Hungary: Situation of Roma, including employment, housing, health care, and political participation; whether Roma are required to pay a fee for health services (2010-June 2012)
|Publisher||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada|
|Publication Date||13 July 2012|
|Citation / Document Symbol||HUN104111.E|
|Related Document||Hongrie : information sur la situation des Roms, y compris en matière d'emploi, de logement, de soins de santé et de participation politique; information indiquant si les Roms doivent payer pour obtenir des services de santé (2010-juin 2012)|
|Cite as||Canada: Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, Hungary: Situation of Roma, including employment, housing, health care, and political participation; whether Roma are required to pay a fee for health services (2010-June 2012), 13 July 2012, HUN104111.E, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/5036010888.html [accessed 2 February 2015]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
1. Situation of Roma
Official estimates suggest that there are approximately 200,000 Roma in Hungary, representing two percent of the population (STP 11 Aug. 2010, 1; US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6). However, various sources report that unofficial estimates of the Roma population range from 250,000 (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 7; Minority Rights Feb. 2012) and 500,000 (US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6) on the low end, to 800,000 (ibid.; UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 7) and 1,000,000 (EC 5 Apr. 2011, 15; Minority Rights Nov.2011) on the high end. According to the European Commission, the average estimate in 2010 was 700,000, or 7.05 percent of the population of Hungary (ibid.).
In a report on his May 2011 mission to Hungary, the UN Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance wrote that "all [his] interlocutors, including Government officials and civil society representatives, agreed that the situation of Roma individuals had not improved in recent years, but rather worsened" (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 29).
1.1. Attitudes towards Roma
Various sources indicate that Roma face "widespread discrimination" (Minority Rights Feb. 2012; Freedom House 2011; UN 16 Nov. 2010, para. 20) and "exclusion" (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 35; STP 11 Aug. 2010, 1) in Hungary. This discrimination is reportedly perpetuated by the general population (STP 11 Aug. 2010, 1; UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 35), as well as by public institutions and authorities (ibid., para. 36; HCLU n.d.). The Hungarian Helsinki Committee, a Budapest-based human rights NGO founded in 1989 (n.d.), writes that Roma are discriminated against in "almost all fields of life" (Jan. 2011). For example, various sources note that Roma experience discrimination in the following fields:
- employment (CFCF et al. Nov. 2010, 1; COE 17 Sept. 2010, para. 54; Minority Rights Feb. 2012);
- housing (Minority Rights Feb. 2012; UN 16 Nov. 2010, para. 20; COE 17 Sept. 2010, para. 54);
- health care (UN 16 Nov. 2010, para. 20; CFCF et al. Nov. 2010, 1);
- political participation (UN 16 Nov. 2010, para. 20);
- education (COE 17 Sept. 2010, para. 54; UN 16 Nov. 2010, para. 20; CFCFet al. Nov. 2010, 1); and
- access to public institutions (Minority Rights Feb. 2012).
According to the Society for Threatened Peoples (STP), an independent human rights organization based in Germany (n.d.), Roma in Hungary are "consciously despised by the majority population and pushed to the edge of society," while previously "hidden anti-Roma attitudes are becoming more open" (STP 11 Aug. 2010, 3). In 2010, the Jobbik party (Movement for a Better Hungary) was elected to parliament (Minority Rights Feb. 2012). Jobbik, which has been described as "radical nationalist and openly anti-Roma and anti-Semitic" (ibid.), has promoted itself as the solution to "Gypsy criminality" (ibid.; STP 11 Aug. 2010, 1). Media sources report that a Jobbik member of parliament hired a genetic diagnosis company to certify that he did not have any Roma or Jewish heritage (BioNews 18 June 2012; Nature 12 June 2012) prior to the 2010 elections (ibid.). For further information about Jobbik, please see Response to Information Request HUN103822 of 6 October 2011.
2. State Response
A joint report by 10 Hungarian and international human rights NGOs, submitted in 2010 to Hungary's Universal Periodic Review (UPR) by the UN Human Rights Council, stated that "many instances of anti-Roma statements by public authorities and politicians, and statements advocating hatred towards the Roma" had been recorded (CFCF et al. Nov. 2010, 7). The same report states that "the reluctance of high-ranking Hungarian authorities to condemn anti-Roma statements creates a climate in which such statements are tolerated and in which ordinary citizens feel emboldened to act violently towards Roma" (ibid.). Similarly, the Society for Threatened Peoples writes that the state response to anti-Roma sentiment and violence is "often restrained and not particularly effective" (11 Aug. 2010, 1).
In May 2012, the government of Hungary published an article on its website stating that "there is no discrimination against the Roma in Hungary" (Hungary 25 May 2012). The UN Special Rapporteur on racism writes that according to the Hungarian authorities, the "economic and social difficulties" faced by the Roma are due to the collapse of the Communist regime and "the current economic situation," and not because of "racial discrimination or racial prejudice as such" (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 29).
According to Freedom House, Hungary has "taken a number of steps to improve monitoring of Romany legal rights and treatment" (2011). The US Department of State's Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2011indicates that a 27-member Roma Coordination Council was formed in 2011, bringing together the minister for public administration and justice, the leader of the national Roma self-government, as well as representatives of local self-governments, NGOs, and churches (24 May 2012, Sec. 6). The Budapest Institute for Policy Analysis writes that the Fidesz-led government established a new ministerial unit "with considerable resources for promoting the integration of disadvantaged (and among them, Roma) people" (Mar. 2011, 107). In December 2011, Hungary published its National Social Inclusion Strategy for 2011- 2020 on extreme poverty, child poverty, and the Roma, as part of its commitment to the EU framework for National Roma Integration Strategies up to 2020, which was developed under the Hungarian EU presidency in 2011 (Hungary Dec. 2011, 9, 12; UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 30). However, the UN Special Rapporteur on racism observes that according to both governmental and non-governmental sources, policies for Roma integration have not always been implemented (ibid., para. 31).
Sources indicate that the Ministry of Public Administration and Justice operates a legal service network providing free legal aid to Roma who have experienced ethnic discrimination (Minority Rights Feb. 2012; US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6). Country Reports 2011 notes, however, that extremely disadvantaged Roma living in remote villages are not able to access the legal offices, which are only located in larger cities (ibid.). The same report indicates that, according to the Hungarian Civil Liberties Union, some Roma cases have been rejected by the network's lawyers (ibid.). A professor of sociology at the University of Corvinus who specializes in anti-Roma discrimination stated, in a telephone interview with the Research Directorate, that although complaints mechanisms exist for victims of discrimination, they are not very effective (13 June 2012). The Equal Treatment Authority (ETA), the independent administrative body established to enforce and monitor the 2003 law against discrimination, reportedly received 1,500 complaints of discrimination in 2010, and launched proceedings in 377 cases (UN 23 Apr. 2012,para. 20, 22). According to the UN Special Rapporteur, the relatively small number of cases launched "may indicate a limited knowledge among the general public of the competence of the Authority and the concept of discrimination" (ibid., para.22). The Special Rapporteur also notes that the independence of the ETA and its lack of resources have been raised as concerns (ibid., para. 23). A 2011 report on measures to combat discrimination states that there are no "detailed and reliable" statistics regarding the types of cases brought to the ETA by Roma, but that they are generally cases of discrimination in employment, education, housing, and access to services (Human European Consultancy 2011, 21). The same report adds that there is no data available on legal proceedings brought to the courts by Roma (ibid., 22).
Sources indicate that the unemployment rate among Roma is at least 70 percent (MRG Feb. 2012; STP 11 Aug. 2010, 2; US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6). Minority Rights Group International (MRG) notes that this number is more than 10 times the national average (Feb. 2012). Country Reports 2011 indicates that while official statistics state that 85 percent of working-age Roma are unemployed, unemployment is above 90 percent "in many underdeveloped regions of the country" (US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6). The NGO joint statement to the UPR states that Roma are four to five times more vulnerable to unemployment than non-Roma (CFCF et al.Nov. 2010, 2).
In correspondence with the Research Directorate, a representative of the Hungarian Helsinki Committee stated that "it is clear that equal treatment" does not occur for Roma in the field of employment (29 June 2012). Similarly, the UN Special Rapporteur on racism reports that, according to NGO representatives, the high rate of Roma unemployment is a result of frequent discrimination against Roma in the labour market (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 37). For example, two household surveys conducted in 2011 by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), the UN Development Program (UNDP), the World Bank, and the European Commission, capturing the experience of 8,068 Roma and 2,165 non-Roma living in the same areas (FRA 2012, 30), found that over 40 percent of Roma respondents aged 16 and above who had looked for work in the preceding five years had experienced racial discrimination (FRA 2012, 19). According to the Council of Europe's Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, NGO representatives indicate that it is "extremely difficult" for Roma to find work and that Roma job-seekers who arrive at job interviews arranged by phone are often turned away with the explanation that the position has already been filled (17 Sept. 2010, para. 55). The Advisory Committee concludes that in general, Roma "still have few prospects of employment" (17 Sept. 2010, para. 25).
The NGO joint submission to the UPR notes that Roma living in economically disadvantaged areas have a corresponding low level of education and training, which contributes to unemployment (CFCF et al. Nov. 2010, 2). Similarly, the Society for Threatened Peoples states that lack of education directly contributes to poverty among the Roma, noting that many work in the construction industry, which is in decline and is laying off its least skilled workers (11 Aug. 2010). For more information on Roma education, please see Response to Information Request HUN103827 of 12 October 2011.
3.1 Public Employment Program
Sources indicate that the government of Hungary introduced a new public employment program in 2011 (US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6; EurActiv.com 21 Sept. 2011; The Guardian 28 Jan. 2012). The program, which reportedly aims to employ up to 300,000 people, pays workers slightly more than they would receive in social welfare, but less than minimum wage, to work in outdoor manual labour projects (ibid.; EurActiv 21 Sept. 2011). The professor of sociology explained that wages are approximately half of the minimum wage (13 June 2012). A human rights activist interviewed by The Guardian describes the compensation as a "slave wage" (28 Jan.2012). According to the Special Rapporteur on racism, Roma participants in the program in Gyongyspata were obliged to work in "inhuman circumstances under the surveillance of guards while receiving low salary for such jobs" (UN 23 Apr. 2012,para. 37).
Sources report that the vast majority of participants in the program are Roma (Professor 13 June 2012; The Guardian 28 Jan. 2012). One media source indicates that the program has been criticized for being "ethnically-motivated and directed toward the Roma" (EurActiv 21 Sept. 2011). The professor explains that the program is effectively discriminatory because Roma are highly overrepresented among the unemployed (13 June 2012). Sources also note that the program does not lead to or facilitate integration into the regular labour force (ibid.; The Guardian28 Jan. 2012).
Sources indicate that unemployed persons who refuse the work will lose their social security benefits (The Guardian 28 Jan. 2012; EurActiv 21 Sept. 2011; Professor 13 June 2012). Exceptions are reportedly allowed in certain cases, such as sickness or caring for small children (EurActiv 21 Sept. 2011; US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6). However, the professor noted that although older people and people with disabilities, of which there are many among the long-term unemployed, are in theory not required to participate, they are obliged to, in practice (13 June 2012). TheGuardian reports that, according to the minister of government communication, participants who do not live close enough to a labour project will be relocated, with accommodation, to live closer to the work site (28 Jan. 2012). Opponents of the program have noted the similarities of this scheme to the Nazi "labour camps" where Hungarian Roma were sent during the Second World War (The Guardian 28 Jan.2012; EurActiv 21 Sept. 2011).
Living conditions for Roma are "significantly worse" than those of the non-Roma population (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 54; US 24 May 2012, Sec. 6). The NGO joint statement to the UPR writes that "hundreds of thousands of citizens live in evidently inadequate, substandard, unsanitary conditions, including around 130 thousand (most Roma) people who live in segregated settlements" (CCFC et al. Nov.2010, 9). Country Reports 2011 states that, according to a 2010 survey by the Ministry of Natural Resources, "approximately 100,000 seriously disadvantaged persons, mainly Roma, lived in approximately 500 settlements that lacked basic infrastructure" (24 May 2012, Sec. 6). According to the professor of sociology, in the post-communist economic crisis, residents of social housing, as well as the undereducated and unemployed, were "pushed out" of cities where they could no longer afford to live, and relocated to less expensive, small villages, leading to the creation of "many rural ethnic ghettos" where jobs, public transportation, and other services are scarce and the quality of housing is "horrible" (13 June 2012). Similarly, a presentation prepared by the Autonómia Foundation, a Budapest-based NGO promoting civil society development among Roma and non-Roma (n.d.), indicates that Hungarian Roma live in "segregated settlements in small and remote villages" with poor quality or no public services, as well as poor quality housing stock (12Mar. 2012). According to the household surveys conducted by the FRA and the UNDP, World Bank, and European Commission, 44 percent of surveyed Roma live in households without an indoor kitchen, indoor toilet, indoor shower, and electricity (FRA 2012, 23). In comparison, 16 percent of the non-Roma surveyed, residing in the same area and sharing the same social and economic infrastructure, live similar conditions (ibid.). The UN Special Rapporteur reports that in a segregated area in Ozd, Roma live in public social housing without running water and electricity (23 Apr. 2012, para. 39).
According to the professor of sociology, social housing is not obtained through applications or other official mechanisms, but rather, through unofficial channels (13 June 2012). Similarly, sources indicate that discriminatory practices prevent Roma from accessing social housing (Soeurs du Bon Pasteur May 2011, 3; CFCF et al.Nov. 2010, 10) as well as private housing (ibid.; UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 39). According to the Good Shepherd Sisters (Soeurs de Bon Pasteur), a religious congregation that runs women's shelters for mothers and children in Budapest and a "semi-boarding school" and social centre for Roma adolescents in Gyongyosoroszi(n.d.), any efforts by the central government to improve access to housing can be obstructed by local governments (May 2011, 3).
In corroboration, citing the Roma Civil Rights Foundation, MRG indicates that municipal governments employ "a variety of techniques to prevent Roma from living in the more desirable neighbourhoods" (Feb. 2012). For example, local governments are reported to have pushed Roma out of social housing to sell apartments or land at a profit (Minority Rights Feb. 2012; Professor 13 June 2012). According to the professor of sociology, municipal governments, including Budapest and most other Hungarian cities, accomplish this by implementing "gentrification" plans so that Roma can no longer afford to live in the area (25 June 2012). He explained that evicted residents receive financial compensation, which may be enough to purchase a house in a rural village, but not enough to remain in the city (Professor 25 June 2012). A report on gentrification in Budapest by the Metropolitan Research Institute (Városkutatás Kft), which specializes in housing policy and urban development (n.d.), explains that there has been a "gradual displacement of the poorer population towards peripheral, industrial or outer areas, where real estate prices are low, but work-market conditions are extremely unfavorable" (19 Nov. 2012, 6). Furthermore, former urban ghettos in Budapest have been fragmented through the gentrification process, creating smaller and more ethnically homogenous enclaves in the city (Metropolitan Research Institute 19 Nov. 2012, 6; Professor 25 June 2012). The Metropolitan Research Institute report concludes that "the social consequences of urban development affect the Roma population severely" and that "poor Roma families are strongly overrepresented in the most neglected and deteriorated parts of downtown districts" (19 Nov. 2012, note 1).
Various sources also note that Roma have been forcibly evicted from their homes (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 39; Professor 13 June 2012; COE 17 Sept. 2010,para. 130). According to the professor of sociology, physical evictions usually occur in cases of "squatting," where residents of a dwelling do not have a right of residence or have failed to acquire the necessary paperwork to prove ownership of their home (25 June 2012). He noted that some Roma have moved to vacant lands in wooded areas within Budapest, but that the authorities have been clearing them out of these areas (Professor 25 June 2012). According to the Hungarian Helsinki Committee, an NGO known as The City is for All, which works on housing issues in Budapest, indicates that residents of "self-made shelter[s]" and "huts" on the outskirts of Budapest, the majority of whom are Roma, have been subject to forced evictions (29 June 2012). Their situation is reportedly exacerbated by Hungarian laws criminalizing homelessness (Hungarian Helsinki Committee 29 June 2012). Sources indicate that the Act on Petty Offences, which came into effect in April 2012 (Human Rights Watch 16 Apr. 2012), makes it an offence to reside "habitually" in public spaces (ibid.; UN 15 Feb. 2012). The same sources note that there are approximately 8,000 homeless people in Budapest and 5,500 places in public shelters (ibid.; Human Rights Watch 16 Apr. 2012).
The professor of sociology also stated that in many villages on the outskirts of large cities, where there is a significant Roma population, non-Roma residents use threats and occasional acts of violence, including setting Roma homes on fire, to frighten or force Roma into leaving the village and discourage further in-migration (25 June 2012).
4.1 Housing Improvement Initiatives
Country Reports 2011 indicates that Hungary launched a housing rehabilitation program in 2011 to improve conditions in four segregated settlements with a combined population of 5,000 (24 May 2012). Other sources note that a housing and social integration program has been developed for residents of Roma settlements (EC 2010, 17; COE 17 Sept. 2010, para. 25). According to a European Commission report, the program, which is intended to abolish residential segregation, has produced "mixed results" and funding has not been consistent due to the global financial crisis (EC 2010, 17). The Council of Europe indicates that the program was implemented in 30 municipalities, but many Roma families continue to live in "substandard" conditions (COE 17 Sept. 2010, para. 25).
5. Health Care
Sources indicate that the average life expectancy of Roma is at least 10 years below that of the average Hungarian (Soeurs du Bon Pasteur May 2011, 3; Professor 13 June 2012; Masseria et al. 2010, 549). A 2011 article published by Open Society Foundations states that Hungarian Roma women are three times more likely to die from cancer than non-Roma Hungarian women (9 June 2011). The FRA household survey found that more Roma than non-Roma reported having difficulties conducting daily activities due to health problems (FRA 2012, 21). A 2010 study published in the European Journal of Public Health on socio-economic determinants of health among Hungarian Roma and non-Roma found that Roma people are "significantly more likely" to feel threatened by illness because of unhygienic living conditions (Masseria et al. 2010, 549, 551). The same study found that the main determinants of chronic ill-health are household expenditure levels, household wealth, and education (ibid., 551).
According to Open Society Foundations, the difference in health outcomes between Roma and non-Roma Hungarian women can be explained by "a lack of access and awareness [of screenings for cancer and other illnesses] among impoverished communities living in remote areas, and long-standing discriminatory practices" (9 June 2011). In a 2010 report, the Council of Europe's Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities noted that Roma "suffer from indirect discrimination which deprives them of equal access to health services" (17 Sept. 2010, para. 25). Speaking about the accessibility of health care for Roma women, the head of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) Contact Point for Roma and Sinti Issues indicated that poverty, low education, early marriage, segregation, and "isolation in ghetto-type settlements," which are caused by and perpetuate discrimination, are factors contributing to Roma women's unequal access to health care (OSCE 8 Mar.2012). The Council of Europe's Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities expresses concern that Roma continue to face discrimination in the health system, "despite the different programmes set up by the authorities to raise awareness among medical staff of the specific problems of the Roma (17 Sept. 2010, para. 56).
The FRA household survey results show that at least 90 percent of Roma and non-Roma respondents reported having medical insurance coverage (FRA 2012, 21). Nevertheless, the professor of sociology noted that unemployed Hungarians only have the right to the most basic health care, provided in "life or death situations" (13 June 2012). Corroborating information for this statement could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response. The professor also pointed out that Roma are segregated in certain parts of the country, and often live in small villages that, due to their size, cannot support public health infrastructure and do not have doctors (ibid.).
Information on fees paid by Roma or non-Roma for health services could not be found among the sources consulted by the Research Directorate within the time constraints of this Response.
6. Political Participation
In accordance with the 1993 law on the Rights of National and Ethnic Minorities, ethnic minorities in Hungary have the right to form minority self-governments, which work on cultural and educational issues (Minority Rights Nov.2011; UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 27). According to Minority Rights Group International, minority self-governments exist at the national and local levels, and local governments should consult local minority governments on affairs pertaining to the minority (Nov. 2011). However, the NGO joint submission to the UPR states that in practice, minority self-governments are not consulted in many cases on issues related to their social and economic rights (CFCF et al. Nov. 2010, 9). An EU-funded research project on discrimination of Roma in the public sphere notes that Roma self-governments have a veto power on cultural issues but only a "consultative function" on other matters, including housing (RESPECT Research Project Dec. 2011, 5). A policy report written by the Budapest Institute for Policy Analysis explains that self-governments do not effectively increase Roma integration because "their relation to local governments (the division of functions and responsibilities) is not clear, they lack professional and financial capacities, and they are often used by national politics as the means of building their clientele" (Mar. 2011, 107). Sources note that the leader of the National Roma Self-Government is member of the main party in government, the Fidesz party (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 40; The Budapest Times 26 May 2012). The professor of sociology stated that the Roma self-government "has always been manipulated" by the government and its role has become primarily symbolic (13 June 2012). The UN Special Rapporteur also draws attention to a decrease in government financing for minority self-governments (23 Apr. 2012, para. 27).
Sources indicate that four seats in the Hungarian parliament are held by Roma (Freedom House 2011; UN 23 Apr. 2012, para. 40). The law on minorities reportedly provides for the representation of minorities in parliament (UN 23 Apr. 2012, para.28). However, the UN Special Rapporteur indicates that minorities are not represented in parliament (ibid.), and the Council of Europe's Advisory Committee writes that representation is "inadequate" (COE 17 Sept. 2010, para. 19).
This Response was prepared after researching publicly accessible information currently available to the Research Directorate within time constraints. This Response is not, and does not purport to be, conclusive as to the merit of any particular claim for refugee protection. Please find below the list of sources consulted in researching this Information Request.
Autonómia Foundation. 12 March 2012. Tibor Beres. "Housing and the Roma in Hungary."
_____. N.d. "Autonomia Mission."
BioNews. 18 June 2012. Ruth Retassie. "Genetic Test to Assess 'Racial Purity' of Hungarian MP Condemned."
Budapest Institute for Policy Analysis. March 2011. "Recommendations for Hungary."Beyond Rhetoric: Roma IntegrationRoadmap for 2020: Priorities for an EU Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies.
The Budapest Times. 26 May 2012. Robert Hodgson. "Tackling the Roma Issue Their Own Way."
Chance for Children Foundation (CFCF), European Roma Rights Centre, Foundation for the Women of Hungary, Hungarian Association for Persons with Intellectual Disability, Hungarian Civil Liberties Union, Hungarian Helsinki Committee, Legal Defence Bureau for National and Ethnic Minorities, Minority Rights Group International, People Opposing Patriarchy, and The City is For All. November 2010.Submission to the UN Universal Periodic Review.
Council of Europe (COE). 17 September 2010. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. Third Opinion on Hungary Adopted on 18 March 2010.
EurActiv.com. 21 September 2011. "Hungary Puts its Roma to Work."
European Commission (EC). 5 April 2011. European Union Framework for National Roma Inclusion Strategies to 2020.
_____. 2010. Improving the Tools for the Social Inclusion and Non-Discrimination of Roma in the EU.
European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). 2012. The Situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States.
Freedom House. 2011. "Hungary." Freedom in the World 2011.
The Guardian [London]. 28 January 2012. Helen Pidd. "Hungary: Roma Living in Fear as Armed Militias Terrify Village with Message of Hate: Families are Desperate to Leave After Threats, Abuse and Years of Segregation." (Factiva)
Human European Consultancy and Migration Policy Group. András Kádár. Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination, Country Report 2010: Hungary.
Human Rights Watch. 16 April 2012. "Hungary: Revoke Law Criminalizing Homeless."
Hungarian Civil Liberties Union (HCLU). N.d. "Roma Program Not Just for Roma."
Hungarian Helsinki Committee. 29 June 2012. Correspondence from a representative to the Research Directorate.
_____. January 2011. "General Climate of Intolerance in Hungary."
_____. N.d. "History."
Hungary. 25 May 2012. "There Is No Discrimination Against the Roma in Hungary."
_____. December 2011. Ministry of Public Administration and Justice, State Secretariat for Social Inclusion. National Social Inclusion Strategy - Extreme Poverty, Child Poverty, and the Roma (2011-2020).
Masseria, Cristina, Philipa Mladovsky, and Cristina Hernández-Quevedo. 2010. "The Socio-economic Determinants of the Health Status of Roma in Comparison with Non-Roma in Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania." European Journal of Public Health. Vol. 20, No. 5. [Accessed 1 June 2012]
Metropolitan Research Institute. 19 November 2010. Eszter Somogyi. "Gentrification - A New Social Phenomenon and its Realization in Budapest." Urban Reconstruction, Social Exclusion and the Roma in Budapest: Workshop at Central European University, Budapest.
_____. N.d. "Homepage."
Minority Rights Group International. February 2012. "Roma." World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples - Hungary.
_____. November 2011. "Hungary Overview." World Directory of Minorities.<<http://www.minorityrights. org/?lid=5804&tmpl=printpage> [Accessed 5 June 2012]
Nature. 12 June 2012. Alison Abbott. "Genome Test Slammed for Assessing 'Racial Purity'."
Open Society Foundations. 9 June 2011. Bernard Rorke. "Campaign Aims to Give Roma Women and Equal Chance Against Cancer."
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). 8 March 2012. Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights. "Roma Women Need Better Access to Health Care, Says OSCE Roma Adviser."
Professor of Sociology. 13 June 2012. University of Corvinus, Hungary. Telephone Interview with the Research Directorate.
_____. 25 June 2012. University of Corvinus, Hungary. Telephone Interview with the Research Directorate.
RESPECT Research Project. December 2011. "European Policy Brief."
Society for Threatened Peoples. 8 August 2010. "Hungary."
_____. N.d. "Not Turning a Blind Eye."
Soeurs du Bon Pasteur. May 2011. Gloria Baptista, Regina Janssen, and Glima Maria Muñoz Calderon. "EPU Hongrie."
_____. N.d. "Good Shepherd Sisters in Hungary."
United Nations (UN). 23 April 2012. Human Rights Council. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, Githu Muigai: Mission to Hungary. (A/HRC/20/33/Add.1)
_____. 15 February 2012. "UN Experts Speak Out Against Hungarian Law Criminalizing Homelessness."
_____. 16 November 2010. Human Rights Committee. Consideration of Reports Submitted by States Parties under Article 40 of the Covenant. (CCPR/C/HUN/CO/5)
United States (US). 24 May 2012. "Hungary." Country Reports on Human Rights for 2011.
Additional Sources Consulted
Oral sources: Representatives of the Autonómia Foundation and Soeurs du Bon Pasteur were unable to provide information for this Response. Representatives of the following organizations were unable to provide information within the time constraints of this Response: Foundation for the Women of Hungary, Habitat for Humanity, Városkutatás Kft, and URBACT. Attempts to contact the following organizations were unsuccessful: Khetanipe for Roma Unity Association, European Roma Information Office, Legal Defence Bureau for National and Ethnic Minorities, Equal Treatment Authority, Hungarian Civil Liberties Union, Roma Community Centre of Toronto, and London School of Economics.
Internet sites, including: Amnesty International; Budapest Business Journal; Budapest Sun; Decade of Roma Inclusion; Digital Journal; The Economist; Eurofound; European Network Against Racism; European Network on Social Inclusion and Roma Under the Structural Funds; European Roma Rights Centre; European Working Conditions Observatory; Human Rights Watch; Government of Hungary; Hungary Around the Clock; Policy Center for Roma and Minorities; Politics.hu; Roma Buzz Monitor; Roma National Self-Government; United Nations - UN Development Programme, Refworld; URBACT.