Last Updated: Monday, 28 July 2014, 16:37 GMT

Chronology for Kurds in Turkey

Publisher Minorities at Risk Project
Publication Date 2004
Cite as Minorities at Risk Project, Chronology for Kurds in Turkey, 2004, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/469f38e91e.html [accessed 29 July 2014]
DisclaimerThis is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.
Date(s) Item
Jan 1990 A West German sociologist was arrested for writing pro-Kurdish remarks in a history book.
Feb 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces, nine Kurdish rebels were reported killed. One Kurd was reported arrested or captured and seven were taken hostage by Kurdish rebels.
Feb 5, 1990 About 5000 Iraqi Kurds protesting against Iraq in the Turkish town of Diyarbakir clashed with Turkish Security Forces. Ninety-five were arrested.
Mar 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 22 Kurdish rebels, three members of Turkish security forces and 14 civilians were reported killed.
Mar 1990 Widespread protests, strikes and boycotts of schools were reported throughout Kurdistan in connection with New Roz (the Kurdish new Year). About 5000 protestors at a funeral of a Kurdish rebel in the city of Nuseybin on March 14 were fired upon by Turkish troops who wounded many and arrested about 700. On March 15, about 15,000 demonstrators in Cizre (which constitutes about half of the town's population) underwent a similar experience with 80 injured, at least five killed and 155 arrested. It is clear that these two incidents are just examples of many other similar incidents which were not reported.
Mar 15, 1990 An editor of a Turkish weekly magazine was arrested for saying that Kurds should be allowed an independent state.
Mar 28, 1990 Nine Turkish Kurds occupied the Turkish Airlines office in Copenhagen in protest of the month's events.
Apr 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces, a total of 75 people were reported killed including 48 Kurdish rebels, two members of the Turkish security forces and 12 civilians. Sicteen Kurds were reported arrested or captured. The Turkish government imposed marshal law in Turkey's Kurdish region. Newspapers and printing houses were closed. Also entire towns were leveled and their inhabitants deported.
Apr 20, 1990 Twenty relatives of Kurdish political prisoners were beaten by Turkish police.
May 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces a total of 64 people were reported killed including 40 Kurdish rebels, six members of Turkish security forces and 12 civilians.
May 8, 1990 Turkey banned factory sit-ins, go-slows, work boycotts and "unauthorized" strikes and lockouts in 11 Kurdish provinces.
May 27, 1990 About 100 Kurdish prisoners and human rights activists went on a hunger strike in protest of rules allowing for deportations and press curbs.
Jun 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 20 Kurdish rebels, 12 members of Turkish security forces and 32 civilians were reported killed. Many Iraqi Kurdish refugees in Turkey were forced back into Iraq.
Jun 2, 1990 Five Iraqi Kurds and a Turkish policeman were injured during a march by 2000 Iraqi Kurds.
Jun 8, 1990 Ten pro-Kurdish members of Parliament broke away from Turkey's main opposition party, the Social Democrats, and formed a new political party called the People's Labor Party (HEP).
Jul 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 47 Kurdish rebels and 12 members of Turkish security forces were reported killed.
Aug 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 16 Kurdish rebels and five civilians were reported killed.
Aug 1 - Sep 30, 1990 The 60,000 troops stationed in southeast Turkey, where most of Turkey's Kurds live, were reenforced by another 35,000 due to the Gulf Crisis.
Aug 28, 1990 A Kurdish representative to the U.N. Human Rights Commission accused Turkey of using the Gulf Crisis to forcibly move thousands of Kurds out of their mountain homeland and of executing those who refused to go. Turkey denied the accusation.
Sep 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 29 Kurdish rebels and three members of Turkish security forces are reported killed. Twenty-six Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Oct 15, 1990 Two hundred Kurdish prisoners in a prison in southeast Turkey went on a one week hunger strike to protest the transfer of 27 fellow inmates to other prisons.
Nov 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces two Kurdish rebels and seven members of Turkish security forces were reported killed. Ten Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Nov 12, 1990 Four were arrested during a small march in support of pro-Kurdish hunger strikers.
Dec 1990 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 12 Kurdish rebels were reported killed. In the numerous clashes between Kurdish rebels in 1990 and Turkish forces 315 Kurdish rebels, 153 members of Turkish security forces and 174 civilians were reported killed and 181 Kurds were reported captured.
Jan 9, 1991 Two dozen Turkish Kurds peacefully occupied the office of Norway's ruling party to protest the government's plans to send missiles to Turkey.
Feb 1, 1991 The Turkish cabinet decided to ease the ban on the Kurdish language. The bans on speaking Kurdish and Kurdish language music were lifted. However the Kurdish language still could not be used in printed material, public gatherings and demonstrations or the schools. Since the bans upon speaking in Kurdish and Kurdish language music had been historically ineffective, critics argued that this was no real change in policy.
Feb 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces nine Kurdish rebels and one civilians were reported killed. Thirty-two Kurds were reported arrested or capture. Turkish troop strength along the Iraqi border reached 180,000.
Mar 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces three Kurdish rebels and four civilians were reported killed. Two hostages were taken by Kurdish rebels.
Mar 2, 1991 Two local people and one soldier were killed when nearly 1000 Kurds fought troops with sticks and stones in Diyarbakir during a protest against killings in a previous riot.
Mar 6, 1991 Thirty Kurds briefly occupied the Turkish Airlines office in Oslo in protest against killings of Kurds by Turkish security forces.
Mar 7, 1991 Nearly 2000 Kurdish villagers marching in Dargecit were fired upon by government troops. Rioting ensued with many injured and at least 100 arrested.
Mar 9, 1991 A crowd of 1000 including 3 HEP members of Parliament protested over the killing of a woman in a riot in southeast Turkey. The crowd also chanted pro-Kurdish slogans.
Mar 15, 1991 Police fired upon about 1000 protestors in southeast Turkey injuring many and arresting about 200.
Mar 20, 1991 New Roz (the Kurdish new year) was openly celebrated across Turkish Kurdistan. Despite orders to keep a low profile, police fired upon demonstrators in many villages causing riots. This was the first time the open celebration of New Roz was allowed in Turkey.
Apr 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces nine civilians were reported killed. Thirty-five Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
May 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 17 Kurdish rebels and eight members of Turkish security forces were reported killed. Turkey decided to bring more armed vehicles into Kurdistan and established 53 new military posts there.
Jun 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces, a total of 60 people were reported killed including four Kurdish rebels and six members of Turkish security forces. Five Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Jul 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 29 Kurdish rebels, three members of Turkish security forces and 16 civilians were reported killed. Four Kurds were reported arrested or captured. A series of demonstrations took place in the city of Diyarbakir beginning with a protest of the arrests of mourners on the way to the funerals of separatist guerrillas. The demonstrators numbered 25,000 on at least one occasion and there were several clashes with police. Hundreds were wounded and hundreds arrested. An occupation of the Turkish embassy in London and an attack upon the Turkish embassy in Bern by Turkish Kurds occurred in protest of these events.
Jul 9, 1991 The body of HEP chairman Vahdet Aydin was found. He had apparently been tortured before his death. Security forces were blamed for the death but the government denied responsibility for the incident.
Jul 10, 1991 Twelve were killed and 122 wounded in a clash between police and 25,000 mourners shouting pro-PKK slogans at the funeral of HEP chairman Vahdet Aydin. Several other smaller protests occurred in the days after the funeral.
Aug 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 61 Kurdish rebels, 23 members of Turkish security forces and two civilians were reported killed. Three hundred twenty-six Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Kurdish rebels also captured seven soldiers. These clashes included Turkish attacks upon northern Iraq with both ground and air forces.
Aug 3, 1991 Two armed PKK soldiers abducted 10 German tourists from a camp site in eastern Turkey. They were released about a week later.
Aug 8 - 9, 1991 Turkish Kurds in Europe attacked and/or occupied Turkish interests in Berlin, Norway, the Hague and Brussels.
Aug 31, 1991 Five western tourists were abducted by Kurdish rebels in eastern Turkey.
Sep 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 50 people were reported killed including 19 Kurdish rebels, six members of Turkish security forces and five civilians. Five Kurds were reported arrested or captured and four members of Turkish security forces were reported kidnapped by Kurdish rebels but were released after about 3 hours. About 3000 Iraqi Kurdish refugees returned to Iraq.
Oct 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 10 Kurdish rebels, 51 members of Turkish security forces and 12 civilians were reported killed. Twelve Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Also, seven solders previously kidnapped by Kurdish rebels were released. These clashes included several Turkish air and ground attacks upon northern Iraq. The PKK endorsed the pro-Kurdish People's Labor Party (HEP) which was running with the Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Turkey's main opposition party, because the HEP has been banned from the October 20 elections due to its pro-Kurdish stance. It won 22 seats (out of 450). The HEP denied that it had any links with the PKK. The PKK also claimed responsibility for a series of shootings and bombings prior to the elections.
Nov 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 15 Kurdish rebels, six members of Turkish security forces and five civilians were reported killed. One hundred three Kurds were reported arrested or captured and one Turk was reported kidnapped by Kurdish rebels.
Nov 4, 1991 An Iraqi Kurdish leader claimed that Iraq was arming Turkish Kurds in order to stop food and supplies from reaching northern Iraq through Turkey.
Nov 6, 1991 Newly elected Kurdish delegates chanted Kurdish nationalist slogans in Parliament.
Nov 8, 1991 Kurdish protestors attacked the Turkish embassy in Oslo.
Nov 27, 1991 More than 1500 shops were closed in the southeast Turkish towns of Bismil and Idil to mark the 13th anniversary of the founding of the PKK.
Dec 1991 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 15 Kurdish rebels, 10 members of Turkish security forces, 11 civilians and one Kurdish informer were reported killed. Twenty-three Kurds were reported arrested or captured and 17 Turks were kidnapped by Kurdish rebels.
Dec 10, 1991 Five thousand university students in Diyarbakir boycotted classes in protest of the alleged killing of a fellow student by Turkish security forces.
Dec 27, 1991 The chairman of the pro-Kurdish HEP condemned both Turks and Kurds for the violence of their conflict. Kurds attacked the Turkish consulates in Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Rotterdam and Brussels in protest of the Turkish treatment of its Kurds.
Jan 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces nine Kurdish rebels, two members of Turkish security forces and eight civilians were reported killed. These clashes included the bombing of Kurdish mountain strongholds by the Turks.
Feb 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces six Kurdish rebels, one member of Turkish security forces and 32 civilians were reported killed. These clashes included the bombing of Kurdish mountain strongholds by the Turks.
Feb 18, 1992 A reporter working for a pro-Kurdish newspaper was shot dead by gunmen believed to be working for Turkish security forces.
Feb 20, 1992 The PKK killed two men it accused of being collaborators. They were said to be members of Hizbollah.
Feb 21, 1992 Seventy protestors in the province of Mardin clashed with police. One protestor was killed and two were wounded.
Mar 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces six Kurdish rebels, four members of Turkish security forces and 32 civilians were reported killed. Fourteen Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included the bombing of northern Iraq by Turkish forces.
Mar 1992 Kurdish protestors attacked Kurdish missions in several German cities, Copenhagen, London and Paris.
Mar 21, 1992 Tens of thousands of Kurds protested throughout the country on New Roz (the Kurdish new year). Violence and clashes with government forces occurred at some of the demonstrations and at least 55 were killed and about 2000 arrested. Reports indicated that Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel told the army to stop killing civilians but the army refused to obey.
Mar 31, 1992 Fourteen out of 20 Kurdish nationalist members of Parliament who originally come from the HEP departed Turkey's ruling coalition and resigned from the Social Democrat Populist Party (SHP) in protest over government violence toward Kurds.
Apr 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 67 Kurdish rebels, 29 members of Turkish security forces and 11 civilians were reported killed. One hundred seventy-two Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Also Kurdish rebels released six previously captured hostages.
Apr 6, 1992 Fifty Kurdish demonstrators were arrested for taking part in an "illegal" demonstration in the Mediterranean Turkish town of Mersin.
Apr 8, 1992 Iraqi Kurdish rebel leaders agreed to stop the PKK's cross border raids from Iraqi territory. Iraqi Kurdish leaders had been trying to maintain good relations with Turkey in order to maintain their "lifeline to the West."
Apr 17, 1992 Turkey and Syria signed an agreement to work together to close PKK bases in Lebanon's Syrian controlled Beka'a valley. (As of the writing of this report, these bases have not been closed.)
May 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 133 Kurdish rebels, 68 members of Turkish security forces and 14 civilians were reported killed. Twenty-eight Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included the bombing of northern Iraq by Turkish forces.
Jun 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 64 Kurdish rebels, 12 members of Turkish security forces and 44 civilians were reported killed. Forty-nine Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Jul 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 104 people were reported killed including 41 Kurdish rebels, 21 members of Turkish security forces and 16 civilians. Forty-six Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Jul 31, 1992 In retaliation for an Iraqi Kurd pledge to halt PKK attacks from Iraqi territory, the PKK cut off a supply rout to Iraqi Kurdish controlled northern Iraq.
Aug 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 85 Kurdish rebels, 40 members of Turkish security forces and 22 civilians were reported killed. Two hundred fifty-three Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included a major battle in the town of Sirnak where 20,000 out of 25,000 residents fled the town.
Aug 1 - Sep 30, 1992 Three thousand of about 20,000 remaining Iraqi Kurdish refugees in Turkey returned to Iraq.
Aug 15 - 16, 1992 Thousands of Kurds in southeast Turkey closed their shops to mark the 8th anniversary of the PKK's campaign for an independent state. Demonstrations were held in many towns, some of which resulted in clashes with police. One hundred-thirty demonstrators were detained and five were killed.
Aug 25, 1992 Several hundred Kurds demonstrated in Paris over the treatment of Kurds in Turkey.
Sep 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 197 Kurdish rebels, 86 members of Turkish security forces and 39 civilians were reported killed. Two Turks were kidnapped by Kurdish rebels. These clashes included the Bombing of northern Iraq by Turkish forces.
Sep 13, 1992 Iran and Turkey agreed to boost border security and clamp down on each other's Kurdish opposition. Each state's opposition used the other state as a base for its operations.
Sep 14, 1992 Iran's Interior Minister promised to help Turkey fight against its secessionist Kurds.
Sep 21, 1992 Turkish troops attacked and burned down houses in the Kurdish village of Caglayan.
Sep 28, 1992 Eight HEP members were arrested on charges of separatism based upon pro-PKK slogans and speeches that they made at a party function. Five were released a week later.
Oct 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 263 Kurdish rebels, 15 members of Turkish security forces and 61 civilians were reported killed. Four hundred twenty Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Police detained 19 Turks who were planning attacks on Kurds in Southeast Turkey.
Oct 4, 1992 Iraqi Kurds began to try to forcibly drive Turkish Kurds from northern Iraq. Turkish Kurds retaliated by halting all Turkish traffic to northern Iraq.
Oct 6, 1992 Turkish planes attacked targets in northern Iraq in apparent support of the Iraqi Kurdish drive against Turkish Kurdish guerrillas. Following this, Turkey sent 20,000 troops across the border after the 8000 PKK soldiers suspected of being there. Turkish troops were supported by tanks, helicopters and airplanes.
Oct 14, 1992 Turkey accused Iraq of arming Turkish Kurds with sophisticated weaponry.
Oct 23, 1992 Armed Kurds occupied the Turkish consulate in Strasbourg.
Nov 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 34 Kurdish rebels, 13 members of Turkish security forces and 14 civilians were reported killed. Ten Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Nov 5, 1992 Turkey claimed that its offensive into northern Iraq has killed 1800 Kurdish rebels while only 23 Turkish soldiers were killed. Turkish journalists said that 1000 Turkish Kurds surrendered to Iraqi Kurdish forces. They were expected to be taken to be settled near the Iranian border. Two thousand seven hundred were believed to be wounded and 2500 were still fighting.
Nov 12, 1992 The number of surrendered Turkish Kurds reached 1400.
Nov 15 - 30, 1992 Turkish troops left Iraq. The Turks claimed to have killed 2000 Kurdish rebels. The PKK claimed that only 150 were killed.
Nov 17, 1992 Turkish Kurds, under an accord between the PKK and Iraqi Kurdish forces, lifted their embargo of northern Iraq. The PKK also agreed to release three Turkish soldiers it had previously captured.
Dec 1992 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 25 Kurdish rebels, five members of Turkish security forces and 22 civilians were reported killed. Three Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Dec 27, 1992 Turkey requested the extradition of 2000 Turkish Kurds being held by Iraqi Kurds. Other than those killed in the October-November offensive into northern Iraq, the Turkish government claims to have killed 1000 PKK soldiers. It also reports that 467 soldiers, 113 government paid guards and 552 civilians were killed.
Jan 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 167 Kurdish rebels, seven members of Turkish security forces and nine civilians were reported killed. Sixty Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included a bombing attack upon a Kurdish mountain stronghold where 150 of 300 were believed to have been killed.
Jan 26, 1993 Fifteen Kurdish politicians and 700 Kurds began a hunger strike in Brussels to pressure Western governments to prevent what they claimed is a Turkish plan for genocide in Kurdistan.
Feb 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces seven Kurdish rebels and two civilians were reported killed. Eighty-six Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Kurdish rebels threatened to attack Turkish tourist resorts.
Feb 10, 1993 Most of the 1000 Kurdish prisoners of a prison in Diyarbakir went on a hunger strike and clashed with guards to protest conditions there including beatings and restrictions on visits by relatives.
Feb 27, 1993 A member of the Hizbollah party was shot dead by rival Kurdish rebels.
Mar 1, 1993 Reuters reported that Kurdish guerrilla attacks upon oil installations in southeastern Turkey have hampered oil exploration and production. These attacks often go unreported in the press.
Mar 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 87 Kurdish rebels, seven members of Turkish security forces and three civilians were reported killed. Ninety-six Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included the bombing of Kurdish mountain strongholds.
Mar 5, 1993 Reuters reported that 140 people had died in the past year in street shootouts believed to be part of a struggle between the PKK and Hizbollah. Also, there were reports that Islamic fundamentalists were spreading propaganda in southeast Turkish schools.
Mar 9, 1993 Members of the HEP appealled for restraint from both Kurds and Turks for the upcoming New Roz (the Kurdish new year) celebrations.
Mar 17, 1993 Abdullah Ocalan, the PKK's leader, called for a cease-fire for the New Roz celebrations from March 20 to April 15 on the condition that Turkish forces did not attack.
Mar 21, 1993 Tens of thousands of Turkish Kurds marked New Roz with only minor outbreaks of violence. A few "unauthorized demonstrations" were broken up.
Mar 23, 1993 Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel ruled out negotiating with the PKK but acknowledged that past attempts to assimilate Kurds against their will were mistaken.
Mar 24, 1993 Kurdish militants seized hostages at Turkish consulates in Marseille and Munich. Other Kurdish attacks upon Turkish interests in Europe occurred in Bern, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Lyon, Hamburg, Hanover and Bonn. All of these attacks appeared to have been coordinated and occurred within minutes of each other.
Mar 26, 1993 The Turkish government broke the cease-fire with military operations in seven Kurdish provinces.
Apr 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 17 Kurdish rebels and two members of Turkish security forces were reported killed. Twenty-seven Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Apr 16, 1993 Despite Turkish provocations, PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan extended the cease fire until further notice on condition that the Turks ceased their "search operations." Turkish Prime Minister Suleyman Demirel rejected these conditions.
May 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 107 Kurdish rebels, 36 members of Turkish security forces and seven civilians were reported killed. Sixty-eight Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Kurdish rebels also captured twenty-two soldiers who were shortly thereafter rescued by Turkish forces.
May 23, 1993 The Turkish government offered amnesty to Kurdish rebels who have committed no crimes if they surrendered voluntarily. Kurdish rebels replied with an ambush in which 33 soldiers were killed and 22 briefly captured. PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan said that this was a warning and that the cease-fire was still on.
May 27, 1993 The PKK abducted 16 roadworkers in Diyarbakir.
Jun 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 96 Kurdish rebels, 56 members of Turkish security forces and 22 civilians were reported killed. Fifty-two Kurds were reported arrested or captured and Kurdish rebels kidnapped three civilians.
Jun 7, 1993 Iran, Syria and Turkey met to discuss the Kurdish problem in northern Iraq which they all feel is a threat to their security.
Jun 8, 1993 PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan announced that the PKK was resuming the its military struggle because Turkey had ignored the PKK's unilateral cease-fire.
Jun 10 - 11, 1993 Kurdish rebels warned tourists to stay away from Turkey and kidnapped a Tourism Ministry official.
Jun 24, 1993 Kurdish militants attacked Turkish interests across Europe over European support for Turkey including attacks in Munich, London, Stockholm, Marseille, and Bern. One protestor was killed in Switzerland.
Jul 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 145 Kurdish rebels, 86 members of Turkish security forces and 94 civilians were reported killed. Forty-nine Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Also, Kurdish rebels kidnapped and released seven workers.
Jul 1993 Rebel Kurds kidnapped six European tourists. The PKK said it would release them if Turkey called off its military operations. The PKK also threatened to continue to attack Turkish tourist sites and bombed a seaside resort. The hostages would be freed in August.
Jul 4, 1993 Several hundred Kurds protested outside the Swiss parliament demanding the prosecution of the Turkish ambassador over the death of a Kurd in an earlier incident.
Jul 14, 1993 The pro-Kurdish HEP was banned from Parliament on charges of "defending the national existence, identity and rights of the Kurdish people" and four deputies were expelled from Parliament. Shortly after this the Democratic Party (DEP) was formed to replace the HEP.
Jul 15, 1993 The editor of Turkey's only pro-Kurdish newspaper was arrested for publishing separatist propaganda.
Jul 22, 1993 The Turkish government decided to launch a 220 million dollar investment program in the separatist southeast in order to appease Kurdish rebels.
Aug 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 179 Kurdish rebels, 94 members of Turkish security forces and 103 civilians were reported killed. Two hundred thirty-five Kurds were reported arrested or captured. Also, Kurdish rebels kidnapped 91 Turks, many of which were later released.
Aug 14, 1993 Ten people were killed and 51 wounded when police opened fire during as pro-Kurdish protest at Digor.
Aug 17, 1993 Two German tourists and a New Zealander were Kidnapped by Kurdish rebel forces.
Aug 20, 1993 Twenty-five thousand Kurds fled the town of Yuksekova in eastern Turkey after it came under mortar, rocket and machinegun fire. Fewer than 500 residents remained. Kurds and Turks blamed each other for the attack.
Aug 21, 1993 Three Swiss and an Italian tourist were kidnapped by Kurdish rebels.
Aug 26, 1993 Six German tourists were injured in a bombing by Kurdish rebels.
Sep 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 160 Kurdish rebels, 33 members of Turkish security forces and 34 civilians were reported killed. Seventy-nine Kurds were reported arrested or captured and 6 kidnapped by Kurdish rebels.
Sep 4, 1993 A pro-Kurdish member of Parliament was killed when gunmen opened fire on 6 pro-Kurdish Democratic Party (DEP) deputies touring a constituency in Batman. The PKK and the DEP claimed that security forces were responsible and the Government blamed Hizbollah. Later in the month gunmen attacked the home of the murdered deputy.
Sep 5, 1993 The number of DEP/HEP members murdered since July 1991 reached 54. The PKK blamed the government for most of these deaths and the government blamed Hizbollah.
Sep 15, 1993 Yasar Kaya, leader of the pro-Kurdish DEP was detained by police on the orders of a state security court prosecutor. Kaya was not a member of Parliament.
Sep 16, 1993 About 50 Kurdish protestors outside of the office of a German newspaper in Bonn demanded that the world press pay attention to the human rights abuses in Turkish Kurdistan.
Sep 24, 1993 Kurdish civilians complained that Turkish security forces used battles with the PKK as an excuse to fire upon civilians and wreck Kurdish towns.
Oct 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 235 Kurdish rebels, 43 members of Turkish security forces and 266 civilians were reported killed. Two hundred eight Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included a Turkish attack into northern Iraq. The PKK claimed that it killed 1300 Turkish soldiers and captured 186. It also claimed that only 112 of its members were killed and three captured.
Oct 7, 1993 Kurds said that Turkish security forces were forcing the evacuation of many Kurdish villages near PKK strongholds in the Cudi mountains. They also accused the Turks of attacking many of these villages. Human rights activists said that 729 southeastern villages had been emptied since October 1991. The Turkish government claimed that the PKK was responsible for this.
Oct 15, 1993 The U.S. oil firm Mobile Corp. suspended its operations in southeastern Turkey in response to a series of attacks and extortion attempts by the PKK.
Oct 18, 1993 The PKK accused foreign journalists of biased reporting and told them to leave southeast Turkey or risk becoming targets. It also ordered all foreign and domestic newspaper offices in southeastern Turkey to close down. Turkish newspapers complied.
Oct 20, 1993 Yasar Kaya, leader of the pro-Kurdish DEP, and two other party members were each sentenced to two years in prison for making separatist speeches.
Oct 21, 1993 The PKK banned all political parties from Kurdistan accusing them of collusion with Turkish authorities. It also kidnapped a local leader of the Social Democrat Populist Party, which was a member of Turkey's governing coalition, in Diyarbakir.
Nov 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 129 Kurdish rebels, eight members of Turkish security forces and nine civilians were reported killed. One hundred seventy-seven Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
Nov 4, 1993 About thirty Kurds protested in support of the PKK outside of the Turkish embassy in Oslo. Also several attacks on Turkish targets occurred in Germany and Briton.
Nov 5, 1993 A Turkish official met with Syrian president Assad to discuss how to curb Kurdish violence in southeast Turkey.
Dec 1993 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 73 Kurdish rebels, 22 members of Turkish security forces and 19 civilians were reported killed. Fifty-three Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included attacks into northern Iraq by Turkish air and ground forces. Iran and Turkey reached an agreement to coordinate their efforts against each other's Kurdish opposition.
Dec 11, 1993 Turkish police raided the pro-Kurdish newspaper Ozgur Gundem and claimed evidence seized in the raid links the newspaper to the PKK.
Dec 14, 1993 Turkish police arrested the Secretary General of the Pro-Kurdish DEP.
Dec 23, 1993 A Turkish parliamentary commission called upon Parliament to lift the parliamentary immunity of four Kurdish DEP deputies who could face charges of sedition carrying the death penalty.
Jan 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 254 Kurdish rebels, 16 members of Turkish security forces and 32 civilians were reported killed. Four hundred twenty-two Kurds were reported arrested or captured and seven Turks were reported kidnapped by Kurdish rebels.
Jan 2, 1994 Turks trying to prevent a meeting of 150-200 Kurds in Brussels caused a violent clash in which several were injured.
Jan 12, 1994 The managing editor of the pro-Kurdish newspaper Ozgar Gundem was arrested on charges of sedition.
Feb 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 48 Kurdish rebels, seven members of Turkish security forces and two civilians were reported killed. These clashes included the bombing of northern Iraq by Turkish forces.
Feb 6, 1994 Unidentified gunmen shot a leading Kurdish politician in the Turkish capital of Ankara.
Feb 25, 1994 The pro-Kurdish DEP decided to boycott the polls for the upcoming March 17 local elections.
Mar 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 84 Kurdish rebels, 11 members of Turkish security forces and one civilian were reported killed. One hundred forty-seven Kurds were reported arrested or captured. The Parliamentary immunity of six pro-Kurdish deputies was lifted exposing them to charges of sedition that can carry the death penalty. They were arrested shortly thereafter.
Mar 21, 1994 The massive New Roz (Kurdish new year) celebrations were mostly quiet and peaceful.
Apr 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 387 Kurdish rebels, 14 members of Turkish security forces and five civilians were reported killed. Two hundred twenty-eight Kurds were reported arrested or captured. These clashes included attacks on northern Iraq by Turkish air and ground forces.
May 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 335 Kurdish rebels, 27 members of Turkish security forces and 14 civilians were reported killed. Three hundred sixty-two Kurds were reported arrested or captured.
May 1 - Jun 30, 1994 The People's Democratic Party (HADEP) was set up to replace the newly banned DEP. The DEP lost its seats in Parliament when it was banned.
May 1 - Jul 31, 1994 Six thousand Turkish Kurds fled to Iraq due to fighting. Turkey claimed that this was a PKK ploy.
Jun 14, 1994 Iran's interior minister promised to deny Turkish separatist Kurds sanctuary in Iran.
Jun 16, 1994 The DEP was outlawed by Turkey's Constitutional Court.
Jun 23, 1994 6 Kurdish nationalist members of Parliament, including five from the pro-Kurdish DEP, were indicted on charges of treason.
Jun 24, 1994 The Kurdish town of Idil was attacked. Residents blamed Turkish security forces and the Turks blamed the PKK.
Jul 1, 1994 Turkish police detained two more members of Parliament from the newly banned DEP on charges of supporting the PKK.
Jul 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 349 Kurdish rebels, 24 members of Turkish security forces and 24 civilians were reported killed. Ten Kurds were reported arrested or captured and 10 Turks were captured by Kurdish rebels. These clashes included the bombing of northern Iraq by Turkish forces.
Jul 18, 1994 Reuters reported that hundreds of Kurdish nationalists had been murdered or "disappeared" in the last three years.
Aug 1, 1994 Turkey denied claims that Kurdish civilians had been herded into concentration camps despite allegations by the now illegal DEP. The DEP had also alleged the torture of Kurds in the camps. Turkey's Human Rights Association said that 1,500 Kurdish civilians were being held in a camp in the Hakkari province after they had been forced out of five villages.
Aug 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 939 Kurdish rebels, 32 members of Turkish security forces and 28 civilians were reported killed. These clashes included the bombing of northern Iraq by Turkish forces. Iraq claimed that civilians were killed in these bombings.
Aug 3, 1994 The trial of six Kurdish nationalist parliament members, five of them members of the DEP, for treason began. A small crowd of Kurds protested outside. Many more Kurds from southeastern Turkey were prevented from protesting when their buses are turned back. The situation of these parliament members remains unclear at the time of the writing of this update. They were repeatedly put on trial on various charges and denied the right to reclaim their positions in parliament. Also, their vacant seats, which are from Kurdish districts, have yet to be filled.
Aug 7, 1994 Two Finnish tourists were captured by Kurdish rebels.
Aug 20, 1994 A pro-Kurdish newspaper cited a government report that summarized the death tolls and economic cost of Turkey's war with the Kurds. According to the report, 11,750 members of the Turkish security forces, 6,443 PKK fighters and 3,330 other civilian sympathizers had been killed. This is about double the officially reported figures. In addition, 960 villages had been wholly or partially emptied and 39 had been the target of army attacks or "operations." Including the costs of lost economic activity, the cost of the war has been $179 billion.
Sep 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 131 Kurdish rebels including two important leaders, 72 members of Turkish security forces and 42 civilians were reported killed.
Sep 5, 1994 Turkey and Iran signed a protocol agreeing to cooperate against terror.
Sep 13, 1994 Turkey announced an investment drive for the Kurdish southeastern region.
Sep 19, 1994 A Turkish court added 3 years to the jail term of a professor convicted of advocating Kurdish separatism after the man refused to pay the first part of a hefty fine. Turkey imprisons many intellectuals, journalists, authors and human rights activists on charges of treason and/or advocating separatism throughout the period covered by this update.
Sep 22, 1994 It was announced that jailed Kurdish lawmakers and the new pro-Kurdish HADEP (successor to the DEP) would be allowed to participate in the upcoming by-elections.
Sep 25, 1994 Turkey and Iran agreed to stop opposition groups from operating in each other's territory.
Sep 28, 1994 A Kurdish village was destroyed by Turkish troops. At least eight civilians were killed.
Oct 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 184 Kurdish rebels, 25 members of Turkish security forces and three civilians were reported killed.
Oct 3, 1994 Unidentified gunmen killed two local HADEP officials.
Oct 5, 1994 Turkish security forces were accused of torching 17 Kurdish villages during a two-week-long offensive against rebel Kurds in the remote eastern province of Tuncoli. An investigation was ordered by the Turkish government. The Turks were periodically accused of destroying Kurdish villages throughout the period covered by this update.
Oct 6, 1994 Inmates at a prison holding Kurdish separatists rioted.
Oct 11, 1994 Turkey's Human Rights Minister accused his government of state terrorism in its war against the Kurds.
Oct 12, 1994 About 5,000 Kurdish villagers were reported to have become refugees due to a three-week-long security sweep.
Nov 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 110 Kurdish rebels, 16 members of Turkish security forces and 14 civilians were reported killed. This fighting was the result of an unusual winter campaign by the government that included 40,000 troops. The government's strategy was to cut the rebels off from their winter supplies.
Nov 2, 1994 The PKK threatened to kill Kurdish candidates for upcoming by-elections calling them collaborators.
Nov 3, 1994 The HADEP, Turkey's only Kurdish-based political party, said that it would boycott the upcoming by-elections because it would be impossible for the elections to be fair.
Nov 7, 1994 About 12,000 Turkish Kurds had fled to Iraq since April saying that Turkish troops had been attacking their villages.
Nov 16, 1994 Turkey's Constitutional Court said that hundreds of thousands of displaced Kurds should be allowed to vote where they had taken refuge. This results in the suspension of the upcoming by-elections until the electoral roles could be rewritten.
Nov 25, 1994 Local human rights officials in southeastern Turkey claimed that 1,900 of the 12,000 settlements in the region had been partly or fully emptied, often under military pressure.
Dec 1994 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces, including the continued winter campaign by the Turkish army against the Kurds, 148 Kurdish rebels, six members of Turkish security forces and three civilians were reported killed.
Dec 8, 1994 Eight Kurdish MPs were sentenced to jail terms of up to 15 years.
Dec 22, 1994 The New Democratic Movement was officially formed as a party in Turkey. Although this is not a Kurdish party, the party supports an end to the human rights abuses against the Kurds.
Dec 29, 1994 Turkey closed the only office of the Turkish Human Rights Association in Kurdish southeastern Turkey. Turkey claimed to have killed 3,905 Kurdish rebels and arrested 3,000 of them in 1994. At least 900 soldiers and 900 civilians have been killed this year.
Jan 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 107 Kurdish rebels, no members of Turkish security forces and 14 civilians were reported killed.
Jan 8, 1995 Turkish police seized two editions of the pro-Kurdish Ozgur Ulke newspaper for publishing separatist propaganda. Throughout the period covered by this update the Turks confiscate and shut down pro-Kurdish periodicals and even periodicals that occasionally criticized the government's human rights record or advocated better treatment of Turkey's Kurds.
Jan 12, 1995 A Turkish court acquitted six human rights activists on charges of separatism.
Jan 18, 1995 Turkey alleged that a recently-arrested Kurdish bomber was trained in Greece. Greece deniex the allegation.
Feb 1, 1995 About 90 Kurdish prisoners were reported to be near death after a six-week-long hunger strike.
Feb 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 128 Kurdish rebels, 34 members of Turkish security forces and seven civilians were reported killed.
Feb 27, 1995 In a protest against Turkey's censorship, a book of articles written by writers who had been punished for their ideas was published.
Mar 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 394 Kurdish rebels, 51 members of Turkish security forces and no civilians were reported killed. This included the death toll from the March 20 invasion into northern Iraq in which the Turks claimed to have killed 306 Kurdish rebels and lost 26 soldiers. The PKK claimed to have killed 261 soldiers and lost 18 of their own men in the invasion.
Mar 14, 1995 Parliament voted to extend emergency rule in the 10 eastern and southeastern provinces in which the army was fighting Kurdish separatist rebels.
Mar 20, 1995 Thirty-five thousand Turkish troops invaded northern Iraq to attack Kurdish military bases there. The attack was relatively unsuccessful because the PKK had ample warning due to the slow military buildup along the border that preceded the attack. Many Iraqi Kurdish civilians were bombed in the attack and about 15,000 Iraqi Kurds became refugees.
Mar 27, 1995 Turkey barred foreign journalists from northern Iraq.
Mar 30, 1995 Fifteen thousand troops launched an offensive in eastern Turkey above and beyond the offensive in northern Iraq.
Apr 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 465 Kurdish rebels, 34 members of Turkish security forces and 15 civilians were reported killed. This included the reported deaths from Turkeys continuing invasion into northern Iraq.
Apr 5, 1995 Turkish authorities confiscated the passports and videotapes of two Finnish reporters covering the campaign against the Kurds. Three Turkish aid workers were killed in a clash with an angry crowd of Kurds going to collect the bodies of seven shepherds allegedly killed by Turkish soldiers in northern Iraq.
Apr 8, 1995 The Turkish mayor of a Kurd town was shot dead by PKK gunmen for collaboration.
Apr 11, 1995 A Turkish court acquitted three human rights activists of separatism charges for speeches that they had made in 1992.
Apr 13, 1995 Turkey denounced a newly created Kurdish parliament in exile in The Hague. The elected 65-seat assembly draws its members from all exiled Kurds including members of the PKK and DEP.
Apr 25, 1995 Turkey pulled 20,000 of its troops out of northern Iraq. About 15,000 remained.
May 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 72 Kurdish rebels, seven members of Turkish security forces and 19 civilians were reported killed.
May 3, 1995 A delegation from the Iraqi Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP) agreed to prevent Iraq from being used as a base for Kurdish rebel attacks into Turkey.
May 4, 1995 It was announced that Turkey had pulled all of its troops out of northern Iraq. The six-week-long invasion had strained Turkey's relations with Europe and the United States. It was unclear whether Turkey had gained much from the operation because it was clear that most of the PKK troops had left the region before the invasion began. However, the action seemed to have stalled a planned spring offensive by the PKK. Turkey claimed to have killed 555 rebels and lost 61 soldiers in the operation. The PKK claimed to have killed 800 soldiers and lost only 60 of its own men.
May 8, 1995 Turkey detained 3 Kurdish militants who it claimed were planning attacks on tourism facilities. Throughout the period covered by this update sporadic terrorist attacks such as bombings are perpetrated by Kurds. These incidents tended to be overshadowed in the press by the full-scale civil war going on in southeastern Turkey and it is probable that the press did not report many of these incidents. Any deaths caused by these attacks have been and will be included in the monthly death totals.
May 19, 1995 One thousand attend the funeral of a Kurd believed to have been killed by death squads linked to Turkey's security forces. The Human Rights Association reported that 327 people had been reported missing in custody in 1994 and 77 more by April 1995.
Jun 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 308 Kurdish rebels, 61 members of Turkish security forces and 10 civilians were reported killed.
Jun 20, 1995 Iran backed a Turkish plan for joint military action against Kurdish rebels on their common border but stopped short of allowing Turkish troops to enter its territory.
Jun 26, 1995 Turkish police shut down a Kurdish cultural center in southern Turkey. Turkey announced that 19,560 people had died in the 11-year-long Kurdish separatist insurgency. This included more than 11,000 PKK members, 3,825 members of Turkish security services and 4,727, civilians. Two thousand one hundred-six Kurdish rebels had been reported killed thus far this year.
Jul 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 393 Kurdish rebels, 70 members of Turkish security forces and 20 civilians were reported killed. This included the brief Turkish invasion of northern Iraq.
Jul 4 - 11, 1995 Turkey invaded northern Iraq with about 3,000 troops. Turkey claimed to have killed 167 Kurdish rebels and to have lost 26 soldiers.
Jul 14, 1995 Kurdish rebels kidnapped a Japanese tourist whom they eventually free. Throughout the period covered by this update, Kurdish rebels capture foreigners and Turkish citizens, most of whom were eventually released.
Jul 14 - Aug 21, 1995 Eight to ten thousand Kurdish prisoners engaged in a hunger strike in several Turkish prisons. Thousands of their relatives participated in a sympathy hunger strike. The strikers were demanding that the government end its war on the Kurds.
Aug 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces 155 Kurdish rebels, 12 members of Turkish security forces and 11 civilians were reported killed.
Aug 30, 1995 The PKK (Turkish Kurdish rebels) fought with Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP--Iraqi Kurdish rebels) forces in northern Iraq from August until the end of the year.
Sep 1 - 18, 1995 In several clashes between Kurdish rebels and Turkish forces, 223 Kurdish rebels, 26 members of Turkish security forces and 20 civilians were reported killed.
Oct 31, 1995 HADEP announces that it will contest upcoming elections, marking the first participation of a nationalist Kurdish party in elections since the decision to boycott unfair elections in 1994. (Reuters)
Dec 1995 PKK announces a ceasefire, which Turkish officials dismiss.
Dec 24, 1995 Militant Islamic Welfare (Refah) Party, led by Necmettin Erbakan, gains control of Turkey's parliament, winning 22% of the vote. HADEP failed to get the 10 percent of the national vote required to gain representation in parliament. (NYTimes, Dec. 27, 1995)
Jan 5, 1996 Kurdish political prisoners, along with leftist radicals, in two Turkish prisons took 27 guards hostage as part of a campaign to improve prison conditions. (Reuters)
Jan 16, 1996 PKK rebels killed 11 people, mostly village guards, in the village of Taskonek, breaking the PKK's ceasefire. PKK officials denied the attack, accusing the Turkish government of staging the event to blame the PKK. (Reuters)
Mar 7, 1996 Turkey's best-known writer, Yashar Kemal, was sentenced to 20-months in jail for 'inciting racial hatred' for writing an article in which he criticized the government's oppression of Kurds in Turkey. (The Independent, March 8, 1996)
Mar 9, 1996 Five PKK members and seven members of the Turkish security forces were killed in fighting in eastern Turkey. There had been a concerted effort by Turkish officials to rid this region of the PKK (Reuters)
Apr 9, 1996 Twenty-seven Turkish soldiers and 99 PKK guerillas were killed in a one-day battle after army soldiers attacked a PKK training base. (Christian Science Monitor, April 12, 1996)
May 8, 1996 Turkish forces killed 15 Kurdish rebels in northern Iraq, while 9 rebels and 5 soldiers were killed in fighting in eastern provinces of Turkey. (Reuters)
May 12, 1996 Abdullah Ocalan confirmed reports of an attempted assisination plot against him, stating that he believed the Turkish government was responsible for attacks against him. (Reuters)
Jun 1996 At a conference of the People's Democracy Party (HADEP), an unidentified individual cut down the Turkish flag and raised a PKK flag. The incident was broadcast repeatedly on Turkish television and, although party officials apologized for the incident, the government detained 49 party officials, holding 28 officials for over a month. (New York Times, August 3, 1996)
Jul 15, 1996 About 30 PKK members ambushed Turkish troops, killing 3 and wounding 3 in Tunceli, while security forces killed 28 PKK rebels in other parts of the country. (Reuters)
Aug 16, 1996 Abdullah Ocalan called upon the PKK to intensify its campaign after the prime minister dismissed the chance of a negotiated settlement between the state and the PKK. (Rueters)
Aug 20, 1996 The PKK killed 3 civilians while Turkish forces killed 16 PKK rebels in clashes all along the Turkey-Iraq border.
Sep 1996 Police in London and in Belgium raided the offices of Med-TV, an international TV station geared to a Kurdish audience. Documents were seized and employees were detained without explanation. (The Independent, March 8, 1998)
Oct 1, 1996 Amnesty International launches a campaign to highlight human-rights abuses in Turkey, noting that the most common victims of these abuses were Kurds. (Reuters)
Oct 1, 1996 Kurdish rebels kill four Turkish elementary school teachers. The PKK signals out school teachers to demonstrate Kurdish objections to Turkish policy of not allowing any Kurdish history or culture within the country's schools. (Reuters)
Oct 3, 1996 Thirty-two PKK members and 3 Turkish soldiers died in clashes throughout southeast Turkey. (Reuters)
Oct 6, 1996 Erbakan meets with Muamar Kadhafi in an effort to improve economic ties between Turkey and Libya. During the meeting, Kadhafi blasts Turkey for its repression of its Kurdish population and called for an independent Kurdish state. Erbakan denied that Turkey has any 'Kurdish problem' but faced severely criticism for allowing Kadhafi to embarrass Turkey. (Agence France Presse)
Oct 8, 1996 Turkish officials reported that 118 Kurdish rebels, and 11 Turkish soldiers, died during clashes between the PKK and state security forces. (Reuters)
Oct 29, 1996 A PKK suicide bomber attacked a Republic Day parade, killing 3 police officers and 1 civilian. This was the third such suicide bombing by the PKK since July. (Reuters)
Nov 8, 1996 The PKK killed 17 of its opponents, as Turksih security forces killed 22 PKK rebels in separate clashes in Turkey. (Reuters)
Dec 23, 1996 PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan renewed calls for a political settlement between Turkey and its Kurdish residents. Ocalan also warned that Turkey's cities would be subject to suicide bombings if the repression of Kurds didn't stop. (Reuters)
Jan 1 - Mar 31, 1997 During 2 months of clashes throughout Turkey, Turkish security forces killed 219 Kurdish rebels (Reuters, March 3, 1997)
Jan 14, 1997 Eleven suspected members of Dev Sol, a Turkish guerilla movement, went on trial in France. The defendants were accused of attacking Turkish property in France throughout the 1980s and 1990s to help fund their terrorist group. (Reuters)
Feb 6, 1997 A French court convicted 11 suspected members of Dev Sol for charges ranging from membership in an illegal organization to participation in terrorist activity. (Reuters)
Mar 1997 Reports indicate that the level of guerilla activity in Turkey has reduced significantly in 1997, with only an estimated about 3000 rebel guerillas remaining in Turkey. (The New York Times, March 8, 1997)
Mar 13, 1997 Turkish officials announce that the state will allow celebration of the Newroz festival, a traditional Kurdish day of protest, on March 21. (Rueters)
Mar 16, 1997 During two days of fighting, Turkish forces killed 23 rebels'16 from PKK and 7 from the far-left TIKKO. (Reuters)
May 1997 The Turkish government reaches an agreement with the Kurdestan Democratic Party (KDP) in northern Iraq to cooperate to remove PKK influences from northern Iraq. (Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules March 31, 1998)
May 12, 1997 Turkish security forces claim responsibility for the deaths of 30 Kurdish rebels in southeastern provinces of Turkey. (Reuters)
May 14, 1997 30,000 Turkish troops supported by tanks, artillery and air power poured into northern Iraq in search of PKK fighters and leaders. Turkey reported to capturing 1800 PKK rebels and seizing the groups regional headquarters, but evidence to support this claim was difficult to find and suspicion arose that the PKK had evacuated this region before Turkish troops arrived. (Jane's Intelligence Review, August 1, 1997; Agence France Presse)
May 19, 1997 PKK officials accuse KDP troops of massacring PKK members in Arbil, a town in northern Iraq, after the KDP ordered a PKK evacuation of the city. The PKK allegedly retaliated, killing 40 KDP members in the same region. (Agnece France Presse)
Jun 3, 1997 Kurdish rebels killed 5 Kurd civilians in Dikgobaz, Turkey, in retaliation for Turkish offensive against the PKK. (Agence France Presse)
Jun 4, 1997 A Turkish court sentenced 31 leaders of HADEP to up to six years in prison for aiding PKK and for supporting the removal of a Turkish flag from a HADEP conference. The youth who removed the Turkish flag and replaced it with PKK banners received a sentence of 22 years in prison. (Reuters)
Jun 15, 1997 PKK forces launched rockets at a freight train and killed two Turkish soldiers, which led to a retaliatory attack by Turkish security forces, which killed 52 Kurdish rebels. (Agence France Presse)
Jun 18, 1997 The Turkish army forced Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan to resign, and more fundamentalist parties are expected to capture a greater proportion of seats within parliament.
Sep 20, 1997 Turkey launches Operation Dawn, sending, 15,000 Turkish soldiers into northern Iraq in order to set up a buffer zone to prevent further PKK incursions into Turkey. During the 3-week exercise (through October 14), Turkey reportedly killed 855 Kurdish rebels. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur, October 15, 1997)
Oct 13, 1997 Turkish officials formally demanded a death sentence for Abdullah Obcalan for treasonous offences during an in absentia hearing of the PKK leader. (Agence France Presse)
Oct 22, 1997 A car bomb exploded near the Iran-Iraq-Turkey border, killing one and injuring 19. Officials blamed the PKK for the bomb, a belief bolstered by the arrest of a PKK member as he planted a similar bomb nearby. (Agence France Presse).
Dec 1997 The EU denies Turkey membership, citing the ongoing Kurdish problem as one of the reasons for its rejection.
Dec 25 - 27, 1997 Turkish forces kill 18 PKK members near the Iraqi border. (Agence France Presse)
Jan 1 - 8, 1998 Kurds from Turkey and Iraq flood into Italy and Greece as clashes between the Turkish army and guerillas resurge along the Turkish-Iraq border. (Washington Post, January 9, 1998)
Jan 6, 1998 UNHCR officials applauded Italy's decision to treat Kurds wishing to leave Turkey as political asylum seekers, qualifying them for refugee status, rather than as economic migrants, as other countries still classify them. Turkish and German officials objected to this move by Italy.(InterPress Service)
Jan 11, 1998 Following an agreement between Turkey and EU states (including Italy) to try to curb Kurd emigration, Turkish officials detain over 1300 potential emigrants. (Christian Science Monitor, January 12, 1998)
Jan 26, 1998 An investigation of Turkish governments from 1993 to 1996 reveals that'among other things--leaders spent millions of dollars in efforts to assassinate Kurdish leaders and financial backers of Kurdish groups (New York Times)
Jan 30, 1998 The US State Department officially criticized the Turkish government for human rights abuses, including the poor treatment of Kurds in Turkey. (Reuters)
Feb 1998 During a parliamentary human rights commission hearing, one official noted that methods which would likely be considered unacceptable were often used to convince villagers not to support the PKK in southeastern Turkey. Witnesses described such tactics such as forcing villagers to walk on mine fields or torturing family members and neighbors. (Human Rights Watch World Report 1999)
Mar 16, 1998 The commander of PKK military activities, Semdin Sakik, along with six of his personal guards, surrendered to the Turkish-supported KDP in northern Iraq. (Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules March 31, 1998) Other sources allege that the army captured Sakik. (Christian Science Monitor)
Mar 17, 1998 Turkey and Iran reach an agreement to work together against the PKK. (Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules March 31, 1998)
Mar 27, 1998 Cemil Bayik, a top military leader within the PKK, surrendered to Turkish-backed KDP following a dispute with Abdullah Ocalan. (Agence France Presse; Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules March 31, 1998)
Apr 17, 1998 Abdullah Ocalan announces that the goal of the PKK is not to establish an independent Kurdish state and encourages a political resolution as was pursued in Northern Ireland. (Christian Science Monitor, April 22, 1998)
Apr 28, 1998 Former PKK official Sakik states that the PKK was behind the killing of Swedish prime minister Olaf Palme because Sweden had banned PKK members from its country. (Agence France Presse)
May 12, 1998 Akin Birdal, head of the Human Rights Association in Turkey, was shot six times through his lungs and leg; he did, however, survive the shooting (Human Rights Watch World Report 1999)
Jun 3, 1998 PKK rebels ambushed and killed 11 civilians, including a local religious leader, in Tunceli. (Agence France Presse)
Jun 14, 1998 Twenty-five people were killed'18 PKK members and 7 Turkish soldiers'in clashes throughout southeast Turkey. (Agence France Presse)
Jul 1998 Human Rights Watch reported that PKK members killed a 4-year-old and a 14-year-old girl because the girls couldn't find for them their father, who was the brother of a village leader. (Human Rights Watch World Report 1999)
Aug 15, 1998 On the anniversary of the beginning of the Kurdish secessionist movement, the PKK blew up three Turkish oil wells. In response, Turkish officials killed 6 PKK members in two odifferent clashes. (Agence France Presse)
Oct 22, 1998 Turkey and Syria reach an agreement stating that Syria will cease any and all support of the PKK. (The Guardian)
Oct 30, 1998 A PKK rebel hijacked a plane, forcing it to land in Ankara. Elite Turkish forces stormed the jet and killed the hijacker before he had hurt any of the passengers. (Agence France Presse)
Nov 10, 1998 PKK launched an attack against Turkish security forces, killing 21 and injuring 18. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Nov 12, 1998 Italian officials arrest Abdullah Ocalan in Rome. Ocalan's supporters argue that he should be treated as a political refugee rather than a terrorist and should not be extradited to Turkey. (Christian Science Monitor, November 19, 1998)
Nov 23, 1998 Italian Prime Minister Missimo D'Alema encouraged a peaceful political resolution to the Kurdish problem in Turkey and supported PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan's announcement that the PKK would reject violent means to a solution. (Agence France Presse)
Jan 29, 1999 Turkish's chief prosecutor accused the HADEP of being a front for Kurdish guerilla fighters and demanded closure for the party. Following the announcement, party headquarters were raided, and 139 party officials were arrested. (Los Angeles Times, January 30, 1999)
Feb 15, 1999 Turkish officials capture Abdullah Ocalan in Kenya, where he had been granted temporary asylum by Greece's ambassador to Kenya.
Feb 15 - 22, 1999 Turkish soldiers launched an incursion against PKK guerillas in northern Iraq, killing 10 rebels and seizing PKK equipment. (Washington Post, February 22, 1999)
Mar 1 - May 31, 1999 The PKK warns tourists to saty away from Turkey, threatening country-wide bombings in retaliation for Abdullah Ocalan's arrest. (Christian Science Monitor, May 28, 1999)
Mar 11, 1999 Twenty Kurdish rebels and two Turkish soldiers were killed in clashes in two southeastern Turkish provinces (Batman and Sirnak). (Agence France Presse)
Apr 1999 In 7 provincial capitals within the Kurdish region of Turkey, a majority of voters selected Kurdish nationalist, HADEP candidates for mayor, despite pressure and activities by security forces against these candidates. (New York Times, May 16, 1999)
May 5, 1999 30 PKK members ambushed and killed nine soldiers and wounded four in eastern Turkey, army officials said today, at the same time that 10,000 Turkish troops were carrying out an operation against rebels in eastern mountains. (Reuters)
May 20, 1999 The Turkish interior ministry imposed a ban on public offices and media, essentially eliminating the word ?Kurd? from public statements. For instance, the phrase ?Kurdish leaders? cannot be used; rather, ?Northern Iraqi clan leaders? should be used. (AFP)
May 20, 1999 Semdin Sakik, former right-hand-man to Ocalan is sentenced to death following his trial in Turkey. (AFP)
May 29, 1999 A PKK spokesman warned that the worst reaction should be expected if Ocalan is sentenced to death during his upcoming trial. (AFP)
May 31, 1999 As Abdullah Ocalan?s trial began at the fortified prison on the isolated island of Imrali, Ocalan called upon the PKK to lay down its arms. He apologized to the Turkish soldiers who had been killed in struggles with the Kurds and stated that he wanted to work for peace throughout Turkey. The beginning of the trial was marked by a series of demonstrations by Kurds and Kurdish-supporters throughout Europe. (AFP)
Jun 1, 1999 During his trial for treason, Ocalan denied direct responsibility for any criminal activities or atrocities committed by the PKK since he founded the group in 1978. Ocalan noted that Syria, Iran, and Greece had supported the work of the PKK through the years. (AFP)
Jun 8, 1999 As Turkish prosecutors renewed their demand that Ocalan be sentenced to death, the court adjourned for 2 weeks to allow Ocalan's lawyers time to prepare his defense. (AFP)
Jun 24, 1999 Speaking in his defense, Abdullah Ocalan stated that he was driven to pursue an armed struggle against the Turkish government because of the repressive restrictions which it maintains on Kurds and Kurdish culture in Turkey. (New York Times)
Jun 29, 1999 A Turkish security court found Abdullah Ocalan guilty of treason and sentenced him to death. The verdict will be immediately appealed, as all death-sentence cases in Turkey are. If the ruling is upheld, Turkey's Parliament and Prime Minister must also approve the court's finding. Given the current make-up of the government, it is expected that elected officials would support the sentence, but the appeals process could take months or even years. No immediate violence or fighting followed the announcement of the verdict. (New York Times, June 30; July 1. Reports indicate that the capture and trial of Ocalan has forged a division among Turkish Kurds. Some are receptive to Ocalan's recent call for a peaceful, political achievement of an agreement on the treatment of Kurds in Turkey. Others, including some 4,500 guerilla fighters, want to maintain the armed struggle and see Ocalan's sentence as a way to both mobilize Kurds and to breathe new life into the PKK. (AP, July 5)
Jul 2 - 6, 1999 As feared, violent attacks occur within Turkey following the announcement of a death sentence for Abdullah Ocalan. Two PKK fighters killed four people in a gunfire attack on a coffeehouse in the southeastern city of Elazig. Two days later, a bomb exploded in a crowded park in Istanbul, killing one person and wounding 25 others. On Monday, July 5th, a PKK-suicide bomber blew herself up outside of a police station in Adana. The attack wounded 14 police officers and three others. (AP, July 6)
Jul 8, 1999 The European Court on Human Rights found Turkey guilty of 15 cases of violating the right to free speech and the human rights of the country's Kurds. A total 13 of the 15 cases in which Ankara was condemned concerned the right to the freedom of expression. The two other cases filed against Turkey concerned torture and people allegedly gone missing. Thirteen complaints touching on the right to free speech and to the right to be judged by an independent and impartial court were filed by journalists, writers, lawyers and trade union officials who were sentenced by Turkey's State Security Court. The court sentenced Turkey to financially compensate the victims after finding Ankara guilty on 11 counts of violating free speech and nine counts of violating the right to a fair trial. The court also condemned Turkey to compensate the relatives of two Kurds allegedly tortured and killed. (Agence France Presse)
Jul 10, 1999 Kurdish rebels claimed they killed 18 soldiers in an attack launched in retaliation for a death sentence imposed on their leader. Rebels of the Kurdistan Workers Party, or PKK, said they pounded a Turkish military outpost near the town of Yusekova with bombs. The report did not say when the attack took place. There was no military confirmation of the fighting, which could not be independently verified. (AP)
Jul 12, 1999 Turkish troops and aircraft yesterday attacked Kurdish rebels in the Kurdish -held enclave of northern Iraq in an operation condemned by Baghdad. Turkish military sources said 10,000 troops had carried out the attack, killing at least 10 guerrillas, to prevent the Kurdistan Workers Party from using the base to attack Turkey in retaliation for the death sentence imposed on Abdullah Ocalan, their leader. (London Guardian)
Jul 12, 1999 Kurdish rebels declared an end to suicide bombings and other attacks launched to avenge the death sentence against their leader, Abdullah Ocalan. (AP)
Jul 15, 1999 Suspected Kurdish rebels killed five villagers in a southeastern province. The attack occurred in the mostly Kurdish province of Erzincan, when assailants opened fire on villagers traveling by tractor on a country road. It was unclear why the rebels targeted the villagers. (AP)
Jul 21, 1999 Turkey's secret service captured another senior leader of the outlawed Kurdish workers' party (PKK) and brought him back to Turkey. (AP)
Jul 22, 1999 Five leaders of a pro-Kurdish party who were recently convicted of separatism have resigned, forced out by a Turkish law banning convicts from political office. Murat Bozlak, leader of the People's Democracy Party, and four others gave up their party positions. The party will elect a new leader within 45 days. (AP)
Jul 25, 1999 Suspected guerrillas of the PKK clashed with Turkish forces in Elazig province, killing two soldiers and wounding two others. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jul 31, 1999 Kurdish rebels ambushed a vehicle carrying telephone workers in southeastern Turkey, killing the four Kurdish village guards who were escorting the workers. Hours later, soldiers sent to the area to catch the rebels struck a mine planted by the guerrillas. The blast killed five soldiers and wounded 13 others. (AP)
Aug 3, 1999 Jailed Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan is calling on his fellow Kurdish separatists to halt attacks against Turkey (UPI)
Aug 6, 1999 Kurdish rebels said yesterday they would heed a call by their imprisoned leader, Abdullah Ocalan, for a ceasefire. It will begin on 1 September. They also agreed to withdraw to bases outside Turkey for the first time. (London Independent)
Aug 9, 1999 Kurdish rebels attacked a dam construction site in southeast Turkey, setting fire to four bulldozers and stealing the weapons of local guards. (Lloyd's List)
Aug 15, 1999 Turkish soldiers have killed eight Kurdish guerrillas in three separate clashes in southeast Turkey. The fighting occurred in the provinces of Bingol, Hakkari and Van. (AP)
Aug 26, 1999 Turkey's Kurdish guerrillas said they had begun withdrawing from Turkey a week ahead of a schedule set by their condemned leader Abdullah Ocalan. (Lloyd's List)
Aug 28, 1999 THE Turkish parliament passed a law that could pardon a large number of guerrillas who fought a 15-year war for greater autonomy for Turkey's estimated 12 million Kurds. (AP)
Sep 22, 1999 Croatia expelled 11 Turkish Kurds who illegally entered the country. The Kurds were arrested Tuesday in southern Croatia, near the Bosnian border, when police stopped a van in which they were travelling. (Agence France Presse)
Oct 1, 1999 Eight members of the Kurdistan Workers Party surrendered Friday to Turkish troops on the border with Iraq. In what is seen as an attempt to improve relations between the PKK and Ankara, the group was carrying four letters addressed to Turkish leaders. (UPI)
Oct 2, 1999 The Kurdish parliament-in-exile - formed by Kurds who fled Turkey - has said that it was set up in 1995 with the aim of forming a Kurdistan National Congress (KNK), and now that this has been achieved, it is handing over to the KNK. (BBC)
Oct 29, 1999 A second group of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) rebels arrived in Turkey on Friday, heeding their condemned leader's call to surrender. (EFE News Service)
Nov 18, 1999 Nine people were killed in clashes between Turkish troops and rebels of the outlawed Kurdish Workers Party (PKK). Eight rebels and a soldier died in fighting in Diyarbakir Province in southeast Turkey. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Nov 26, 1999 The Turkish appeals court today upheld a death sentence imposed on Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan, a ruling that has far-reaching implications for Turkey's efforts to be the first Muslim country to join the European Union. (Washington Post)
Nov 28, 1999 Turkish troops killed 70 Kurdish rebels over the past five days in northern Iraq. Some 20,000 Turkish troops, backed by helicopters, were pursuing rebels fleeing Turkey and were trying to destroy the group's winter hideouts. Some 2,000 Iraqi Kurdish fighters allied to the Turkish government were taking part in the operation. (AP)
Dec 4, 1999 Police detained 301 Kurds of Turkish origin in southern Italy overnight after they had been left stranded by a fishing boat off the coast of Crotone. (Agence France Presse)
Dec 14, 1999 Turkish Foreign Minister Ismail Cem said the government will consider lifting a ban on Kurdish language broadcast. (AP)
Dec 26, 1999 Turkish soldiers clashed with Kurdish guerrillas in the southeast, killing 11 rebels and three soldiers. (AP)
Jan 1, 2000 The Turkish Education Ministry has asked a primary school math publication to remove the letters P and K from an equation because together, the letters resemble the acronym of the banned Kurdish rebel group, PKK, reports said Saturday. The ministry asked publishers of the Can Mathematics magazine to use E, G, F and H in algebra instead to avoid "wrongful interpretations". (AP)
Jan 10, 2000 Clashes in southeastern Turkey killed six Kurdish rebels and six Turkish soldiers. (AP)
Jan 13, 2000 Turkey has postponed the execution of Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan so a European rights court can hear the case, a move aimed at joining the European Union. (The Vancouver Province)
Feb 19, 2000 Turkish police arrested two prominent Kurdish mayors Saturday on suspicion of links to Abdullah Ocalan's outlawed Kurdish rebel group. News reports said a third mayor also had been detained. The mayors for the southeastern cities of Diyarbakir and Siirt were taken away for questioning on allegations they aided Ocalan's Kurdistan Workers Party. Private NTV television said the mayor for Bingol also was detained. (AP)
Feb 21, 2000 Anti-terrorism police took five people into custody Sunday for singing Kurdish songs at a wedding in the western city of Bursa, Three of the five taken into custody were later charged with carrying out Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) propaganda. Singing, broadcasting and recording Kurdish songs is not itself illegal in Turkey but the songs that are allowed are almost always love songs. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Feb 21, 2000 1,500 people rallied in the largest city in the overwhelmingly Kurdish southeast to protest the detention of three Kurdish mayors by Turkish authorities. (AP)
Feb 25, 2000 13 members of Turkey's largest pro-Kurdish party were sentenced yesterday to four years in prison for staging a hunger strike in support of jailed rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan. (Montreal Gazette)
Mar 12, 2000 Police detained a deputy head of Turkey's only legal Kurdish party on Monday for a speech he made during a meeting with a group of village leaders.Police did not say on what charges they detained Eyup Karagecili of the People's Democracy Party. Details of his speech were not released. (AP)
Mar 19, 2000 The pro-Kurd People's Democracy Party (HADEP) was banned Sunday from holding a reception in an Istanbul hotel to celebrate the Kurdish new year, because it spelled the holiday using the Kurdish alphabet. (Agence France Presse)
Mar 28, 2000 The European Court of Human Rights ordered Turkey to pay damages to the brothers of two Kurdish men who were mysteriously killed seven years ago in the Kurdish areas. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Apr 1, 2000 Turkish troops have crossed into northern Iraq in pursuit of rebels in the outlawed Kurdish Workers Party (PKK). The troops had penetrated up to 5 kilometres inside Iraqi territory. Kurdish sources said up to 4,000 soldiers had crossed the border in recent days in preparation for a military offensive. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
May 9, 2000 Turkey must pay about 57,000 dollars in compensation to the relatives of a Kurd who was maltreated and eventually died while in prison, the European Court of Human Rights ruled. The court said that it had been conclusively proved that Mehmet Ertak, from the city of Sirnak, had been badly treated after being imprisoned in 1992 and had subsequently died in police custody. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 1, 2000 The leader of Turkey's main Kurdish party was on Thursday sentenced to one-year imprisonment after being found guilty of spreading separatist propaganda in a speech in which he described the peaceful break-up of the Soviet Union and of Czechoslovakia. The Ankara State Security Court found Ahmet Turan Demir guilty of separatism, saying Demir's using the examples of the break-up of the Soviet Union and the velvet dissolution of Czechoslovakia was a direct call for the break-up of the Turkish republic into Kurdish and Turkish parts. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 20, 2000 The Kurdish mayor of Diyarbakir on Tuesday told a state security court that he was beaten by police and forced to sign a confession while being held in custody for four days last February. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 25, 2000 Eleven rebel Kurdish guerrillas and one Turkish soldier have been killed in a clash in southeast Turkey. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 27, 2000 Turkey was ordered Tuesday by the European Court of Human Rights to make substantial payments to relatives of two Kurdish victims of torture and violence by Turkish police. The Strasbourg court ordered 105,000 and 74,000 British pounds (just over 100,000 and 70,000 dollars) to be paid to relatives of the two victims, Turkish Kurds aged 58 and 50. The elder died and the younger was injured for life after being beaten and kicked in 1992 after police detained them as suspected members of the outlawed Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK). (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 27, 2000 Police in Istanbul on Monday night raided a number of offices of Turkey's largest Kurdish party (HADEP), arresting an unspecified number of people and seizing various documents. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 30, 2000 Prosecutors in Istanbul are to demand that Kurdish singer Ahmet Kaya be tried on charges of making pro-Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) remarks during a concert in the German city of Hamburg. According to an indictment being drawn up by Istanbul State Security Court Prosecutor Mehmet Suslu, Kaya is to be tried on charges of "aiding and abetting the illegal terrorist organization". If found guilty he would face up to seven-and-a-half-years in jail. The indictment would the fourth court case against Kaya for concerts performed in Germany. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Aug 25, 2000 Four people have been killed in fighting between Turkish government forces and the banned Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK). Three PKK fighters and one member of the security forces were killed in clashes in Sirnak province. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Aug 30, 2000 Seven people were killed in clashes between the banned rebel Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) and government forces in a mountainous region in Hakkari province in southeastern Turkey. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Oct 12, 2000 Seven Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) rebels have been killed and three government soldiers wounded in fighting in southeastern Turkey. The clashes erupted in Sirnak province. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Nov 5, 2000 Turkey has arrested around 50 local leaders of the only legal Kurdish party in Turkey, the People's Democracy Party HADEP, in Van and Yuksekova in the eastern part of the country. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Nov 14, 2000 The head of Turkey's largest legal Kurdish political party was on Tuesday jailed for 10 months on charges of making "separatist propaganda". The case stemmed from an election speech by Ahmet Turan Demir in September 1998 during which he had called for Kurds to continue their struggle for their rights and asked that they not forget those who had been "martyred" for the cause. At the time Demir was chairman of the People's Democracy Party (HADEP) in Izmir province. He is now chairman of the national party. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Nov 25, 2000 Turkish police prevented hundreds of Kurdish activists from traveling to Ankara for a congress of the pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party. (AP)
Dec 2, 2000 Turkish soldiers killed two rebels of the PKK in a southeastern region close to the border with Iran and Iraq. (Agence France Presse)
Feb 5, 2001 A group of 16 activists from Turkey's biggest pro- Kurdish political party were arrested in the southeast town of Batman during a protest against the failure of the authorities to reveal all details surrounding the disappearance of two party workers on January 25. The group was taken into custody after refusing police demands to end a sit-down protest outside the offices of the People Democracy Party (HADEP). The arrests came two days after a group of 60 HADEP supporters were arrested in the southeastern town of Siirt during a similar protest. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Feb 6, 2001 Police in the southeast city of Diyarbakir violently broke-up a protest by supporters of a pro-Kurdish party angry at the failure of officials to clarify the fate of two Kurds who went missing more than 10 days ago. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Feb 15, 2001 A state security court in the southeast city of Diyabakir ordered the release of six children held for more than a month at a high-security prison for the duration of their trial. The order for the release of the six children took place during a closed session of a trial in which a total of 13 children aged between nine and 14 are accused of "helping and harbouring" the Kurdish Workers' Party. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Feb 16, 2001 Police arrested nearly 100 people during demonstrations in several Turkish towns marking the second anniversary of the arrest of Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan. (Agence France Presse)
Mar 15, 2001 Nine PKK fighters and a Turkish soldier have been killed in clashes in eastern Anatolia. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Mar 21, 2001 Turkish police detained more than 100 people in Istanbul during celebrations Wednesday to mark the Kurdish New Year, Newroz, but festivities in the mainly Kurdish-populated southeast went off peacefully. (Agence France Presse)
Apr 6, 2001 Turkey has called on state-owned broadcasting company to avoid calling Kurdish citizens of Turkey "Kurds" or using terms which might suggest sympathy for Kurdish rebels. (AP)
Apr 9, 2001 Thousands of people took to the streets of the western Turkish town of Susurluk over the weekend demanding that Kurds in the area be driven out after the body of an 11-year-old girl was found in a house belonging to a Kurdish man. The girl had been raped before being murdered. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Apr 18, 2001 Turkish police have arrested 26 people believed to have been involved in a new Kurdish group aiming to overthrow Turkish rule in southeast Turkey. The anti-terrorism department in south-eastern Diyarbakir said that the 26 were arrested at a meeting that was aimed at establishing a separatist group to be known as the Kurdish Revolutionary Party (KSP). The statement said that a number of those seeking to establish the new group were disaffected members of the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK). (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
May 23, 2001 Fifteen rebel Kurdish militants have been killed in fighting with Turkish government troops in southeast Turkey. Five PKK militants and one soldier were killed in the same area in clashes on Monday. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
May 25, 2001 Police in the Mediterranean port city of Mersin raided offices of the pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP), detaining 52 people. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 7, 2001 Five rebels from the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) were killed in fighting with Turkish security forces in the southeast province of Hakkari. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jun 11, 2001 Police in southern Turkey detained 120 people after declaring an amateur football tournament organized by the pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP) illegal. (Agence France Presse)
Jun 29, 2001 The Turkish parliament on Friday approved a four- month extension to emergency rule in mainly Kurdish-populated southeast Anatolia. The approval came just hours after the military-dominated National Security Council recommended that the emergency rule be extended in four provinces - Diyarbakir, Hakkari, Sirnak and Tunceli. Emergency rule was first put in place in the region in 1987 in response to an insurgency by Kurdish militants seeking independence or autonomy. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jul 28, 2001 Turkish police and Kurds clashed at a festival in eastern Turkey Friday evening, leaving nine people injured. The clash erupted when police attempted to a prevent a pro-Kurdish politician from addressing a festival crowd in Tunceli. Members of the crowd pelted a police car with stones. Eight policemen and one member of the crowd were injured. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Aug 1, 2001 Turkish troops have forcibly emptied two Kurdish villages in southeast Anatolia and have laid a food embargo on another three, as well as banning entrance and exit for their inhabitants, in apparent revenge for the death of a soldier who died after stepping on a mine. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Aug 17, 2001 A senior official of Turkey's pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP) was jailed Friday for 39 days for disseminating "separatist propaganda,". The conviction of HADEP deputy chairman Ahmet Turan Demir stemmed from remarks he made at a party function in October 1999, in which he likened a prospective settlement of the Kurdish conflict in Turkey to the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. (Agence France Presse)
Aug 31, 2001 Nineteen people were injured in clashes between baton-wielding riot police and supporters of the pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP) in the southeastern city of Diyarbakir. The fighting began after few thousand supporters of HADEP gathered in downtown Diyarbakir hoping to catch busses to Ankara to take part in a meeting to mark World Peace Day, celebrated in Turkey on September 1. Police refused to allow busses into the area and were met by a hail of stones from the angry crowd. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Sep 27, 2001 Turkey's parliament voted to repeal long-standing bans on broadcasting and education in Kurdish, as part of renewed efforts to join the European Union. (Vancouver Province)
Oct 17, 2001 Three Kurdish rebels, among them a woman, were killed in a clash with security forces in a town near Diyarbakir in Turkey's mainly Kurdish southeast. (Agence France Presse)
Oct 18, 2001 Turkish police detained 37 people, most of them young activists from the pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP), after raiding a party function in the western province of Izmir. (Agence France Presse)
Nov 14, 2001 Two members of Turkey's pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP) were injured Wednesday in attacks on party offices in Istanbul. As the incidents took place in two HAPED offices within a short space of time, police are considering whether the attacks were carried out by the same person. In the first attack in Sisli district, the assailant burst into the building, holding a gun and shouting "My brother was killed in the southeast and I will take his revenge". (Agence France Presse)
Nov 30, 2001 Turkish police on Friday stormed the offices of Turkey's main pro-Kurdish party in Istanbul to search the premises and detained some 50 members of the People's Democracy Party (HADEP). (Agence France Presse)
Dec 13, 2001 Turkish police have captured a senior member of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and two other militants from the group. (Agence France Presse)
Jan 24, 2002 Police in the western Turkey industrial city of Bursa arrested seven officials of the pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP) over a diary which police said contained Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) propaganda. The seven were arrested in raids on three HADEP offices. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jan 25, 2002 Turkish police and Kurdish protesters clashed in the southeast city of Siirt on the anniversary of the disappearance of two Kurdish political activists. Four police and four supporters of the pro-Kurdish People's Democracy Party (HADEP) were injured after police attempted to break up a crowd which had gathered to protest the failure of the authorities to find out what had happened to two HADEP officials in the nearby town of Silopi exactly one year ago. Seventy people were arrested during the clashes. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Jan 26, 2002 Turkish Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit ruled out the offering of classes at schools and universities in the Kurdish language, denouncing such efforts as a move "aimed at dividing Turkey." (Agence France Presse)
Feb 11, 2002 Turkey's broadcasting watchdog banned a pro-Kurdish television station for a year for airing songs that ‘incited violence and separatism'. (Agence France Presse)
Mar 4, 2002 Prosecutors in the southeast Turkish town of Dicle have opened legal proceedings to annul Kurdish names given to 21 children from seven families. Prosecutors claimed the names given to the children had been used as code names by members of the rebel Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK). Turkish authorities have recently begun to crack down on expressions of Kurdish identity saying that such actions are the result of a PKK campaign. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
Mar 27, 2002 Senior members of a pro-Kurdish party were among 100 people arrested in a demonstration calling on Ankara to legalize education in the Kurdish language. Around 1,000 protestors marched to a main post office to send a symbolic fax to parliament demanding amendments to the article in the constitution that bans education in Kurdish. (Agence France Presse)
Mar 29, 2002 A Turkish court has annulled a decision to take a Kurdish TV station off the air for one year, saying a Kurdish song it broadcast did not promote separatism. (Agence France Presse)
May 2, 2002 Twenty six university students pleaded not guilty to charges related to demands for education in the Kurdish language. The students are charged with "membership in an illegal organization" and "helping and harbouring an illegal organization". They are said to have given petitions to the rector of Hacettepe University in Ankara in which they called for Kurdish courses and the establishment of a "Kurdology" department. (Deutsche Presse-Agentur)
May 2, 2002 The EU added the PKK to its list of black-listed terrorist organizations. (Agence France Presse)
Jun 19, 2002 The Turkish parliament agreed to end a 14-year-old state of emergency in two Kurdish-majority regions in eastern Turkey, a move seen as a necessary step before Ankara can start negotiations with Brussels on European Union membership. (Agence France Presse)
Jun 25, 2002 A Turkish court sentenced a senior Kurdish rebel to almost 19 years in prison for leading an armed group against the state. Cevat Soysal was accused of ordering a 1999 Istanbul arson attack that killed 13 people, as well as a number of other attacks. (AP)

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