Internal Displacement: Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2010 - Kosovo
|Publisher||Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC)|
|Publication Date||23 March 2011|
|Cite as||Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC), Internal Displacement: Global Overview of Trends and Developments in 2010 - Kosovo, 23 March 2011, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4d932e1e8.html [accessed 4 October 2015]|
|Number of IDPs||18,300|
|Percentage of total population||0.9%|
|Start of current displacement situation||1999|
|Peak number of IDPs (Year)||36,000 (2000)|
|Causes of displacement||Generalised violence, human rights violations|
|Human development index||–|
At the end of 2010 there were 18,300 IDPs in Kosovo. Slightly over half were Kosovo Serbs, around 39 per cent Kosovo Albanians, and six per cent from Roma communities. Most Kosovo Serb IDPs were in enclaves in northern Kosovo, where they relied on a parallel system of education, policing, and health care supported by Serbia. Other IDPs remained in locations where their ethnic group were in a majority, but where they had limited freedom of movement and little access to land or livelihoods.
4,500 IDPs were still in collective centres and many of them were particularly vulnerable; a high proportion were older people. They were still living in very harsh conditions in 2010 and received only minimal and intermittent assistance at best.
IDPs belonging to Roma communities were the most marginalised. Those without civil documentation could not register as IDPs and so access housing assistance and other benefits. Many were still in 2010 in informal settlements without electricity, clean water or sewerage.
Ten years after their displacement, only around 18,000 IDPs had returned to their places of origin from within Kosovo, and only 22,000 people from elsewhere in the region. They continued to be put off by the risk of insecurity, the limited freedom of movement, the restricted access to services and livelihoods, and the difficulties in repossessing or rebuilding their homes.
Kosovo's declaration of independence in 2008 created new uncertainty for IDPs in its territory. However, there has been no new displacement, and Serbia, while not recognising the independence, has supported a UN resolution calling for wider cooperation between Serbia and Kosovo. Both the Serbian and Kosovo authorities have supported the construction of homes and social housing to facilitate the local integration of IDPs. Nonetheless, the Kosovo institutions have been criticised for failing to devote the resources needed to enable durable solutions for IDPs.