Libya: Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People
|Publication Date||2 March 1977|
|Cite as||National Authorities, Libya: Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People, 2 March 1977, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b4ec14.html [accessed 31 July 2014]|
|Comments||This is an unofficial translation. The original Declaration was adopted on 2 March 1977. This text is included here with the kind permission of International Constitutional Law, Würzburg, Germany. The Short Titles are the Editor?s addition.|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
The Libyan Arab people assembled in the General Conference of the People's Congresses, the People's Committees, and the Professional Unions;
Having reviewed the recommendations of the People's Congresses, the Constitutional Declaration of 11 Dec 1969, and the resolutions and recommendations of the General People's Congress which met during the period 5 to 18 Jan 1975;
Believing in the establishment of the direct democratic system heralded by the Great September Revolution and regarding it as the absolute and decisive solution to the problem of democracy; Embodying the pioneer experiment of the popular rule on the soil of the Great September Revolution which established the authority of the People, who alone should have the authority;
Declare their adherence to freedom and willingness to defend it on the Libyan land and on any other land in the world;
Declare their preparedness to protect the persecuted freedom-seekers; Declare their adherence to socialism as a means of achieving People's ownership;
Declare their commitment to spiritual values to safeguard morals and human behavior; Support the march of the Revolution towards complete popular authority and consolidation of the People's Society where only the people control leadership, authority, wealth, and arms to realize the Society of Freedom;
Declare their total commitment to blocking the way in face of all forms of traditional instruments of government, be they individual, family, tribe, sect, class, representative, party, or group of parties;
Declare their readiness to crush forever any undemocratic attempt;
The Libyan Arab People, having regained, through the Revolution, total control over their affairs, and controlling their present and future potentialities with the help of Allah and adherence to His Holy Book as the everlasting source for guidance and as the ordinance of society; Issue this declaration proclaiming the establishment of the People's authority and announcing to the peoples of the earth the emergence of the era of the masses.
Article 1 [Name]
The official name of Libya will be 'The Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya'.
Article 2 [Religion]
The Holy Koran is the Constitution of the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.
Article 3 [Congresses, Committees, Unions]
(1) The People's direct democracy is the basis of the political system in the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, where the authority is in the hands of the People alone. The People exercise their authority through the People's Congresses, the People's Committees, and the Professional Unions. The regulations of the congresses, committees, and professional unions as well as the dates of their meetings are defined by law.
(2) The authority of the People is comprised of the following:
1. People's Congresses;
2. People's Committees;
3. Professional Unions; and
4. General People's Congress.
(3) People's Congresses:
1. The Libyan People is divided into basic People's Congresses.
2. All citizens register themselves as members of the Basic People's Congress* in their area.
3. Every basic People's Congress chooses among its members a committee to lead the Congress.
(4) The masses of the People's Congresses choose People's Committees to administer all the services. These Committees are responsible to the People's Congresses.
(5) Members of each profession form their own union to defend their professional rights.
(6) The General People's Congress* is the national conference of the People's Committees and Professional Unions. The General People's Congress shall have a General Secretariat to execute the general policy of the State as defined by the People's Congresses. The General Secretariat prepares the sessions of the General People's Congress and draws up an agenda of the General People's Congress, executing its resolutions and recommendations. The General Secretariat consists of a Secretary General and a number of secretaries; each shall supervise one of the sectors of activities in the State.
Article 4 [Chairman]
The General People's Congress chooses a chairman to preside over its sessions, to sign the laws by order of the Congress, and to accept the credentials of the representatives of foreign countries.
Article 5 [Absence]
In the case of absence of the Chairman of the General People's Congress or if something hinders him from performing his duties, the Secretary General will temporarily replace him.
Article 6 [Election]
(1) The General People's Congress chooses the Secretary General and the Secretaries, dismisses them, and accepts their resignations.
(2) The Secretary General and the Secretaries are jointly responsible to the General People's Congress while every secretary is responsible for the sector he supervises.
Article 7 [Budget]
The General Budget of the State is issued by a law and the General People's Congress endorses the balance sheet of the State.
Article 8 [Departments, Employees]
A Law regulates the establishment of public departments and appointments and dismissals of Government employees.
Article 9 [Defence]
Defending the Country is the responsibility of every citizen. Through general military training, the People shall be trained and armed. Law regulates the method for preparing military cadres and the general military training.
Article 10 [Terms]
The terms 'Council of Minister', 'Prime Minister', and 'Minister' are to be replaced, wherever mentioned, by the terms 'General Secretariat of the General People's Congress', 'Secretary General', and 'The Secretary'.