2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Kiribati
|Publisher||United States Department of Labor|
|Author||Bureau of International Labor Affairs|
|Publication Date||29 August 2006|
|Cite as||United States Department of Labor, 2005 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Kiribati, 29 August 2006, available at: http://www.refworld.org/docid/48d748f622.html [accessed 24 May 2013]|
|Disclaimer||This is not a UNHCR publication. UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content. Any views expressed are solely those of the author or publisher and do not necessarily reflect those of UNHCR, the United Nations or its Member States.|
|Selected Child Labor Measures Adopted by Governments|
|Ratified Convention 138|
|Ratified Convention 182|
|National Plan for Children|
|National Child Labor Action Plan|
|Sector Action Plan|
Incidence and Nature of Child Labor
Statistics on the number of working children under the age of 15 in Kiribati are not available.2642 However, some school-aged children are reported to be out of school for reasons that are undocumented.2643
Education is free and compulsory for children ages 6 to 14.2644 Basic education includes primary school for grades one through six, and Junior Secondary School for three additional grade levels.2645 In 1999, the gross primary enrollment rate was 128 percent, and the net primary enrollment rate is unavailable.2646 Gross and net enrollment ratios are based on the number of students formally registered in primary school and therefore do not necessarily reflect actual school attendance. Recent primary school attendance statistics are not available for Kiribati. School quality and access to primary education are still challenges, particularly in the outer islands.2647
Child Labor Laws and Enforcement
Part IX, Section 84 of the Employment Ordinance, Employment of Children and Other Young Persons, sets the minimum age for employment at 14 years,2648 and children under 16 years are prohibited from industrial employment or jobs aboard ships.2649 Although there is no law specifically prohibiting the worst forms of child labor in Kiribati, there are statutes under which the worst forms can be prosecuted. The Constitution prohibits forced labor.2650 The Penal Code criminalizes the procurement of minors under 15 years of age for the purpose of sexual relations and establishes a penalty of 2 years of imprisonment for such offenses.2651 The Penal Code also bans parents or guardians from prostituting children under 15 years old.2652 Child labor laws are enforced by the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Employment.2653
Current Government Policies and Programs to Eliminate the Worst Forms of Child Labor
The Government of Kiribati continues to work within the United Nations Development Assistance Framework to support national priorities and initiatives that include promoting the healthy growth and development of Kiribati's children.2654
The government also worked with the ADB on the implementation of its 2003-2005 Country Strategy and Program to address key issues that include poverty reduction and human development. As part of these efforts, the government focused on improving the quality and relevancy of education and expanding the coverage of social services, particularly for people living in the outer islands.2655 AusAID and New Zealand's International Aid and Development Agency are also assisting the country to improve education policy. Bilateral assistance for education programs includes developing curriculum materials, advancing teacher training, and facilitating access to basic education.2656
2642 This statistic is not available from the data sources that are used in this report. Please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section for information about sources used. Reliable data on the worst forms of child labor are especially difficult to collect given the often hidden or illegal nature of the worst forms, such as the use of children in the illegal drug trade, prostitution, pornography, and trafficking. As a result, statistics and information on children's work in general are reported in this section. Such statistics and information may or may not include the worst forms of child labor. For more information on the definition of working children, please see the "Data Sources and Definitions" section of this report.
2643 UN, United Nations Common Country Assessment: Kiribati, Office of the United Nations Resident Coordinator, 2002 [cited May 20, 2004], 29; available from http://www.undp.org.fj/documents/Kiribati%20CCA%20small.pdf.
2644 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – 2004: Kiribati, Washington, D.C., February 28, 2005, Section 5; available from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2004/41645.htm.
2645 Kiribati Education Policy: National Development Strategies 2002-2003, [online] [cited July 28, 2005]; available from http://www.janeresture.com/kiribati_edupolicy/index.htm.
2646 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Selected Statistics for Kiribati [Global Education Database], October 13, 2004; available from http://qesdb.cdie.org/ged/index.html.
2647 ADB, Millennium Development Goals in the Pacific: Relevance and Progress, 2003 [cited May 20, 2004]; available from http://www.adb.org/documents/books/MDG_Pacific/mdg.pdf.
2648 ILO, Compilation of annual reports by the International Labor Office, ILO, [Annual Review Database] 2003 [cited May 20, 2004]; available from http://www.ilo.org/dyn/declaris/Show_ARHTML.
2649 U.S. Department of State, Country Reports – 2004: Kiribati, Section 6d.
2650 The Constitution of Kiribati, Chapter II, Section 6 (2); available from http://www.vanuatu.usp.ac.fj/paclawmat/Kiribati_legislation/Kiribati_Constitution.html.
2651 Kiribati Penal Code, (1977), Articles 141-143; available from http://www.vanuatu.usp.ac.fj/paclawmat/Kiribati_legislation/Consolidation_1977/Kiribati_Penal_Code.html.
2654 UN, Kiribati: United Nations Development Assistance Framework (2003-2007), Office of the United Nations Resident Coordinator, [online] 2002 [cited July 28, 2005]; available from http://www.undp.org.fj/documents/UNDAF%20KIRIBATI%2024%20JUNE.doc.
2655 ADB, Country Strategy and Program Update (2003-2005): Kiribati, July 2002 [cited July 28, 2005], 6; available from http://www.adb.org/Documents/CSPs/KIR/2002/CSP_KIR_2002.pdf.
2656 AusAID, AusAID Pacific Program Profiles 2003-2004 – Kiribati, Australian Government, 2003 [cited July 28, 2005], 22; available from http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/pac_prog_prof.pdf. See also NZAID, Strategy for the New Zealand Development Cooperation Programme with Kiribati 2002-2007, [cited July 28, 2005]; available from http://www.nzaid.govt.nz/programmes/docs/nzaid-kiribati-strategy-0207.pdf.