Jordan: Current status of Jabhat al-Tahrir al-'Arabiyya (Arab Liberation Front); treatment of current/former members/supporters by the Jordanian authorities
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Author||Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada|
|Publication Date||4 February 2005|
|Citation / Document Symbol||JOR43348.E|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Jordan: Current status of Jabhat al-Tahrir al-'Arabiyya (Arab Liberation Front); treatment of current/former members/supporters by the Jordanian authorities, 4 February 2005, JOR43348.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/42df611911.html [accessed 23 December 2014]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
Information on the Arab Liberation Front [Jabhat al-Tahrir al-'Arabiyya, ALF] was scarce among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate.
A professor of political science at Drury University who is a specialist in Jordanian politics provided the following information in 1 February 2005 correspondence to the Research Directorate. [Jabhat al-]Tahrir [al-'Arabiyya] is "illegal in Jordan, [...] remains active underground to some degree, and [...]the Jordanian security services closely monitor its activities and members." The professor could not provide additional information on the ALF in Jordan; however, the following information might be helpful.
Sources indicated that the ALF is based in Iraq (FMO n.d.; The Jerusalem Post 24 Sept. 2002) and has pan-Arabist leanings (Global Security 14 Nov. 2004b). Sources added that the ALF is affiliated with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (ibid.
Global Security 14 Nov. 2005a; PNIC 1999; Wikipedia 30 Jan. 2005).
The ALF has reportedly been making financial donations to the families of Palestinian suicide bombers (Global Security 14 Nov. 2005b; IPS 19 Mar. 2003; BBC 5 Feb. 2003; ibid. 13 Mar. 2003; ITIC Aug. 2002; St. Paul Pioneer Press 11 Oct. 2002; Vancouver Province 9 Oct. 2002; The Jerusalem Post 9 Oct. 2002). Money destined for the families of suicide bombers was sent from Iraq to the Palestinian territories through a bank in Jordan (ibid.; St. Paul Pioneer Press 11 Oct. 2002; Vancouver Province 9 Oct. 2002). Sources also mentioned that Israeli agents had arrested Rafad Salim, head of the ALF (ibid.) on 2 October 2002 (The Jerusalem Post 9 Oct. 2002; St. Paul Pioneer Press 11 Oct. 2002). According to The Jerusalem Post, the ALF allegedly planned an attack inside Israel (24 Sept. 2002), and the BBC reported that the ALF was a co-organizer of a pro-Intifada rally in Damascus (7 Oct. 2001).
According to reports by the Associated Press (AP), on 1 July 2000, Jordanian authorities executed Mohammad Jaghameen, a "militant Palestinian" and member of the ALF, who was "convicted of murdering 14 people, including wealthy businessmen and an Iraqi diplomat"(1 June 2000a; 1 June 2000b). AP indicated that the murders did not appear to have been politically motivated, but rather were revenge killings because of a financial dispute with an Iraqi businessman (ibid.; 1 June 2000a).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of additional sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Associated Press (AP). 1 June 2000a. John Halaby. "Palestinian Convicted of Killing 14 People Hanged." (Dialog)
_____. 1 June 2000b. John Halaby. "Palestinian Executed in Jordan." (Dialog)
BBC News. 13 March 2003. "Palestinians Get Saddam Funds."
_____. 5 February 2003. "Full Text of Powell Speech (Pt I)."
_____. 7 October 2001. "Paper Reports on 'Rift' Between Damascus-Based Palestinian Opposition." (BBC/NEXIS)
Forced Migration Online (FMO). n.d. Sherifa Shafie. "Palestinian Refugees in Lebanon."
Global Security.org. 14 November 2004a. "Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)."
_____. 14 November 2004b "Arab Liberation Front."
Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center (ITIC) at the Center for Special Studies (CSS). August 2002. "Iraqi Support for and Encouragement of Palestinian Terrorism (Part I)."
Inter Press Service (IPS) [Rome]. 19 March 2003. Ferry Biedermann. "Politics-Iraq: 'Martyr' Bonuses for Families of Suicide Bombers." (NEXIS)
The Jerusalem Post. 9 October 2002. Margot Dudkevitch. "Saddam Gave $15m. to Bombers' Families, Wounded." (Dialog)
_____. 24 September 2002. Margot Dudkevitch. "Terrorist Cell That Trained in Iraq Captured." (Financial Times Information/NEXIS)
Palestinian National Information Centre (PNIC). 1999. "The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)."
Professor of Political Science. 1 February 2005. Drury University, Springfield, Mo. Correspondence.
St. Paul Pioneer Press. 11 October 2002. "Israelis Crack Down on Pro-Iraq Palestinians." (Dialog)
Vancouver Province. 9 October 2002. "Iraq Pays Palestinians $15 Million." (Dialog)
Wikipedia. 30 Jan. 2005. "Palestine Liberation Organization."
Additional Sources Consulted
Six professors of political science specializing in Jordanian affairs did not respond to requests for information within time constraints.
Two political science professors specializing in Jordanian politics could not provide any information on the ALF
Internet sites, including: Amnesty International (AI), Arabic News, European Country of Origin Information Network (ECOI), Freedom House, Haaretz, Human Rights Watch (HRW), International Crisis Group (ICG), Jordan Times, Middle East Times, United States Department of State, World News Connection (WNC).
Publications: The Democratic Process in Jordan, Europa 2004, Extremist Groups 2002, Political Handbook of the World 2000-2002, Political Parties of the World 2002.