2008 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Montenegro
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||10 September 2009|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2008 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Montenegro, 10 September 2009, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/4aba3ecf28.html [accessed 25 January 2015]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Statistics and Indicators on Child Labor|
|Population, children, 5-14 years, 2005:||99,990|
|Working children, 5-14 years (%), 2005:||12.9|
|Working boys, 5-14 years (%), 2005:||14.6|
|Working girls, 5-14 years (%), 2005:||11.0|
|Working children by sector (%), 5-14 years:|
|Minimum age for work:||15|
|Compulsory education age:||15|
|Free public education:||Yes*|
|Gross primary enrollment rate (%):||–|
|Net primary enrollment rate (%):||–|
|School attendance, children 5-14 years, 2006 (%):||87.7|
|Survival rate to grade 5 (%):||–|
|ILO Convention 138:||6/3/2006|
|ILO Convention 182:||6/3/2006|
|ILO-IPEC participating country:||No|
* In practice, must pay for various school expenses
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Children in Montenegro can be found working on family farms. Roma children also work in the informal sector, selling small items or washing car windows; they also are often found begging to assist their families. Montenegro is primarily a transit country for girls trafficked to Western Europe for the purpose of sexual exploitation.
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
The minimum age for employment is 15 years. Children under 18 years are not permitted to work in jobs that involve particularly difficult physical or dangerous work, overtime and night work, underground work, or underwater work. The law provides for monetary penalties for violation of these provisions.
Forced labor is prohibited. Trafficking in persons is prohibited, and the trafficking of a minor is punishable by 3 to 10 years of imprisonment. Procuring a minor for prostitution is punishable by 3 months to 5 years of imprisonment, while inciting a minor into prostitution is punishable by 1 to 10 years of imprisonment. Using children in the production of pornography is punishable by 6 months to 5 years of imprisonment. The minimum age to volunteer for the Montenegrin military is 18 years.
The Labor Inspectorate of the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare is responsible for the enforcement of labor laws, including those protecting children from exploitation in the workplace. The Ministry has 40 inspectors handling labor issues and conducted more than 10,000 labor investigations in 2008; none of these investigations uncovered any child labor infractions. During the reporting period, Montenegrin police arrested several adults for involvement in organizing child begging rings near Podgorica and coastal towns. The Government's enforcement efforts were generally effective, according to USDOS.
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
In 2008, the Government initiated two human trafficking investigations and prosecuted seven individuals on trafficking charges. Convictions and punishments from these cases are unknown. Police of all ranks were provided anti-trafficking training by the Government but often lacked training in victim identification.
In December 2008 and January 2009, the National Anti-Trafficking Coordinator hosted six anti-trafficking workshops to improve communication between organizations that deal with trafficking issues. The Government of Montenegro continues to fund a shelter for trafficking victims.