung State Liberation Party (PSLP) was through April 1991 an ally of The Karen National Union (KNU) in opposition to The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). However, in 1992-1993, most of the PSLP leadership decided to relinquish arms and the PSLP was legalized by SLORC as a political organization.

1991

On October 14 1991, Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

1992-1993

In April 1992, The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) invited illegal groups to become legal political parties in order that the parties may be a part of development projects. The following groups accepted the invitation to become legal: Kokang National Group; Wa National Group; Shan State Army (SSA); Shan/Ahka National Group; New Democratic Army (Kachin) (NDA); Kachin Defense Army (KDA); Pa-O National Organization (PNO); Palaung State Liberation Party (PSLP); Kayan National Guard (KNG); The Kachin Independence Organization or Army (KIO) (KIA); Kayini National People's Liberation Front (KNPLF); Kayan New Land Party (KNLP); Shan National People's Liberation Organization (SNPLO). SLORC continued to extend invitations for legalization.

1992-1993

The Karen National Union (KNU) did not accept The State Law and Order Restoration Council's (SLORC's) invitation for legalization. In fact, during these times of suspension of military operations, The KNU organized other illegal armed groups at the Manerplaw base into The National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB) led by Bo Mya, also the leader of the KNU. The National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB) was known as "a parallel government" to the National League for Democracy (NLD) because it contained many elected NLD candidates.

1992-1994

The Karen National Union (KNU) bombed and attacked The Htimukhee Tatmadaw ("military government"), The Hweponlang Post, and columns in Bilin, Thaton, Pa-an, Hlaingbwe, Kawkareik, Myawaddy, Kyaikmaraw, Mudon, Thanbyuzayat, Yay, Dawai, Palaw, Tanintharyi and Bokpyin townships to continue SLORC opposition.

1994

On April 10 and 12, 1994, The Karen National Union (KNU), a largely Buddhist organization, dispatched KNU officers to cooperate with the Khun Sa's Mong Tai Army (MTA). To reciprocate, the MTA sent officers to coordinate military and economic cooperation between the KNU and MTA. However, the peace efforts of The KNU backfired when Bo Mya of the KNU treated the Buddhist monk, Myaing-gyi-ngu Sayadaw U Thuzana, with disrespect by evicting him and about 40 other monks from the area. An armed revolt ensued based on KNU internal strife and beliefs of discrimination based on religious beliefs; unfairness in promotions and unwillingness to attain peace.

1994

On December 1, 1994, the 3,000 people, who split from the Karen National Union (KNU) and revolted, formed the Democratic Kayin Buddhist Organization (DKBO).

1995

On January 1, 1995, the Karen National Union (KNU) launched an attack on the Democratic Kayin Buddhist Organization (DKBO). With the support of SLORC and the populace, the DKBO won a number of victories, and finally took over the Manerplaw base and KNU headquarters.

1995

As a result of the internal strife and defeat of the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Democratic Kayin Buddhist Organization (DKBO) victory, Buddhists, Christians, and Kayin people have repatriated to Myanmar. As of February 10, 1995, a total of 5,000 people returned to Myanmar.

1996

The Student's and Youth Congress of Burma (SYCB) was founded in January 1996. The SYCB is composed of 10 student and youth organizations from Thailand and India, representing various nationalities. The SYCB is comprised of: the All Arakanese Students and Youth Congress (AASYC), the All Burma Students' Democratic Front (ABSDF), The All Burma Student's League (ABSL), The All Kachin Student's and Youth Union (AKSYU), The Democratic Party for a New Society (DPNS), The Kuki Student's Democratic Front (KSDF), The Karen Youth Organization (KYO), The National League for Democracy (NLD) - Liberated Area (Youth), The Overseas Mon National Student's Organization (OMNSO) and The Pa-O Youth Democratic Organization (PYDO).

Change from The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) to The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) Military Government

1997

On November 15, 1997, the name of The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) was changed to The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) in order to remove most of the former General leaders. Currently, 28 of the 40 Cabinet members are military, with Foreign Minister Ohn Gyaw as the only civilian in a senior position. General Than Shwe remains the Chairman of SPDC, as does Khin Nyunt remain the Intelligence Chief.

1998

The National Council of the Union of Burma was formed on September 16, 1998, under orders of 25 National Democratic League (NLD) elected parliament members and 4 ethnic parties: Shan National League for Democracy, Arakan League for Democracy, Mon National League for Democracy, and Zomi (Chin) National Congress.

1998

The State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) arrested and detained National Democratic League and other opposition members, who had "sparked unrest," as well as NLD parliamentarians that the SPDC later admitted holding as hostages in October and November.

1999

Dr. Michael Aris, Suu Kyi's husband of 27 years, was dying of prostate cancer in England. He applied for a visa to Burma to die in his wife's arms, however, his visa was denied. Instead, the SPDC encouraged Aung San Suu Kyi to fly to her husband's side. She stated that the SPDC took advantage of the situation to attempt to get her out of Burma, because everyone knew that once she left, she would not be able to return to Burma. She did not attend the funeral of her husband on March 28, 1999, nor did she visit her two sons.

2000

Since 1989, cease fire agreements with some opposition groups have been finalized, however, fighting still occurs along the Thailand-Burma border under the regulation of Royal Thai Government (RTG).

2000

On May 2, 2000, the Burmese government accused Aung San Suu Kyi of The National Democratic League (NLD) and her followers of links to rebel groups and "contacts with dissidents and armed terrorist groups." They could "face the death penalty or life imprisonment" for high treason.

2000

In July 2000, The National Democratic League (NLD) filed a suit, for the second time, with The Supreme Court accusing General Than Shwe, Chief of the Military Council and Chairman of The Election Commission of violating electoral law and NLD harassment. In response, Military Spokesman Lieutenant-Colonel Hla Min said the NLD should behave "in a more responsible and constructive manner with the aim of doing serious work in solving Myanmar's real challenges." He added that the government was "working hard to develop Myanmar in it's transition to a stable democracy."

References

Amnesty International. September 1988. Prisoners of Conscience in Myanmar: A Chronicle of Developments since September 1988. (AI Index: ASA 16/23/89 November 1989 Summary). New York: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. 1990. In the National Interest - Prisoners of Conscience, Torture, Summary Trials under Martial Law. (AI Index: ASA 16/10/90). New York: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. 11 September 1991. Urgent Action: Burma: Death Sentence Myanmar. (AI Index: USA Extra 62/91). Nederland, Colorado: Amnesty International.

Amnesty International. December 1991. Arrests and Trials of Political Prisoners From January - July 1991. (AI Index: ASA 16/10/91 Distr: SC/CO/GR). United Kingdom: Amnesty International.

Burma: A Country Study. March 1983. Edited by Frederica M. Bunge. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army.

"Burma Rejects Opposition Law Suit," BBC News Online via http://www.news6.thdo.bbc.co.uk, 10 July 2000.

"Chronology of Events Since Suu Kyi's Release in Myanmar," Reuters, 6 August 1998.

Commission on Human Rights, The United Nations Economic and Social Council. Memorandum of observations and comments concerning document E/CN.4/1995/65 dated 12 January 1995 pertaining to the Union of Myanmar. (E/CN.4/1995/148). New York: United Nations.

The Historical Dictionary of Myanmar: 1995. 1995. Asian Historical Dictionaries, Number 15. Jan Becka. Metuchen, New Jersey and London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Human Rights Watch (HRW)/Asia. 7 May 1992. Burma: Rape, Forced Labor and Religious Persecution in Northern Arakan. Washington, D.C.: Human Rights Watch/Asia.

Iqbal, Nadeem, "Putsch in Pakistan First Army Takeover of Nineties," Inter Press Service (14 October 1999), no page number available reported in Lexis Nexis.

National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma. Draft. Chronology of Events. Washington, D.C.: National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma.

Peck, Grant, "Aung San Suu Kyi Faces Death Penalty," Washington Post via http://www.washingtonpost.com. (2 May 2000).

"The Price of Freedom." Dateline NBC Exclusive. NBC, 13 August 2000.

Soe, May Sanda, "Letter to Valerie Coleman stating names and dates of Burmese opposition groups," Burma Fund, 27 June 2000.

Websites Visited

Journal of Mary Lou Maag throughout Southeast Asia via http://www.rdwarf.com

The Mons in Burma, Mizan Khan, Deepla Khosla and Min Oo and Deepla Khosla via http://www.bsos.umd.edu/cidcm/mai/burmons.htm

Free Burma Coalition via http://freeburma.org/

Exchanging Arms For Peace via http://www.myamar.com/peace/peace.html

Additional Sources Consulted

Human Rights Watch

Glossary /Index

 
   

A Bi Group

4

Ai Hsiao-shih Group

4

All Arakanese Student's and Youth Congress (AASYC)

12

All Burma Federation of Students' Union (ABFSU)

6, 8

All Burma Student's Democratic Front (ABSDF)

7, 8, 10, 12

All Burma Student's League (ABSL)

12

All Burma Students' Union (ABSU)

1

All Burma Young Monk's Union (ABYMU)

7

All Burma Youth League Headquarters (ABYLH)

8

All Kachin Student's and Youth Union (AKSYU)

12

Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL)

1, 6, 9, 10

Anti-Military Dictatorship National Solidarity Committee (ADNSC)

 

Arakan League for Democracy

12

Arakan Liberation Organization (ALO)

4

Arakan Liberation Party (ALP)

4

Arakan National Liberation Party (ANLP)

2

Arakan Rohingya Islamic Front (ARIF)

3

Burma Communist Party (BCP)

1, 3, 4, 5

Burma Independence Army (BIA)

1

Burma Socialist Program Party (BSPP) or Lanzin

3, 5

Burma United Democratic Party (BUDP)

6

Chin National Front (CNF)

4, 7

Chin National League for Democracy (CNLD)

7

Committee for Restoration of Democracy in Burma

7

Communist Party of Burma (CPB)

1, 4, 8

Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB)

5, 7, 9

Democratic Front of the Union of Burma (DFUB)

6

Democratic Kayin Buddhist Organization (DKBO)

11, 12

Democratic Party for a New Society (DPNS)

6, 8, 9, 12

Democratic Republic Front

9

Evergreen Young Men's Association (EGYMA)

7

Fifth Chinese Irregular Forces

4

Freedom Bloc

1

Graduates and Old Students' Democratic Association (GOSDA)

 

Kachin Defense Army (KDA)

11

Kachin Independence Army (KIA)

3, 4, 8, 9, 11

Kachin Independence Organization (KIO)

3, 4, 8, 9, 11

Karen National Liberation Army (KNLA)

2

Karen Youth Organization (KYO)

12

Karenni Liberation Army (KLA)

3

Karenni National Progress Party (KNPP)

3

Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP)

2, 4

Karenni People's United Liberation Front

3

Kayah New Land Revolutionary Council

3

Kayan National Guard (KNG)

11

Kayan New Land Party (KNLP)

4, 10, 11

Kayin (Karen) National Union (KNU)

2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12

Kayini National People's Liberation Front (KNPLF)

11

Khun Sa's Mong Tai Army (MTA)

11

Kokang National Group

11

Kuki Student's Democratic Front (KSDF)

12

Lahu National Organization (LNO)

4

Lahu State Army

4

League for Democratic Alliance (LDA)

6, 9

League for Democracy and Peace (LDP)

8, 10

League of New Generation (LNG)

8, 9

Mon National Defense Organization (MNDO)

2

Mon National League for Democracy

12

Muslim Liberation Organization of Burma (MLOB)

5

National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)

 

National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB)

5, 7, 9, 11, 12

National Democratic Front (NDF)

4, 7

National Democratic League (NLD)

5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 10, 12, 13

National League for Democracy - Liberated Area (Youth)

12

National League for Democracy Justice

9

National Politics Front (NPF)

7, 8

National Unity Party (NUP)

5

New Democratic Army (Kachin)

11

New Mon State Party (NMSP)

4, 9

Overseas Mon National Student's Organization (OMNSO)

12

Palaung State Liberation Party

4, 10, 11

Pa-O National Organization

4, 11

Pa-O Youth Democratic Organization (PYDO)

12

Patriotic Burmese Forces (PBF)

1

Patriotic League for Peace (PLP)

7

People's Army

5

People's Defense Force (PDF)

9

People's Democracy Party (PDP)

5, 9

People's Progressive Party (PPP)

7, 8

People's Solidarity and Action Party

9

People's Student's Democratic Party (PSDP)

6

People's Volunteers Organization (PVO)

6, 9

Rohingya Patriotic Front

3

Rohingya Solidarity Organization

3

Shan/Ahka National Group

11

Shan National League for Democracy

12

Shan National United Front (SNUF)

3

Shan National People's Liberation Organization (SNPLO)

11

Shan State Army (SSA)

3, 4, 9, 11

Shan State Independence Army (SSIA)

3

Shan State Progress Party (SSPP)

3

Shan State Volunteer

4

Shan United Revolutionary Army (SURA)

4, 5

Shan United Army

4

Society for International Friendship

9

State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC)

5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

State Peace and Development Council (SPDC)

5, 12

Student's and Youth Congress of Burma (SYCB)

12

Student's Revolutionary Party for Democracy (SRPD)

7

Tai National Army

4

Third Chinese Irregular Forces

4

Union of Burma Main Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (UBMAFPFL)

 

United Pa-O Organization

4

Wa National Army (WNA)

4

Wa National Army - Ma

4

Wa National Group

11

Yang Hwe-Kang Group

4

Young Men's Buddhist Association (YMBA)

1

Youth and Student's Union Association (YSUA)

6

Zomi (Chin) National Congress

7, 12

 

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