Chad: Leadership of the United Front for Democratic Change (Front uni pour le changement, FUC) in 2005-2006; the signatories to the peace agreement with the government; the positions they were offered in the government; FUC members who joined splinter groups, also known as the United Front for Change (FUC)
|Publisher||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Ottawa|
|Publication Date||29 April 2009|
|Citation / Document Symbol||TCD103079.FE|
|Cite as||Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Chad: Leadership of the United Front for Democratic Change (Front uni pour le changement, FUC) in 2005-2006; the signatories to the peace agreement with the government; the positions they were offered in the government; FUC members who joined splinter groups, also known as the United Front for Change (FUC), 29 April 2009, TCD103079.FE, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4b20f02e3c.html [accessed 9 March 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Overview of the creation of the United Front for Change (Front Uni pour le changement, FUC)
Sources consulted by the Research Directorate indicate that when the United Front for Change (Front Uni pour le changement, FUC) was founded at the end of December 2005, it was led by Mahamat Nour Abdelkerim (HRW 9 Jan. 2007; May and Massey Mar. 2007; Le Figaro 15 Oct. 2007).
According to a January 2007 report published by Human Rights Watch (HRW), the FUC as a coalition that brought together eight rebel factions:
[HRW English version]
The eight groups included: RDL [Rassemblement pour la Démocratie et la Liberté (Rally for Democracy and Freedom)], SCUD [Socle pour le Changement, l'Unité nationale et la Démocratie (Platform for Change, Unity and Democracy)], CNT [Concorde Nationale du Tchad (Chadian National Concord Movement)], FNTR (Front Nationale pour le Tchad Rénové, National Front for the Renewal of Chad), CNR (Conseil National pour le Redressement, National Council for Recovery), FRRRT (Force pour le Ratissage, le Regroupement et le Redressement du Tchad, Force for the Cleansing, Reunification and Resurgence of Chad), Groupe du 8 Décembre, and FIDL. FUC was originally known as the Front Uni pour le Changement Démocratique au Tchad, FUCD (United Front for Democratic Change in Chad). (Emphasis in original)
Break-up of the FUC
According to Radio France Internationale (RFI), [translation] "the personality of Mahamat Nour, the leader chosen by the Sudanese at that time, the power of regional bodies and the ambitions of certain lieutenants, led to the FUC's breakdown" (RFI 7 Dec. 2007).
An article published on 1 August 2006 on Afrik.com indicates that following the attempted coup of April 2006, Ahmat Yacoub, advisor, founder and former secretary general of the FNTR indicated that there was [translation] "divisiveness between Nour and several elements." Afrik.com added that Mahamat Béchir, deputy foreign representative, resigned from the FUC on 30 July 2006 (Afrik.com 1 Aug. 2006). Also, Albissaty Saleh Allazam, coalition spokesperson, called for the leader's resignation (ibid.). In addition, denying Ahmat Yacoub's allegations pointing to the withdrawal of the CNT from the FUC, Allazam stated that [translation] "the only group that withdrew from the coalition is Mahamat Nour's RDL" (ibid.).
At the end of December 2006, the FUC's leader signed a peace agreement with President Idriss Déby Itno in Libya (AI 2008; AFP 19 Oct. 2007; HRW 9 Jan. 2007). Under this agreement, the FUC's troops were integrated into the Chadian National Army (Armée national tchadienne, ANT), and their leader, Mahamat Nour, was appointed Minister of Defence (AI 2008; UN 28 May 2007; May and Massey March 2007; see also PHW 2008 2008).
A 9 March 2007 article published by Marchés Tropicaux et Méditerranéens indicates that two other members of the FUC, Lona (or Laona) Gong Raul and Ismael Idriss Ismael, were appointed to positions in the Chadian government, as [translation] "secretary general for relations with the National Assembly and secretary of state for foreign relations responsible for African integration, respectively (see also Reuters 4 Mar. 2007 and UN 28 May 2007).
The Associated Press (AP) indicates that in response to this agreement, the FUC leadership dismissed their leader at a [translation] "crisis committee" meeting (AP 26 Dec. 2006).
According to the Political Handbook of the World 2008 (PHW 2008), dissident members of the FUC formed a new group under the same name, led by Abderman Koulamallah (PHW 2008 2008, 241). However, according to a March 2007 report by Roy May and Simon Massey, published by Writenet, a network of researchers and writers on human rights, forced migration, and ethnic and political conflict, the FUC witnessed the formation of a second and much more [translation] "political" group of the same name, led by Abdelwahid Aboud Makay (or Makaye). May and Massey add that other FUC members have returned to the Rally of Democratic Forces (Rassemblement des Forces Démocratiques, RAFD) (Mar. 2007).
HRW states that the dissident faction of the FUC reportedly led by Abdelwahid Aboud Makaye rejoined the Union of Forces for Democracy and Development (Union des Forces pour la Démocratie et le Développement, UFDD) in 2006 after signing the 24 December 2006 peace agreement with the Chadian government, which officially disbanded the FUC (HRW 9 Jan. 2007).
Further information on the FUC signatories to a peace agreement with the government, the positions they were offered in the government, and the members who joined dissident factions of the FUC could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Afrik.com. 1 August 2006. Saïd Aït-Hatrit. "Tchad : le chef de la rébellion désavoué."
Agence France-Presse (AFP). 19 October 2007. "Combat dans l'est du Tchad : 13 ex-rebelles tués, 6 soldats blessés selon l'armée."
Amnesty International (AI). 2008. "Tchad." Amnesty International ? Rapport 2008.
Associated Press (AP). 26 December 2006. "Tchad : le groupe rebelle FUC se sépare de son chef." (Intérêt-général)
Le Figaro. 15 October 2007. "Qui sont les rebelles tchadiens?"
Human Rights Watch (HRW). 9 January 2007. "Glossaire des groupes rebelles tchadiens." Ils sont venus pour nous tuer.
Marchés tropicaux et méditerranéens. 9 March 2007. "Tchad : trois membres du FUC entrent au gouvernement."
May, Roy and Simon Massey. March 2007. Writenet. Chad: Politics and Security.
Political Handbook of the World 2008 (PHW 2008). 2008. "Chad." Edited by Arthur S. Banks, Thomas C. Muller and William R. Overstreet. Washington, DC: CQ Press.
Radio France Internationale (RFI). 7 December 2007. "Tchad : le poids des rivalités personnelles."
Reuters. 4 March 2007. "Former Rebel to Hold Key Post."
United Nations (UN). 28 May 2007. Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). "Good Year for President Deby, Bad Year for Chad."
Additional Sources Consulted
Internet sites, including: AllAfrica.com, British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), United Nations Security Council.